July - September 2009 Toiyabe Trails Newsletter, Toiyabe Sierra Club
Toiyabe trails MMERT July-August-september 2009Ragged Peak, Young Lakes, Yosemite. Photo: K. Morey SU I S MIT’ E! environmental news of nevada and the eastern sierra from the toiyabe chapter of the sierra club Omnibus public lands bill completes long, winding journey By Don Wolfensberger T page Congressional Research Service sum- Photos: Bryce Wheeler he saga of the omnibus public mary.) The Majority Leader easily won two lands bill that President Ba- cloture motions to prevent filibusters, “filled rack Obama signed into law the amendment tree” to prevent anyone else in late March has been compared by from offering amendments, and handily won at least one Congress watcher to a final passage, 73-21, on Jan. 15. long and slow-moving wagon train. When the omnibus measure came to the House, the leadership decided to bring it up On the day that it finally cleared the under the suspension process, even though it House, Natural Resources Chair- violated Democratic Caucus Rule 38 “guide- man Nick Rahall (D-W.Va.) told his lines” against considering under suspension colleagues that “the road leading us “major legislation” or bills that “make or here today has been a long one and it authorize appropriations in excess of $100 has contained a few twists and turns million.” Under that rule, however, all that is along the way.” needed to waive the guideline is clearance by He should know. He and Senate En- the Democratic Steering Committee. ergy and Natural Resources Chairman The majority leadership chose the sus- Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.) were the wagon pension route to avoid any troublesome masters and at times must have felt like they amendments that might torpedo the package were doubling as a 20-mule team, pulling and cause it to be sent back to the Senate. all 160 wagons. On the one hand, their deft However, Rahall found it necessary at the last procedural maneuvering out of legislative minute to attach several amendments to win box canyons was a sight to behold. On over more votes. (Only a bill’s majority floor the other, it was not a particularly pretty manager can amend a suspension bill.) De- picture from an open-and-orderly-process spite these tweaks, the bill still fell two votes standpoint. short of the two-thirds needed to pass. What ultimately saved the 1,218-page, Ordinarily, if a bill fails under suspension $5.5 billion authorization bill (not a but has majority support, it is taken to the spending bill) was the fact that so many House Rules Committee for a special rule Representatives and Senators of both par- that allows the bill to be reconsidered and ties had spent so much time and effort on passed by majority vote. However, in this the multitude of projects in the legislation instance, the leadership did not want to risk efforts were thwarted by Coburn and died (roughly half to each party). having a minority amendment adopted in a aborning. It all began routinely in the previous motion to recommit the bill with instructions When the current Congress convened in Congress when a host of individual public (something the Rules Committee cannot January, Bingaman again introduced his lands bills — designating wilderness areas, prohibit). Omnibus Public Land Management Act, wild and scenic rivers, hiking trails, heritage Instead, House leaders prevailed on Reid areas, water projects, and historic preserva- to use a House-passed shell bill — a six- tion initiatives — were reported and began page measure authorizing grants to acquire working their way through the process. The Part of wilderness at last! Thanks to the Boxer-McKeon bill increasing wilderness in California, and protect Revolutionary and 1812 war House had passed roughly 70 of these over a bill that became part of the Omnibus Public Lands Bill, we can look forward to enjoying the battlefields — and offer the 1,218-page the course of the 110th Congress under the dazzling springtime display of buttercups in Glass Creek Meadow for many years to come. White omnibus lands bill as a substitute. In that suspension of the rules process. (There is no Wing peak in background. way, when the bill came back to the House such thing as a “suspension calendar.”) The suspension process, which is used for small, with all 160 House and Senate projects left from the Senate, the House could simply noncontroversial matters, permits just 40 over from last year, plus a few unrelated adopt a special rule to concur in the Senate minutes of debate, allows no amendments items from another omnibus bill that Major- amendment