SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 42
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
NPRA International Lubricants
and Waxes Meeting
Session LW-08-106
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Function and Performance of
Hydrocarbon Waxes in Rigid
PVC
• By: Thomas C. Pedersen
Rheogistics LLC
Picayune, MS USA
PVC
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
• PVC resin is a free flowing, granular
solid with a bulk density of 0.50 to 0.60
gm/ml.
• PVC resin contains 57% chlorine, 38%
carbon, and 5% hydrogen.
PVC Compound
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
PVC Compound
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
PVC Products
Vinyl Siding
Vinyl Siding
PVC Fence
PVC Pipe
PVC
• Rigid PVC has great properties
– Typical 7000+ psi tensile strength
– Excellent stiffness
– Excellent impact strength
– Good weatherability
– Excellent cost performance
Rigid PVC
• Most rigid PVC properties are affected in one way or another by
the lubricant system.
• Getting things right is a constant balancing act.
• Customer quote: “Its always the wax,” VP of manufacturing of a
leading building products manufacturer, 1980
PVC Resin
• PVC resin grains are approximately 100
microns in diameter. The large grains
are composed of 2 to 10 micron sub-
grains which in turn are composed of
primary particles with a diameter of
approximately 1 micron.
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
PVC Resin
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
PVC Processing
• The 1 micron PVC primary particles are
thought to be the primary flow units
during rigid PVC processing
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Processing Rigid PVC
• Rigid PVC products are formed by heating and compressing PVC
compounds into desired shapes.
• The compound is compressed from a bulk density of approximately
0.50 gm/ml to a product density of approximately 1.40 gm/ml
• PVC is heated to ca. 400° F by mechanical shear and heat transfer.
• During processing, PVC is exposed to pressures of 2000 to 4000 psi.
Processing Rigid PVC
• The function of lubricants in rigid PVC is
to manage the fusion process while
preventing the polymer from sticking to
the processing equipment.
PVC Lubrication
• Paraffin and hydrocarbon waxes are
used in conjunction with calcium
stearate as primary lubricants
• Ca(C18H35O2)2
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Behavior of Lubricants
• The calcium atom or polar end of
calcium stearate is attracted to the
machine and PVC resin surfaces
• Paraffin wax is thought to act as a slip
agent between the exposed tails of
calcium stearate 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Fusion Mechanism for Rigid PVC
• C – Compaction
• D – Densification
• F – Fusion
• E – Elongation
• Chemical/Plasticizing Effects
Rigid PVC Fusion in Extrusion
Fusion Characterization in the
Lab
• Torque Rheometer
– Fixed volume heated chamber
– Work imparted into PVC compound by
mixing blades
– Measure torque required to turn the blades
and melt temperature
Torque Rheometer
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Torque Rheometer Rotors
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Torque Rheometry
Energy Balance
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Extruder Energy Balance
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Effects of Fusion Levels on
Physical Properties
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
• Tensile Properties
– Increase with increasing fusion
• Impact Properties
– Peak at an intermediate level of fusion
Trial PVC Compound
• PVC Resin 100 parts
• Stabilizer 0.50 phr
• Wax 1.30 phr
• Calcium Stearate 0.65 phr
• Oxidized PE Wax 0.15 phr
• Calcium Carbonate 5.00 phr
• Titanium Dioxide 0.50 phr2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
100 grams of PVC Resin
Assume primary particles are spheres
Volume of a primary particle = 5.2x10-13
cm3
Weight of a primary particle = 7.3x10-13
gms
Number of primary particles per 100 grams of
PVC resin = 1.4x1014
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
1.3 grams of Paraffin Wax
Assume molecular weight of 450
gm/mole
# moles = 0.0029 moles
# wax molecules = 0.0029 * 6.023x1023
= 1.75x1021
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Wax Molecules Per PVC
Primary Particle
• 1.4x1014
PVC Primary Particles
• 1.75x1021
Paraffin Wax Molecules
• Estimated 10,000,000 to 15,000,000
Wax Molecules per PVC PP
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
• PVC Resin 100 parts
• Stabilizer 0.50 phr
• Wax 1.30 phr
• Calcium Stearate 0.65 phr
• Oxidized PE Wax 0.15 phr
• Calcium Carbonate 5.00 phr
• Titanium Dioxide 0.50 phr
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Trial PVC Compound
Torque Rheometry - Classic Wax
Torque Rheometry - C32
Torque Rheometry – C26
Torque Rheometry – C40
Torque Rheometry – PE Wax
Test Results
Wax Fusion Time Fusion Torque Fusion Temp Equil Torque Equil Temp
C26 166 sec 21.3 Nm 179°C None >195°C
C32 352 sec 15.2 Nm 183°C 13.0 Nm 188°C
C40 2,120 sec 10.1 Nm 184°C 12.4 Nm 188°C
Classic 318 sec 15.5 Nm 183°C 12.6 Nm 188°C
PE 182 sec 18.9 Nm 182°C None >195°C
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Conclusions
• The PVC Industry is a large application
for paraffin and hydrocarbon waxes
• Waxes with carbon numbers of C30 to
C36 work best as primary PVC
lubricants in North America’s tin
stabilized formulations
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Conclusions
• The lubricant system is adjusted to tune
the formulation to the heating and
shearing characteristics of the
customer’s processing equipment.
• Changes in any material or any piece of
equipment in a customer’s plant results
in the need for a lubricant adjustment.
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
Conclusions
• Understanding and managing lubricant
performance in rigid PVC is complex
• “Its always the wax.” The PVC industry
requires in-depth technical support and
service.
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
References
• T. C. Pedersen, “Process and Material
Considerations in the Industrial
Application of Lubricants in Rigid PVC
Extrusion”, Journal of Vinyl Technology,
6, 104 (1984)
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
References
• J. W. Summers, “Lubrication
Mechanism in Poly (Vinyl Chloride)
Compounds: Understanding the Three
Distinct Roles of Lubricants” Antec
2006, Society of Plastics Engineers.
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
References
• P. Benjamin, “The Influence of
Processing on the Properties of PVC
Pipe”, International Conference on PVC
Processing, 6 & 7 April 1978, The
Plastics and Rubber Institute.
2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting

