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An Introduction about Radar

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An Introduction about Radar

  1. 1. MSA 606 AVIATION AND AEROSPACE COMMUNICATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS Presented by Yi-Fan (Tom) Chen
  2. 2.  How ItWorks?  Development  ATC RadarTypes  Benefits and Disadvantages  An Accident Example  The future 2015/1/30 MSA 606 2
  3. 3. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 3 RAdio Detection And Ranging Microwave (1GHz to 110Ghz) Higher frequency get higher resolution, but shorter range.
  4. 4. Band Frequency Wave Length Description L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long' S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short' X 8–12 GHz 2.5–3.75 cm missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium- resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar. Named X band because the frequency was a secret duringWW2. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 4
  5. 5.  The first “practical” application of radio waves for RADAR was invented by Christian Huelsmeyer in 1904, German for ship detection (Range = 3km) 2015/1/30 MSA 606 5 Huelsmeyer’sTelemobiloscope
  6. 6.  “Freya” was the first radar produced in quantity for the German Navy  Land-based aircraft detection radar  Operated at 120 to 130 MHz  Peak Power output of 15 to 20 kW  Max range of 100 nm  Over 1000 built throughout the war  Installed along Germany’s northern coast 2015/1/30 MSA 606 6
  7. 7.  CHAIN HOME was a network of “floodlight” radars positioned along the coast of England 2015/1/30 MSA 606 7
  8. 8.  Primary Surveillance Radar 2015/1/30 MSA 606 8  Secondary Surveillance Radar
  9. 9. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 9  Developed from the military IFF (identification, friend or foe) sinceWWII  Mode A — provides a 4-digit octal identification code for the aircraft, known as a squawk code, assigned by the air traffic controller  Mode C — provides a 10-bit binary Gray code for the aircraft's pressure altitude  Mode S — each aircraft can be assigned a fixed, unique ICAO 24-bit, including position and velocity
  10. 10. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 10
  11. 11.  En Route Radar  Air Surveillance Radar  Weather Radar  ASDE 2015/1/30 MSA 606 11
  12. 12. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 12 En-route radar systems operates in L-Band usually.These radar sets initially detect and determine the position, course, and speed of air targets in a relatively large area up to 250 nm.
  13. 13. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 13 Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) is an approach control radar used to detect and display an aircraft's position in the terminal area.These radar sets operate usually in S-Band, and are capable of reliably detecting and tracking aircraft at altitudes below 25,000 feet (7,620 meters) and within 40 to 60 nautical miles (75 to 110 km) of their airport. Terminal Radar
  14. 14. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 14 Microburst Radar (MBR)Doppler Weather Radar
  15. 15. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 15 The Surface Movement Radar (SMR) scans the airport surface to locate the positions of aircraft and ground vehicles and displays them for air traffic controllers in bad weather. Surface movement radars operate in X- Band and uses an extremely short pulse-width to provide an acceptable range- resolution. Airport Surface Detection Equipment Surface Movement Radar Ground Radar
  16. 16.  Provide a controller a global picture about what is going on in the air  Prevent midair collision and runway incursion by usingTCAS and ASDE  Can be affected by the weather and terrain  Has limited range and can not cover all the airspace 2015/1/30 MSA 606 16
  17. 17. Date 12 November 1996 Type Mid-air collision Site Charkhi Dadri, Haryana, India Total fatalities 349 2015/1/30 MSA 606 17 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 763, 747-100 Air Kazakhstan Flight 1907, IL-76 •Flight 1907 did not follow the ATC instruction to maintain 15,000 ft •Also not equippedTCAS •ATC only have primary surveillance radar •The same route for arrival and departure
  18. 18. ADS-B Satellite Based Surveillance 2015/1/30 MSA 606 18
  19. 19. 2015/1/30 MSA 606 19  How ItWorks?  Development  ATC RadarTypes  Benefits and Disadvantages  An Accident Example  The future
  20. 20.  http://www.radartutorial.eu/index.en.html  http://math.la.asu.edu/~kuang/LM/030902- Radar_History10.pdf  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_Charkhi_D adri_mid-air_collision 2015/1/30 MSA 606 20
  21. 21. Question?

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