without further amendments or Non-Profit Org. Permit No. 356 Reno, Nevada U.S. Postage Sierra Club, Toiyabe Chapter, P.O. Box 8096, Reno, NV 89507 and requires a two-thirds vote for passage. ity Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) was unable motion to recommit, thereby sending the PAID That means suspension measures must have to pass in 2008. The bill was brought to the bill straight to the president. bipartisan backing. (Roughly 80 percent Senate floor without the benefit of a com- This time Reid did let Coburn offer six of all laws enacted by Congress originate mittee vote or report. (The closest thing to a amendments, one of which was adopted, under the House suspension process.) committee report publicly available is a 71- See page 12, Omnibus Bill The Senate committee had reported another 90 individual bills. But all were Nevada ORV registration and commission passes blocked by “holds” placed on them by By Dennis Ghiglieri I Sen. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.), who objected n a mixed bag for conservationists, a complex registration bill for “off- to considering such measures under the traditional unanimous consent procedure, highway vehicles” (OHV, or off-road vehicles (ORV)) became law when which allows for no debate or amendments. SB 394 received a two-thirds majority vote in the Nevada legislature to Coburn was concerned about the cumula- override the earlier veto by Governor Gibbons. tive costs involved (when the authorizations The bill was heavily lobbied for by some See page 12, OHV bill are later funded through the appropriations OHV groups. In this issue... process, which he said was inevitable) and On the positive side, the bill requires Chapter and National ...........2–3 about a variety of issues affecting private- that OHVs (ATVs, motorcycles, snow- Conservation.........................6–7 property rights. mobiles, etc.) be licensed. The legislation Great Basin Group..........8–9, 12 In September, Bingaman bundled all 90 requires an annual fee be set between $20 Range of Light Group...........4–5 of his bills into an omnibus measure and and $30. Some of the money will be used also filed the package as an amendment for licensing and titling of the vehicles Southern Nevada Group .. 10–11 to a small, House-passed park bill. Both and for enforcement. The license is to be Tahoe Group Officers .............12
2 July-august-september 2009 toiyabe trails toiyabe trails July-august-september 2009 3 Study shows widespread chapter & national news declines in bird populationsAndrea Mead Lawrence, 1932–2009 Procedure set Sierra Club Also highlights role ofConservationists mourn for 2009 Toiyabe launches new partnerships in conservation Part I; see Part II in the October-Novem- online communitiesloss of leading activist elections Social networking tools to ber-December Toiyabe Trails Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar to-T By Dave Hornbeck, Toiyabe Chapter he Eastern Sierra, the state, and the nation lost a great woman on ExCom Chair empower environmental day released the first-ever comprehensive re- March 31, 2009: Andrea Mead Lawrence of Mammoth Lakes, port on bird populations in the United States, With the quarterly schedule, the Toiyabe activism California. Sunday, April 19, 2009, should have been her seventy- Trails newsletter no longer can handle the showing that nearly a third of the nation’s The Sierra Club has launched three newseventh birthday. Instead, on that day, hundreds of her friends joined her 800 bird species are endangered, threatened, Chapter/Group election ballot. So this year, online communities: or in significant decline due to habitat loss,family at Mammoth Mountain’s Main Lodge to remember her life and her we will have a separate ballot mailing early • Climate Crossroads: http://climatecross- invasive species, and other threats.accomplishments. in November. Not only will this take the roads.org At the same time, the report highlights At just nineteen, at the 1952 Winter of the environment could not be separated burden off the Trails editor for a special • Sierra Student Coalition: http://ssc.sier- examples, including many species of wa-Olympics in Oslo, Norway, she became for long from the health of the community issue, but it should encourage more mem- raclub.org terfowl, where habitat restoration and con-the only American athlete ever to win two without both suffering. In true, unstoppable, bers to submit ballots for their chapter and • Sierra Club Trails: http://sierraclubtrails.org servation have reversed previous declines,gold medals in alpine skiing. The record