Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Project design and research methods in gis

4,372 views

Published on

Research |Method in GIS

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Project design and research methods in gis

  1. 1. 1 Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program
  2. 2.  Concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. In general, the philosophy of science seeks to describe and understand how science works within a wide range of sciences. Not necessary to include every kind of science, however it should not be confined only to a single branch of a specific single science Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 2
  3. 3. Logic and probability are the standard tools of philosophy of science. Probability can be seen as an extension of logic, so it is important to understand the Basics concepts of logic. Logic is the standard tool of philosophy of science. Logic means reason or Judgment. To understand the logic it is better to understand the logic of scientific argument Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 3
  4. 4. The scientific argument basically relates to the expectations generated by a scientific idea and  the actual observations made relevant to those expectations. In very simple words a scientific argument is a logical description of what we think and why we think it. A scientific argument uses evidence to make a case for whether a scientific idea is accurate or inaccurate. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 4
  5. 5. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 5
  6. 6. Scientific research Research is a very general term for an activity that involves finding out, in systematic way, things you did not know. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.  It is about advancing the frontiers of knowledge. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 6
  7. 7. Scientific research  Scientific research is a systematic way of gathering data, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.  It makes practical applications possible The formal definition of research vary from discipline to discipline Research is the systematic, objective, empirical and controlled process of gathering, recording and analyzing data/information for aid in making scientific and critical decision or discovery of new knowledge. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 7
  8. 8. From the definition one can suggest 6 important points 1. systematic, 2. objective, 3. empirical 4. controlled 5. Research is to facilitate scientific decision making process or discovery of new knowledge 6. critical Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 8
  9. 9. Research is systematic Implies that it employs and follows planned and scientific methods and procedures to address research endeavors  Research is objective  Implies that the information/data generated or collected, analyzed and reported should be corrective and objective  It should avoid subjectivity Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 9
  10. 10. Research is Empirical: It implies research tests Beliefs, Ideas, Assumptions, or Hypothesis and Conclude on the bases of tested results Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 10
  11. 11. Research is Controlled: Implies that the researcher can have confidence in his/her research outcomes Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 11
  12. 12. Research is to facilitate scientific decision making process or discovery of new knowledge: Implies generating free of error in: Results Prediction or Concussion for decision or creation of new knowledge Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 12
  13. 13. Research is Critical: Implies that many truths are tentative and are subjected to change as a result of subsequent research Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 13
  14. 14. Back ground/ introduction Significance Objectives Methodology Conceptual frame work Literature information Results & Discusion or Analysis Conclusion & Recommendation References/bibliography Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 14
  15. 15. The purpose of introduction is to introduce the research project to the readers Some of the information to be included among others are: Enough back ground to enable the reader to place your particular research problem in the context of common knowledge:  rational of the study,  it should show how its result will solve the problem at hand, advance the field or be important for some other work. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 15
  16. 16. It explains to the reader the background from which the research problem emerges. It should explain the major factors which surround your problem, and of any significant literature which relates to it. It should contain a clear statement of the objectives of research i.e., enough background should be given to make clear to the reader why the problem was considered worth investigating Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 16
  17. 17. It also has the function of capturing the interest of the reader A brief summary of other relevant research may also be stated so that the present study can be seen in that context Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 17
  18. 18. OBJECTIVES Where the investigator discusses the major and specific objectives of his/her study. Breaking down a large problem into small parts and address them step by step The incremental treatment of the individual pieces of question will allow the larger question to be approached and answered. A general review of how the problem arise is presented along with the specific objectives of the project under study Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 18
  19. 19. Strategy or plan of action that links methods to outcomes --- governs our choice and use of methods It is systematic and follows a series of steps and rigid standard protocols (rules) This protocols are broadly similar to all but many vary slightly between different field of science Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 19