More Related Content

What's hot

Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane Technology
Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane TechnologyAdvances in Bio-based Polyurethane Technology
Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane TechnologyStahl Holdings
 
Kaiser Pastillation and Benefits
Kaiser Pastillation and BenefitsKaiser Pastillation and Benefits
Kaiser Pastillation and BenefitsJim Riccio
 
New silicone copolymer lubricants
New silicone copolymer lubricantsNew silicone copolymer lubricants
New silicone copolymer lubricantsmolykotetl
 
SusPolyurethanes Conference: Advances in biobased polyurethanes
SusPolyurethanes Conference:  Advances in biobased polyurethanes SusPolyurethanes Conference:  Advances in biobased polyurethanes
SusPolyurethanes Conference: Advances in biobased polyurethanes Stahl Holdings
 
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...theijes
 
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubrication
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubricationNew Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubrication
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubricationmolykotetl
 
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...Stahl Holdings
 
Developments in High Temperature Silicone Lubrication
Developments in High Temperature Silicone LubricationDevelopments in High Temperature Silicone Lubrication
Developments in High Temperature Silicone Lubricationmolykotetl
 
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and development
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and developmentMolecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and development
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and developmentmolykotetl
 
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leather
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leatherProbiotics solutions for sustainable leather
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leatherStahl Holdings
 
Stahl's road top sustainability
Stahl's road top sustainabilityStahl's road top sustainability
Stahl's road top sustainabilityStahl Holdings
 
Performance Coatings Product Highlights
Performance Coatings Product HighlightsPerformance Coatings Product Highlights
Performance Coatings Product HighlightsStahl Holdings
 
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.molykotetl
 
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake design
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake designSmart NVH solutions for next generation brake design
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake designmolykotetl
 
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.com
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.comKlubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.com
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.comĐỗ Bá Tùng
 
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive Finishing
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive FinishingAdvances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive Finishing
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive FinishingStahl Holdings
 

What's hot (20)

Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane Technology
Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane TechnologyAdvances in Bio-based Polyurethane Technology
Advances in Bio-based Polyurethane Technology
 
Kaiser Pastillation and Benefits
Kaiser Pastillation and BenefitsKaiser Pastillation and Benefits
Kaiser Pastillation and Benefits
 
New silicone copolymer lubricants
New silicone copolymer lubricantsNew silicone copolymer lubricants
New silicone copolymer lubricants
 
SusPolyurethanes Conference: Advances in biobased polyurethanes
SusPolyurethanes Conference:  Advances in biobased polyurethanes SusPolyurethanes Conference:  Advances in biobased polyurethanes
SusPolyurethanes Conference: Advances in biobased polyurethanes
 
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...
Comparative Analysis on Sodium-Based and Polyethylene-Based Greases as Anti-F...
 