Andrea fashion, she eventually carried this group leader selection.Bylaws require the The Sierra Club and other activists are offering hope that it is not too late to takestill stands. But those gold medals, which conviction into winning a seat on the Mono Chapter ExCom to determine and publish increasingly using social-networking action to save declining populations.briefly catapulted her to international fame County Board of Supervisors, where she the nomination and election cycle dates, tools like Facebook to meet, share infor- Just as they were when Rachel Carsonand the cover of Time magazine, were just served for sixteen years. and this is being done in this issue because mation, strategize, and organize. published Silent Spring nearly 50 years ago,one high point in a remarkable life. She At her memorial gathering, there were some dates will quickly approach. Social networking is engaging and enjoy- the health of birds today is a bellwether of thealways said that you could be an athlete many speakers praising her, speakers who For 2009, the Chapter ExCom has set able, but more critically, it is immensely health of land, water and ecosystems, Salazarat that level only for a limited time; what had worked with her on various issues the following dates and deadlines for both powerful. Witness the way candidate said. From shorebirds in New England toreally mattered was what you did with the and governing bodies. She was always Chapter and Group ExCom elections: Barack Obama utilized social networks to warblers in Michigan to songbirds in Hawaii,rest of your life. the best-prepared, the one who had a deep SEPTEMBER 18: Deadline for receipt his advantage, and continues to use them we are seeing disturbing downward popula- In addition to bearing and raising five understanding of the issues and the conse- by the Chapter or Group Nominating to keep in touch with his supporters and tion trends that should set off environmentalbeautiful children who carry her charisma, quences, and she moved forward with that Committee (NomCom) of names for con- promote his legislative agenda. alarm bells. We must work together now tointelligence, and grace into the future, she inimitable combination of strength, deter- sideration as candidates for the Chapter or Anyone can browse the Club’s new Clair Tappaan Lodge, near Donner Pass, as seen from the south, celebrates its 75th birthday August 14–16. Nearby Hutchinson Lodge celebrates ensure we never hear the deafening silence inalso became an outspoken and determined mination, and grace that moved others to Group ExCom. Each NomCom will con- social-networking sites. Those who wish its 85th birthday at the same time. our forests, fields and backyards that Rachelchampion of her community and its long- seek with her a wiser and better future for tact possible candidates, but any member to participate in the discussion and lever-term well-being. She saw that the health Mono County, California, and the nation. She had the gift of bringing us along with can submit the name(s) of any member, including their own, for consideration by age these tools for their campaigns can do so by creating a user profile, which Carson warned us about. The report, The U.S. State of the Birds, Join lodges’ gala anniversary celebration Toiyabe Chapter Directory synthesizes data from three long-running bird August 14-16, 2009 her gladly, not just of tirelessly reminding the Chapter or Group NomCom. is simple and takes just a few minutes. censuses conducted by thousands of citizen chApter executIve commIttee offIcers us of what we ought to do (though she did SEPTEMBER 28: Each NomCom Community members will be able to By Olivia Diaz, Co-Chair, Clair Tappaan Committee H And members scientists and professional biologists In par- ikes, s’mores, and brandy around a campfire, stories from long-time users of the Sierra Club’s Clair TappaanChair Dave Hornbeck* 775-323-6655 plenty of that, too!). reports its slate of willing nominees to blog, join and create groups, take action, ticular, it calls attention to the crisis in Hawaii, DavidHornbeckLaw@msn.com She loved this life and fought to the very Chapter or Group ExCom, and notifies any start discussions, circulate petitions, or- where more birds are in danger of extinction and Hutchinson lodges, music, music, music, and plenty of other activities will commemorate those lodges’Vice-ChairSecretary Dorothy Hudig* Jane Feldman* 775-323-4835 firstname.lastname@example.org end to conquer the cancer that took her. We self-nominee if they have not been selected ganize rallies, and more. than anywhere else in the United