  20. 20. Science has developed research guidelines over many years as the benchmark for measuring the validity of results obtained Failure to follow the guidelines will prevent your findings from being accepted. For any study, there must be a clear methodological procedures so that it can be verified Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 20
  21. 21. It refers to reading and extracting information from existing literatures related to the issue under investigation. The reference can be published or unpublished The theoretical and empirical framework from which the problem arises must be briefly described. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 21
  22. 22. A brief resume of related studies found in journals, magazines, abstracts and reports should be made. This provides evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and also with unknown or unproved. It also helps to avoid the risk of duplication of what has been done and to serve as a basis for formulating hypotheses. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 22
  23. 23. The literature review is not simply a list or summary of books and articles that the researcher has read. Instead, it has to be combined and synthesized in an integrated description of the field of study. A good literature review shows how the text compiled from various books and articles relate to the broad topic Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 23
  24. 24. 1. Identify relevant books, journals, reports related to your proposed research topic 2. Understand what results the previous researchers have produced 3. Share ideas about its theoretical concepts or analytical techniques relate to the proposed study 4. Help to design good methodologies for the research 5. Identify the most recent finding related to the study 6. Aid for better understanding about the topic Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 24
  25. 25. This section represents the heart of the research report This chapter should be divided into different sections Commonly, this chapter is schematized following the outline of the objectives of the study to facilitate an easy analysis/discussion and then obtain the desired specific objectives of the study Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 25
  26. 26. It is in section the collected data should be organized into section corresponding to a particular objectives of the study The data may be organized and summarized into: Figures Maps Statistical presentation etc followed with textual discussion Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 26
  27. 27. This part begins with a brief  re-statement of the problem, Overall objective the hypotheses/questions Methods and procedures of data collection and analysis used in few paragraphs description of the problem and discussion of findings and conclusions of the study. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 27
  28. 28. This section must focus attention to: 1. announce the retention or rejection of the hypotheses, 2. imply an answered questions that were raised in due course of the study and which required further investigation in the area. The research findings should be synchronize to already designed objectives sequentially in logical and systematic framework to arrive on conclusion Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 28
  29. 29. Recommendation for practical application like GIS, Remote Sensing and other is to correct or tackle the studied problem The recommendation should be supported by the research findings and conclusion given Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 29
  30. 30. There are two types of literature sources: references and bibliography. The references comprise the items that are referred to in the text so that the reader can access them if necessary. The bibliography comprises a list of the sources that have influenced your thoughts about the topic.  They reveal the conceptual framework within which you have developed your ideas. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 30
  31. 31. In a scientific research report one has to indicate the sources from where the researcher finds information, such as: Data Opinion Figures Models, equation should the sources in the Quotation text and in the lists of reference Paraphrased Direct short Direct long Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 31
  32. 32. List of reference section should contain : All the works the writer has cited References that are not cited in the text should not be listed in the reference list Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 32
  33. 33. Characteristics of scientific research  It is directed toward the solution of a problem  It involves gathering of new data from primary or secondary sources  It is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence.  It demands accurate observation and description.  Carefully recorded and reported Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 33
  34. 34. Characteristics of scientific research …  It generally employs carefully designed procedures and rigorous analysis  It emphasizes the development of  generalizations,  principles or theories that will help in understanding, prediction and control of elements  It attempts to find an objective, unbiased solution to the problem Sometimes requires courage  It is a deliberate and unhurried activity Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 34
  35. 35. Seeking solution to practical or theoretical problem at hand Discovering new knowledge Expanding the frontier of existing knowledge Ultimately improve the way we live Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 35
  36. 36. Clarifies a problem Evaluates a program Defines an opportunity Introduce innovative technology & its application in area of development Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 36
  37. 37. Research methods and methodologies are usually used interchangeably. However, you need to know that these concepts convey different meaning Method is: a particular technique to collect data/information. a specific tool to collect data eg. Survey, interview, etc Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 37