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubrication
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubricationNew Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubrication
New Silicone Copolymer Lubricants - the alternative to PFPE lubrication
 
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...
Polycarbodiimides – Easy to use Crosslinkers in Aqueous Automotive Interior C...
 
PPT_18th NLGI Paper Final
PPT_18th NLGI Paper FinalPPT_18th NLGI Paper Final
PPT_18th NLGI Paper Final
 
Developments in High Temperature Silicone Lubrication
Developments in High Temperature Silicone LubricationDevelopments in High Temperature Silicone Lubrication
Developments in High Temperature Silicone Lubrication
 
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and development
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and developmentMolecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and development
Molecular modelling, the future of lubrication research and development
 
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leather
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leatherProbiotics solutions for sustainable leather
Probiotics solutions for sustainable leather
 
Isoflex topas-nb-52-152
Isoflex topas-nb-52-152Isoflex topas-nb-52-152
Isoflex topas-nb-52-152
 
tex co pr
tex co prtex co pr
tex co pr
 
Stahl's road top sustainability
Stahl's road top sustainabilityStahl's road top sustainability
Stahl's road top sustainability
 
Performance Coatings Product Highlights
Performance Coatings Product HighlightsPerformance Coatings Product Highlights
Performance Coatings Product Highlights
 
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.
The new frontier in industrial lubricant research: the silicone copolymers.
 
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake design
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake designSmart NVH solutions for next generation brake design
Smart NVH solutions for next generation brake design
 
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.com
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.comKlubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.com
Klubersynth hlr-46-371 Mr Tùng - 0987 988 407 | www.khodaumo.com
 
Glass en
Glass enGlass en
Glass en
 
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive Finishing
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive FinishingAdvances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive Finishing
Advances in Biobased Polyurtethanes for Automotive Finishing
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Sledeshare
SledeshareSledeshare
Sledeshare
 
reciclagem hospitalario
reciclagem hospitalarioreciclagem hospitalario
reciclagem hospitalario
 
Capitulo 6 leccion 1
Capitulo 6 leccion 1Capitulo 6 leccion 1
Capitulo 6 leccion 1
 
Gudi Padwa 2017
Gudi Padwa 2017Gudi Padwa 2017
Gudi Padwa 2017
 
12 2 chords and arcs concepts
12 2 chords and arcs concepts12 2 chords and arcs concepts
12 2 chords and arcs concepts
 
Búsqueda en scopus y cinahl
Búsqueda en scopus y cinahlBúsqueda en scopus y cinahl
Búsqueda en scopus y cinahl
 
smjestajni kapaciteti Rijeke
smjestajni kapaciteti Rijekesmjestajni kapaciteti Rijeke
smjestajni kapaciteti Rijeke
 
Is cloud computing right for your business
Is cloud computing right for your businessIs cloud computing right for your business
Is cloud computing right for your business
 
Task 2
Task 2Task 2
Task 2
 
Valeria
ValeriaValeria
Valeria
 
3Com 3C10318
3Com 3C103183Com 3C10318
3Com 3C10318
 
Higiene y seguridad indusrtial
Higiene y seguridad indusrtialHigiene y seguridad indusrtial
Higiene y seguridad indusrtial
 
Favorite food France
Favorite food FranceFavorite food France
Favorite food France
 
Apresentação Konnecta TI Consultoria
Apresentação Konnecta TI ConsultoriaApresentação Konnecta TI Consultoria
Apresentação Konnecta TI Consultoria
 
popular games in india
popular games in indiapopular games in india
popular games in india
 
Slideshare
SlideshareSlideshare
Slideshare
 
Power point
Power pointPower point
Power point
 

Similar to Function and Performance of Hydrocarbon Waxes in Rigid PVC

Presentation.ppt
Presentation.pptPresentation.ppt
Presentation.pptNessrein
 
Science of Plastic
Science of PlasticScience of Plastic
Science of PlasticLABaumann
 
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industry
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre IndustryRecovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industry
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industrycct Stegelitz GmbH (carbon clean tech)
 
7. calendering process (1)
7. calendering process (1)7. calendering process (1)
7. calendering process (1)vbstudio1
 
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenance
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenanceAdvances in turbine lubricant maintenance
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenanceEPT
 
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanliness
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanlinessReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanliness
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanlinessRich Wurzbach
 