States. upcoming anniversaries. Save August 14–16, 2009, for the celebration!Treasurer Kris Cunningham (Apptd) 702-285-6832 who loved her are so glad that she survived as a candidate by the NomCom. Through these online communities, The Sierra Club owns two lodges near Don- these funds to help underwrite schools and Clair Tappaan Lodge springAt Large Eric Blumensaadt* 702-566-9429 In addition, the report indicates a 40 percent long enough to know that President Obama OCTOBER 5: The Election Committee activists can come together to tackle cli- ner Pass in the Sierra Nevada that this year other groups that want to bring students and summer activitiesAt Large Ann Brauer* 702-879-3376 decline in grassland birds over the past 40At Large Charlotte Cox email@example.com had signed the Omnibus Public Lands Bill causes the production of eligible voter lists mate change, share knowledge of great celebrate significant birthdays: Clair Tappaan to the Sierra Club at Donner Summit for By Olivia Diaz, Volunteer Committee Co-ChairAt Large Jean Dillingham* 760-648-7109 years, a 30 percent decline in birds of arid (see article, page 1), and to rejoice with for the elections. hiking trails and waterways, or simply Lodge will be 75 years old, and Hutchinson environmental education but can’t afford All year long, Clair Tappaan Lodge offersAt Large Erik Holland* 775-322-3582 lands, and a high concern for many coastalAt Large Sharon Marie Wilcox* 775-852-5075 those at her bedside. She left us physically OCTOBER 19: Deadline for receipt at swap green living tips and earth-friendly Lodge will be 85. Hutchinson is a smaller the full price. special events for its guests. Some of the group chAIrs (ex-offIcIo votIng excom shorebirds. Furthermore, 39 percent of species just a short time later. Chapter PO Box address of any issue peti- recipes. dependent on U.S. oceans have declined. lodge located across the ravine and is less events are included in the cost of overnight members) known than Clair Tappaan Lodge (CTL). Getting to Clair Tappaan LodgeGreat Basin David von Seggern 775-303-8461 Though she is gone in body, her influence tion or any petition by a Chapter member E-mail community.manager@sierra- However, the report also reveals convinc- lodging and meals ($50 per night for adultRange of Light Malcolm Clark 760-924-5639 and her legacy abide in the hearts and minds seeking to be placed on the ballot for Chap- club.org with questions. Organized by Ernie Malamud and a group CTL is located at 7000 feet in California’s Sierra Club members), while other activitiesSouthern NV Kris Cunningham 702-285-6832 ing evidence that birds can respond quickly of enthusiastic volunteers, the gala will have Sierra Nevada. It’s 45 minutes west of RenoTahoe Area SC Roger Rosenberger 775-588-8101 of her five biological children and many, ter ExCom by petition. To qualify, petitions Toiyabe Trails and positively to conservation action. The require an additional fee. For details, reserva- delegAtes And representAtIves many spiritual children. We are so much must be signed by 1.5% of the Chapter several hikes, many on specific themes, and 1.5 hours east of Sacramento via Inter- tions, and costs for the following activities,Ca/NvRCC-Del.** Wilma Wheeler 760-934-3764 Serving nevada data show dramatic increases in many wet- richer for having had her in our midst. members on the eligible voter lists. on Saturday and Sunday mornings. For state 80. From I-80 eastbound, take the exit please contact the lodge at 800-679-6775 -Delegate** Eric Blumensaadt* 702-566-9429 and California’S eaStern Sierra land birds such as pelicans, herons, egrets, -Alternate Michael Donahue 775 588-5466 — K. Morey NOVEMBER 2 (but no later than those who don’t want to hike, there will be for Soda Springs/Norden — old US 40, also or 530-426-3632, or go to http://www.sier- -Alternate Erik Holland* 775-322-3582 Toiyabe Trails is published six times each year by the Toiyabe osprey, and ducks — a testament to numer- November 10): Ballots and candidates’ Chapter of the Sierra Club, P.O. Box 8096, Reno, NV 89507, to interesting demonstrations and activities at called Donner Pass Road. Go 2.4 miles east raclub.org/lodges/ctl/activities. asp.