  38. 38. Methodology describes : The principles and procedures in a particular field of study How we design and implement research studies And may include description of sources of data, identification of data requirement How to collect data Techniques of selection of source data Instruments of data collection Method of data organization, analysis and presentation  thus methodology encompasses the entire approach of the study Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 38
  39. 39. Classification of Research There are different ways of classifying research It may classified based on Goal of research Specific objectives of research Designs The type of data used in research and field of study Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 39
  40. 40. The nature of the problem that the research attempts to solve could be Theoretical- aim to build a theory or Practical- solving immediate practical problems  The two types of problems that the research tries to solve leads to 2 broad classifications of research  Basic research and  Applied research Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 40
  41. 41. The objectives of the research may be To describe the characteristics of events Explaining casual link b/n two variables Comparing two or more groups on the basis of particular phenomena As a result, research can be categorized into Descriptive Explanatory Comparative Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 41
  42. 42. The researcher may have Qualitative Quantitative data Mixture of the two  Thus the research may classified as  Qualitative  Quantitative or Both qualitative and quantitative Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 42
  43. 43. When we consider the design of data collection approach, we may have: Experimental Non-experimental Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 43
  44. 44. Primary research Also called field research Secondary research Also known as desk research Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 44
  45. 45.  Research can be classified by field of study as:  Geo-information science research  Health science research  Social science research  Educational research  Behavioral science research, etc. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 45
  46. 46.  Based on time dimension research could be categorized as:  a cross-sectional and  longitudinal research Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 46
  47. 47. Basic research advances fundamental knowledge Hence, it also called  Fundamental research or  Pure research  It is basically concerned with the  Formulation of a theory or principles,  Creation of new knowledge  Expansion of the acceptability of existing knowledge  Verification of the acceptability of a given theory Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 47
  48. 48.  It is “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake” Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research Adds a new knowledge to an organized body of scientific knowledge Does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical value Thus the general aim of basic research are:  obtaining and using empirical data to formulate, expand or evaluate theory  Discovery of knowledge solely for the sake of knowledge  Note that basic research lays down the foundation for the applied research that follows Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 48
  49. 49. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization  Conducted in relation to a particular problem to give answers to questions at hand The central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem Makes decisions about a particular course of action or policy Test theories often generated by basic research and applying them to real situations. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 49
  50. 50. Traditionally, basic and applied researches were seen as activities of: Different nature,  Carried out by different institution and financed from different sources However, it is difficult to draw a clear boundary between these two types of research Researchers believe that basic and applied types of research should not be thought as mutually exclusive categories. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 50
  51. 51. Both basic and applied research follows a scientific methodology to answer the question at hand. The distinction between them are rather a matter of emphasis than as representing a true dichotomy, Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 51
  52. 52. Descriptive The goal of descriptive research is to describe the status of some aspects of a phenomenon  It aid understand a topic and leads to causal analysis  It is, therefore, involves a variety of research methods to achieve its goal. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 52
  53. 53. Descriptive research conti… Possible methods that come under descriptive research is: Survey studies Observation studies Case studies Correlation studies Change detection studies Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 53
  54. 54. It is a method of gathering data at a particular time for a specific objectives It is characterized by: gathering data on a one-shot basis and hence is economical and efficient Can represent a wide range of target population Generated numerical data, Provides descriptive, explanatory and inferential data Manipulate key factors, features or elements Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 54
  55. 55. It involves observing and recording of spatial and attributes as it occurs in its natural settings. It is important for conformation Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 55
  56. 56. Case Studies It emphasizes detailed contextual analysis a limited number of condition /events and their relationship They are largely descriptive examinations, usually of sites, for example small town, valley, mining site etc Eg Solid waste disposal site selection in Nekemte Town Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 56