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting Rubbers
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting RubbersPolyurethane Mold Making & Casting Rubbers
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting RubbersPolytek Development Corp
 
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial results
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial resultsSTLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial results
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial resultsPaul Bonner
 
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018Pat Thomas
 
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas Applicaations
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas ApplicaationsBioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas Applicaations
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas ApplicaationsDuncan Hogg
 
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehicles
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehiclesAnti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehicles
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehiclesAlan Gardner
 
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptx
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptxchapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptx
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptxkhushbumehta778
 
Rapid Coat Powder Coatings
Rapid Coat Powder CoatingsRapid Coat Powder Coatings
Rapid Coat Powder CoatingsRapidCoat1
 
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.Chandran Udumbasseri
 
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)MINDS MAHE
 
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919Paul Bonner
 

Similar to Function and Performance of Hydrocarbon Waxes in Rigid PVC (20)

Presentation.ppt
Presentation.pptPresentation.ppt
Presentation.ppt
 
Science of Plastic
Science of PlasticScience of Plastic
Science of Plastic
 
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industry
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre IndustryRecovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industry
Recovered Carbon Black: Now a Commercial Scale Product for the Tyre Industry
 
7. calendering process (1)
7. calendering process (1)7. calendering process (1)
7. calendering process (1)
 
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenance
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenanceAdvances in turbine lubricant maintenance
Advances in turbine lubricant maintenance
 
Karin hajek inmatec
Karin hajek   inmatecKarin hajek   inmatec
Karin hajek inmatec
 
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanliness
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanlinessReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanliness
ReliablePlant 2018- Rich Wurzbach presentation on grease cleanliness
 
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting Rubbers
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting RubbersPolyurethane Mold Making & Casting Rubbers
Polyurethane Mold Making & Casting Rubbers
 
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial results
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial resultsSTLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial results
STLE 2014 Paul Bonner Croda - Perfad 3100 initial results
 
DENTURE BASE RESINS
DENTURE BASE RESINS DENTURE BASE RESINS
DENTURE BASE RESINS
 
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018
Annular nanolayered shrink film 3 26-2018
 
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas Applicaations
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas ApplicaationsBioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas Applicaations
BioBased Engineered Plastic Solutions for Oil and Gas Applicaations
 
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehicles
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehiclesAnti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehicles
Anti-corrosion coatings for Agricultural and Construction vehicles
 
10251287.ppt
10251287.ppt10251287.ppt
10251287.ppt
 
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptx
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptxchapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptx
chapter 5 polymer.ppt-converted.pptx
 
Rapid Coat Powder Coatings
Rapid Coat Powder CoatingsRapid Coat Powder Coatings
Rapid Coat Powder Coatings
 
2014 SPE TPO conference / FibreTuff
2014 SPE TPO conference / FibreTuff2014 SPE TPO conference / FibreTuff
2014 SPE TPO conference / FibreTuff
 
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.
Wax dispersant Wax crystal modifier &; Wax dissolver.
 
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)
DENTURE BASE RESINS(Dr.ANJU SREE DURGA)
 
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919
OilDoc_2013___Paul_Bonner_20130218_145919
 

Recently uploaded

Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptx
Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptxAutodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptx
Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptxMustafa Ahmed
 
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingPresentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingEr. Suman Jyoti
 
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptx
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptxDegrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptx
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptxMostafa Mahmoud
 
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering StudentsBasics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering Studentskannan348865
 
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptx
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptxWorksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptx
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptxMustafa Ahmed
 
Fundamentals of Structure in C Programming
Fundamentals of Structure in C ProgrammingFundamentals of Structure in C Programming
Fundamentals of Structure in C ProgrammingChandrakantDivate1
 
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata Model
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata ModelPath loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata Model
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata ModelDrAjayKumarYadav4
 
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdf
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdfWorking Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdf
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdfSkNahidulIslamShrabo
 
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block Diagram
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block DiagramStudy of Computer Hardware System using Block Diagram
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block DiagramChandrakantDivate1
 
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptPassive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptamrabdallah9
 
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptx
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptxHOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptx
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptxSCMS School of Architecture
 
Overview of Transformation in Computer Graphics
Overview of Transformation in Computer GraphicsOverview of Transformation in Computer Graphics
Overview of Transformation in Computer GraphicsChandrakantDivate1
 
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailinghandbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailingAshishSingh1301
 