(** = Ex-Officio Non-Voting ExCom Members) ous cooperative conservation partnerships Photo: Bryce Wheeler help keep our members well-informed and better able to protect on Donner Pass Road. The address is 19940 cA/nvrcc-chApter representAtIves: statements mailed to the membership of the the environment—for our families, for our future. that have resulted in protection, enhancement both lodges. May 8–10, 2009. Three-day Silent-Nevada Vice-Chair Lois Snedden 775-827-2353-Desert Comm John Hiatt 702-361-1171 Toiyabe Chapter on the eligible voter lists. Editor – Lynne Foster (94 Mountain View Drive, Swall and management of more than 30 million The full fee of $195 for adults will include Donner Pass Road in Norden. Look for the Meditation Retreat. A silent medita--Wilderness Comm Marge Sill 775-322-2867 DECEMBER 10: Deadline for ballots to Meadows, Bishop, CA 93514-9207; 760-387-2634; <lfoster@ wetland acres. seven meals (Friday dinner to Sunday din- CTL sign on the north. tion retreat led by Ajay and Suruchi fromPLAN Board Ellen Pillard firstname.lastname@example.org schat.net>; fax available, call first.SC Council-Delegate Jane Feldman* 702-648-0699 be received at the Chapter PO Box address Assoc. Editor – Kathy Morey (760-938-2050); km- These results emphasize that investment ner), overnight lodging Friday and Saturday There is an old, steep footpath (about 40 Dharamsla, India. -Alternate Sharon Marie Wilcox* 775-852-5075 to be counted. email@example.com. Kathy does the July-August-September in wetlands conservation has paid huge nights, and all the activities. For the full ft elevation change) leading up to the CTL’s May 14–15. Wilderness First Aid. A fast- commIttee, tAsK force & Issue chAIrs issue.Chapter Funding TF Eric Blumensaadt* 702-566-9429 DECEMBER 12 or 13: Ballots counted Deadlines – Contributions are due by the 1st day of dividends, said Kenneth Rosenberg, direc- price schedule and details about the week- south entrance. Slightly to the east is an paced, hands-on, two-day coursec overing aConserv. Co-Chair Dennis Ghiglieri 775-329-6118 and winners notified. The exact date, time the quarter for publication in the following quarter’s issue: tor of Conservation Science at the Cornell end, please see http://motherlode.sierraclub. easier access, this one to the lodge’s north wide range of wilderness medicine topics for-Co-Chair Eric Blumensaadt* 702-566-9429 December 1 for January-February-March; March 1 for April-Energy Jane Feldman* 702-648-0699 and place will be determined by the Chapter Lab of Ornithology. Now we need to invest org/sierranevada/gala.html. entrance. There is a loading/unloading zone people who travel in the outdoors. May-June; June 1 for July-August-September; September 1Env. Education Jean Dillingham* 760-648-7109 ExCom at its July or October meeting. for October-November-December. similarly in other neglected habitats where Many of the people who frequented the (short term parking for dropoffs). June 21–26. Sierra Serenity. Twelve-stepFinancial Review Kris Cunningham 702-285-6832Fundraising Charlotte Cox* firstname.lastname@example.org The Chapter NomCom Chair is Jane Submissions – Call or e-mail editor before deadline for late birds are undergoing the steepest declines. lodges in the past are coming and will share There is an airport shuttle from Reno meetings are held each morning followed by submissions. Submit news, story ideas, photos, and letters-to-Legal Compliance Burt Patterson 702-562-1571 Feldman (702-648-0699, janefeldman@ the-editor to the editor (contact info above). Please include Habitats such as those in Hawaii are on the stories of their times at the two lodges and Airport to the Truckee Train Station, from group hikes in the Truckee-Tahoe area.Legislative-Co-Chair Joe Johnson 775-348-7192-Co-Chair Lois Snedden 775-827-2353 cox.net). Those interested in Group ExCom your name, phone/fax, e-mail address, and group with all verge of losing entire suites of unique bird spe- at the Warming Hut on Signal Hill. which you can take a taxi to the lodge. See June 26 – 28. Finding your Way -- Land contributions. You may send contributions by e-mail or on aMembership Sharon Marie Wilcox* 775-852-5075 nomination should contact their respective PC-compatible disk (Word, text, or ascii). Please send hard cies, said Dr. David Pashley, American Bird Please join us! Donations received for the CTL website (http://www.sierraclub. Navigation Workshop. Learn or polishMining-Co-Chair Lois Snedden 775-827-2353 Group Chair listed elsewhere in this Trails. copy by snail mail for all submissions on disk. For photo Conservancy’s Vice President for Conserva- the event will go into the CTL Account at org/outings/lodges/ctl/accomodations.asp) navigational skills using map, compass, or disk return, please include a stamped, self-addressed for details.