  57. 57. Studies designed to investigate whether or not relation exists between two or more quantified variables Eg whether an association exists b/n Temperature and elevation The purpose of correlational studies: Not establish cause-effect r/p among variables But to determine whether the variables under study have some kind of association or not The relation may negative, positive or no relation Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 57
  58. 58. Conducted when problem at hand has not been clearly defined Thus explorative research is initial research conducted to Background information Better understand Clarify a problem Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 58
  59. 59. It seeks explanations of observed phenomena, problems, or features. While descriptive research examines the what, where, and when of a phenomenon, explanatory research seeks answers to why and how types of questions. It attempts to “connect the dots” in research, by identifying causal factors and outcomes of the target phenomenon. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 59
  60. 60. Experiments can be conducted either:  In laboratory setting or  In the field (natural settings) Experiments in laboratory setting: When operating within laboratory env’t, the researcher has direct control over most, if not all, of the variables that could impact upon the outcome of the experiment Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 60
  61. 61. Experiments in the field (natural settings)  the researcher has less control over variables that have effect upon the experimental variables but will strive to exert whatever control is possible. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 61
  62. 62. Qualitative involves studies that do not attempt to quantify their results through statistical summary or analysis Quantitative research is the systematic and scientific investigation of Quantitave properties and phenomena Their relationship Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 62
  63. 63. It is probable that your research may be cross-sectional – the study of a particular phenomenon at a particular time. We say this because we recognise that most research projects undertaken for academic courses are necessarily time-constrained Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 63
  64. 64. study change and development An example is the census conducted every 10 years, Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 64
  65. 65. 3. Project Identification Research project identification or selection is the most important and crucial aspect of any research. In the research process, the first and for most steps is the choice of a suitable problem for investigation Therefore, a considerable care must be taken while selecting a research problem. It requires a great deal of time, energy, and logical thinking on the part of the researcher. Practically speaking, several factors deter the selection of a suitable problem by a researcher, especially if he/she is a beginner Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 65
  66. 66. Identification of a research project/ topic may be made by a researcher by adopting either of the following means; 1) By observation 2) Theory and Scientific Concepts 3) Previous Research 4) Practical Concerns 5) Personal Interest 6) Resource and Financial Support Interest Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 66
  67. 67. A researcher in his respective field of science may find few concepts which are not answerable and a researcher start to wonder about it, why it is happening One of the sources of problems for a beginning researcher is his/her own observation in a given field. The day-to-day observation of the occurrences in the working place and out of the working environment, socio-economic Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 67
  68. 68. You know that malaria incidence is high in low land areas. This problem may produce Eg Application Of GIS in Malaria Prevalence Modelling In Low Land Areas- In Didessa Valley, Western Oromia Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 68
  69. 69. No research study ever answered all the questions that may be asked about a particular subject. New research findings always inspire new research questions. Sometimes it is because these findings are surprising, or because they conflict with existing theory, or other research findings Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 69
  70. 70. Consultation of research reports, bibliographies of books and articles, periodicals, research abstracts, year books, dictionaries and research guides constitutes an invaluable source of a research problem in a given field With the limitation of time, resources and financial constrains it is not always possible to meet out all the objectives set for the proposed study. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 70
  71. 71. Therefore, there is always a scope to continue the previous research work and the objectives which were left solved, fully or partially, are covered in the later study. With the limitation of time, resources and financial constrains it is not always possible to meet out all the objectives set for the proposed study.  Therefore, there is always a scope to continue the previous research work and the objectives which were left unsolved, fully or partially, are covered in the later study. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 71
  72. 72. Researcher may be motivated by looking into the problems in the real world Problems which are faced by him and the community around him. Much research problems are aimed at solving immediate problems in the world. Eg Application of GIS in flood modeling Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 72
  73. 73. Researcher has its own special area of interest so the researcher is inspired by his own interest. In such cases a researcher will be motivated by his own way and he may follow his own criteria of selection of research project Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 73
  74. 74. Availability of resource and financial visibility of the topic be considered while a given topic is identified. The interests of funding organization need to be identified Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 74