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth Reinforcement
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth ReinforcementGround Improvement Technique: Earth Reinforcement
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth ReinforcementDr. Deepak Mudgal
 
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxanalog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxKarpagam Institute of Teechnology
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxMustafa Ahmed
 
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals .pdf
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals  .pdfDatabricks Generative AI Fundamentals  .pdf
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals .pdfVinayVadlagattu
 
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdf
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdflitvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdf
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdfAlexander Litvinenko
 
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring method
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring methodScouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring method
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring methodvimal412355
 
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptx
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptxAugmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptx
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptxMustafa Ahmed
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptx
Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptxAutodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptx
Autodesk Construction Cloud (Autodesk Build).pptx
 
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/FootingPresentation on Slab,  Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
Presentation on Slab, Beam, Column, and Foundation/Footing
 
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptx
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptxDegrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptx
Degrees of freedom for the robots 1.pptx
 
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering StudentsBasics of Relay for Engineering Students
Basics of Relay for Engineering Students
 
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptx
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptxWorksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptx
Worksharing and 3D Modeling with Revit.pptx
 
Fundamentals of Structure in C Programming
Fundamentals of Structure in C ProgrammingFundamentals of Structure in C Programming
Fundamentals of Structure in C Programming
 
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata Model
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata ModelPath loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata Model
Path loss model, OKUMURA Model, Hata Model
 
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdf
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdfWorking Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdf
Working Principle of Echo Sounder and Doppler Effect.pdf
 
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block Diagram
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block DiagramStudy of Computer Hardware System using Block Diagram
Study of Computer Hardware System using Block Diagram
 
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.pptPassive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
Passive Air Cooling System and Solar Water Heater.ppt
 
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptx
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptxHOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptx
HOA1&2 - Module 3 - PREHISTORCI ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA.pptx
 
Overview of Transformation in Computer Graphics
Overview of Transformation in Computer GraphicsOverview of Transformation in Computer Graphics
Overview of Transformation in Computer Graphics
 
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailinghandbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
handbook on reinforce concrete and detailing
 
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth Reinforcement
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth ReinforcementGround Improvement Technique: Earth Reinforcement
Ground Improvement Technique: Earth Reinforcement
 
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptxanalog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
analog-vs-digital-communication (concept of analog and digital).pptx
 
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptxDynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
Dynamo Scripts for Task IDs and Space Naming.pptx
 
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals .pdf
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals  .pdfDatabricks Generative AI Fundamentals  .pdf
Databricks Generative AI Fundamentals .pdf
 
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdf
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdflitvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdf
litvinenko_Henry_Intrusion_Hong-Kong_2024.pdf
 
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring method
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring methodScouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring method
Scouring of cotton and wool fabric with effective scouring method
 
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptx
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptxAugmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptx
Augmented Reality (AR) with Augin Software.pptx
 