-Co-Chair Glenn Mille email@example.com The 2009 Election Committee Chair is envelope. The Toiyabe Trails reserves the right to edit all tion Programs. In addition to habitat loss, birds the Sierra Club Foundation. We will use GPS, and altimeters. Bring any tools youNominating Jane Feldman* 702-648-0699 David von Seggern. contributions for reasons of space, clarity, or libel. also face many other man-made threats such may have and learn how to use them from aOutings Eric Blumensaadt*Political-Co-Chair Erik Holland* 702-566-9429 775-322-3582 Andrea Lawrence in a thoughtful moment. Subscriptions – Toiyabe Trails is free to all Toiyabe as pesticides, predation by cats, and collisions Toiyabe Chapter ExCom Vilsack: “New activities in pro. Instructor: Bill Straka.-Co-Chair Ellen Pillard firstname.lastname@example.org Chapter members. Subscription cost for non-members is meetings scheduled roadless areas require approval” with windows, towers and buildings. August 14–16, 2009. Gala Anniversaries. Remember with aPublic Lands Rose Strickland 775-329-6118 $12 per year. To subscribe, send check for $12, payable to Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack has ruledPublic Rel./Outreach Charlotte CoxSierra Student Coalit. Trisha Mynster email@example.com 530-680-4483 Next Chapter ExCom “Toiyabe Chapter,” to Toiyabe Trails Subscriptions, Sierra Club, Toiyabe Chapter, c/o Treasurer, 1621 Foster Dr., Reno, In the October-November-December issue, Upcoming Chapter ExCom meet- that no new activities can take place in roadless 75 years for Clair Tappaan Lodge and 85 years-& Emily RhodenbaughStaff Oversight firstname.lastname@example.org Dave Hornbeck* 775-323-6655 Meeting: July 18, 2009 Memorial Gift NV 89509-1111. Change of address – Postmaster & Members, please Part II discusses solutions and challenges. ings are scheduled for the following dates and places: areas without his approval. These include log- ging, road-building, or anything that destroys the for Hutchinson Lodge. See article above. October 31–November 1. Halloween/DaySustain. Consump. Philip Moore 775-224-1877 send address changes to Sierra Club, Change of Address, Deadline forTrails EditorialTrails Redesign Marge Sill Emily Rhodenbaugh 775-322-2867 email@example.com Mammoth Lakes, CA Consider saving a meadow instead of sending flowers. P. O. Box 52968, Boulder, CO 80322-2968 or <address. Oct.-Nov.-Dec. • July 18, 2009, Mammoth Lakes, roadless character of the area. This completely of the Dead Weekend. Costume parade and contest, pumpkin-carving contests, piñata,Video Conf. TF Ann Brauer* 702-879-3376 See Chapter Website: firstname.lastname@example.org>. Membership information – There is a membership CA reverses the policy under the previous adminis-Water CampaignWilderness Rose Strickland Marge Sill 775-329-6118 775-322-2867 http://toiyabe.sierraclub.org For more information and coupon in each issue of Toiyabe Trails. You can also call Toiyabe Trails: • October 10, 2009, Lake Tahoe, tration, which left all decisions on what could musical chairs, games for kids. On Sunday, the Chapter Membership Chair (see Chapter Directory, happen in roadless areas up to the states. Day of the Dead installations will be welcome.Wildlife-Co-Chair Tina Nappe-Co-Chair Rose Strickland 775-786-1178 775-329-6118 confidential assistance, contact: this page) or the Sierra Club office in San Francisco (415- September 1. NV Spokespersons for all environmental organiza- Bring your own to add to the display. other contActs & stAff trAIls stAff Gift Planning Program 977-5663). • January 30, 2010, Reno, NV Trails Editor Lynne Foster 760-387-2634 85 Second Street, 2nd Floor Other Sierra Club information – Call the Toiyabe Send all inputs to tions, including the Sierra Club, are pleased with All summer long, the lodge hosts many 5–7SC Staff-Reno Emily Rhodenbaugh email@example.com Assoc. Editor Kathy Morey 760-938-2050 Chapter Chair or Conservation Chair (see Chapter Direc- For more details and for times, this ruling. The newly appointed Forest Service day national outings and Elderhostel trips. SeeSC Staff-Las Vegas Rob Disney firstname.lastname@example.org Distribution Carol Tresner 775-786-0489 San Francisco, CA 94105-3441 tory, this page) or the Sierra Club Information Center in Editor, Lynne Foster,Foundation Liaison (Vacant) -Co-Coordin. Bill Bowers 775-786-3259 800-932-4270 please e-mail the chair at Chair@ Head is Homer Lee Wilkes, a conservationist the website or call the lodge for availabilityListserve Manager Dennis Ghiglieri 775-329-6118 -Co-Coordin. Dennis Ghiglieri 775-329-6118 San Francisco (415-977-5653). Also, see group pages for email@example.com, 760-387-2634Chapter Webmaster Dennis Ghiglieri 775-329-6118 * = Elected ExCom Members website addresses of groups. Toiyabe.SierraClub.org. from Mississippi. and details.