  75. 75. For a good research project identification a researcher must look in many different places at the same time. A researcher must do a thorough literature review, interact to people working in the related stream and  observe carefully the reality around him. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 75
  76. 76. 1. Availability and access to the data/ information needed for the proposed research project. 2. Relevance of the research project as per the stream under which research is performed. 3. Skill set and capability of a researcher to undertake the proposed research project 4. Usefulness and limitation of the proposed research project 5. Interest and willingness of researcher to conduct the proposed research. 6. Accessibility and workability for field work of the proposed research project. 7. Time required, financial support and equipment/ instruments to conduct proposed research. 8. Potential to generate further research for later researcher. 9. Other specific criteria that relate to particular discipline, field of study or institution Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 76
  77. 77. A research proposal is a systematic plan, which brings us to focus the preliminary planning that will be needed to accomplish the purpose of the proposed study. It is just like a blueprint, which the architect prepares before the construction of building starts. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 77
  78. 78. More specifically, the research proposal has the following importance: It serves as a basis for determining the feasibility of the project. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow. It gives the research supervisor a basis for guiding the researcher while conducting the study. It reduces the probability of costly mistakes. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 78
  79. 79. Therefore, research project proposal is a written statement of the research/project design explaining The purpose of the study , that include justification, rational and objectives A detailed, systematic outline of a particular project, including methodology and procedures Required financial and time budget Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 79
  80. 80. Preparation of a full-fledged proposal is not a one-time endeavour. But is the result of continuous modification and amendment through discussion with experts in the field. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 80
  81. 81.  Research proposal is needed to  Use it as guide plan in the course of your project endeavor  Convinces the other people  Demonstrates expertise  Demonstrates competency  Serve as a contract Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 81
  82. 82.  An architect is using a blue print plan for construction of complex building  Likewise the researcher is using a research Project proposal as a guide and plan of action  When there is a clear plan of action from the beginning the research is much more likely to proceed smoothly and will be successful Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 82
  83. 83. The main function of any research proposal is to convince  other researchers,  research funding agencies,  educational institutions and  supervisors/advisors that your research is worth spending resources on. The research should inspire donors about importance of his/her project Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 83
  84. 84.  Research proposal helps to demonstrate expertise in a particular area of study. With your research proposal you convince people that you have enough understanding of the research topic to be able of the research properly Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 84
  85. 85. Research proposal also helps to demonstrate competency in a particular area of study.  It is also important that your research proposal convinces the reader that you have all the necessary skills to carryout the proposed study.  This can be done by describing an appropriate and feasible research methodology. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 85
  86. 86.  Research often involves contracts between different individuals or groups or people.  The proposal states clearly what each individual party is expected to do, how resources will be used and when the research will be completed.  When your proposals approved it is same signing agreement. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 86
  87. 87.  Your discipline  The community  The state  The nation  The world or appropriate category Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 87
  88. 88.  What has already been done in the area of your project?  How do you plan to carry the activity Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 88
  89. 89. There are certain elements that appear in the preparation of the research proposal. As a fact there is no single format for a research proposal. This is because  every research project is different. Different disciplines, funding organization and academic institutions all have different formats and requirements Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 89
  90. 90.  Conventionally, a scientific research proposal should include : 1. The Title 2. Introduction 2.1 background of the study 2.2 statement of the problem 2.3 objectives of the study 2.4 hypothesis/ Research Questions 2.5 conceptual framework 3. Review of related Literature (this can appear in under chapter one as separate section) 4. Research Methodology 5. Work plan 6. Budget 7. References 8. Appendices/Annexes (if applicable) Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 90
  91. 91. The title of the research should be worded in  clear -it gives sufficient information about the nature of study Short -the title should not be too lengthy or too involved.  specific to the area of study.  The title should not be burdened by pompous words and should not include terms of unscientific, rhetorical, argumentative, emotional, or biased nature.  The language in the title should be professional in nature but not pedantic. Lecture Note Complied by Tadele Feyissa, Wollega University GIS Program 91

×