Function and Performance of Hydrocarbon Waxes in Rigid PVC

  • 1.
  • 2. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting NPRA International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting Session LW-08-106
  • 3. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting Function and Performance of Hydrocarbon Waxes in Rigid PVC • By: Thomas C. Pedersen Rheogistics LLC Picayune, MS USA
  • 4. PVC 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting • PVC resin is a free flowing, granular solid with a bulk density of 0.50 to 0.60 gm/ml. • PVC resin contains 57% chlorine, 38% carbon, and 5% hydrogen.
  • 5. PVC Compound 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 6. PVC Compound 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 9. PVC • Rigid PVC has great properties – Typical 7000+ psi tensile strength – Excellent stiffness – Excellent impact strength – Good weatherability – Excellent cost performance
  • 10. Rigid PVC • Most rigid PVC properties are affected in one way or another by the lubricant system. • Getting things right is a constant balancing act. • Customer quote: “Its always the wax,” VP of manufacturing of a leading building products manufacturer, 1980
  • 11. PVC Resin • PVC resin grains are approximately 100 microns in diameter. The large grains are composed of 2 to 10 micron sub- grains which in turn are composed of primary particles with a diameter of approximately 1 micron. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 12. PVC Resin 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 13. PVC Processing • The 1 micron PVC primary particles are thought to be the primary flow units during rigid PVC processing 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 14. Processing Rigid PVC • Rigid PVC products are formed by heating and compressing PVC compounds into desired shapes. • The compound is compressed from a bulk density of approximately 0.50 gm/ml to a product density of approximately 1.40 gm/ml • PVC is heated to ca. 400° F by mechanical shear and heat transfer. • During processing, PVC is exposed to pressures of 2000 to 4000 psi.
  • 15. Processing Rigid PVC • The function of lubricants in rigid PVC is to manage the fusion process while preventing the polymer from sticking to the processing equipment.
  • 16. PVC Lubrication • Paraffin and hydrocarbon waxes are used in conjunction with calcium stearate as primary lubricants • Ca(C18H35O2)2 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 17. Behavior of Lubricants • The calcium atom or polar end of calcium stearate is attracted to the machine and PVC resin surfaces • Paraffin wax is thought to act as a slip agent between the exposed tails of calcium stearate 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 18. Fusion Mechanism for Rigid PVC • C – Compaction • D – Densification • F – Fusion • E – Elongation • Chemical/Plasticizing Effects
  • 19. Rigid PVC Fusion in Extrusion
  • 20. Fusion Characterization in the Lab • Torque Rheometer – Fixed volume heated chamber – Work imparted into PVC compound by mixing blades – Measure torque required to turn the blades and melt temperature
  • 21. Torque Rheometer 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 22. Torque Rheometer Rotors 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 23. Torque Rheometry Energy Balance 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 24. Extruder Energy Balance 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 25. Effects of Fusion Levels on Physical Properties 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting • Tensile Properties – Increase with increasing fusion • Impact Properties – Peak at an intermediate level of fusion
  • 26. Trial PVC Compound • PVC Resin 100 parts • Stabilizer 0.50 phr • Wax 1.30 phr • Calcium Stearate 0.65 phr • Oxidized PE Wax 0.15 phr • Calcium Carbonate 5.00 phr • Titanium Dioxide 0.50 phr2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 27. 100 grams of PVC Resin Assume primary particles are spheres Volume of a primary particle = 5.2x10-13 cm3 Weight of a primary particle = 7.3x10-13 gms Number of primary particles per 100 grams of PVC resin = 1.4x1014 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 28. 1.3 grams of Paraffin Wax Assume molecular weight of 450 gm/mole # moles = 0.0029 moles # wax molecules = 0.0029 * 6.023x1023 = 1.75x1021 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 29. Wax Molecules Per PVC Primary Particle • 1.4x1014 PVC Primary Particles • 1.75x1021 Paraffin Wax Molecules • Estimated 10,000,000 to 15,000,000 Wax Molecules per PVC PP 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 30. • PVC Resin 100 parts • Stabilizer 0.50 phr • Wax 1.30 phr • Calcium Stearate 0.65 phr • Oxidized PE Wax 0.15 phr • Calcium Carbonate 5.00 phr • Titanium Dioxide 0.50 phr 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting Trial PVC Compound
  • 31. Torque Rheometry - Classic Wax
  • 36. Test Results Wax Fusion Time Fusion Torque Fusion Temp Equil Torque Equil Temp C26 166 sec 21.3 Nm 179°C None >195°C C32 352 sec 15.2 Nm 183°C 13.0 Nm 188°C C40 2,120 sec 10.1 Nm 184°C 12.4 Nm 188°C Classic 318 sec 15.5 Nm 183°C 12.6 Nm 188°C PE 182 sec 18.9 Nm 182°C None >195°C 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 37. Conclusions • The PVC Industry is a large application for paraffin and hydrocarbon waxes • Waxes with carbon numbers of C30 to C36 work best as primary PVC lubricants in North America’s tin stabilized formulations 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 38. Conclusions • The lubricant system is adjusted to tune the formulation to the heating and shearing characteristics of the customer’s processing equipment. • Changes in any material or any piece of equipment in a customer’s plant results in the need for a lubricant adjustment. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 39. Conclusions • Understanding and managing lubricant performance in rigid PVC is complex • “Its always the wax.” The PVC industry requires in-depth technical support and service. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 40. References • T. C. Pedersen, “Process and Material Considerations in the Industrial Application of Lubricants in Rigid PVC Extrusion”, Journal of Vinyl Technology, 6, 104 (1984) 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 41. References • J. W. Summers, “Lubrication Mechanism in Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Compounds: Understanding the Three Distinct Roles of Lubricants” Antec 2006, Society of Plastics Engineers. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting
  • 42. References • P. Benjamin, “The Influence of Processing on the Properties of PVC Pipe”, International Conference on PVC Processing, 6 & 7 April 1978, The Plastics and Rubber Institute. 2008 International Lubricants and Waxes Meeting

Editor's Notes

  1. PVC Pipe