2014, April 15, Atlanta Java Users Group


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Server to Cloud – convert a legacy platform to a micro-PaaS using Docker and related, containerization technologies

Video: http://vimeo.com/94556976

The talk will begin with how to setup a local Docker development environment (Windows or Mac OSX) as Docker runs atop Linux. The basics of Docker will be examined including how to use image repositories, and a brief description of available UI’s for managing Docker containers (Shipyard and DockerUI).

Next, example applications will be built for progressively more robust use cases and deployments; to demonstrate the power, flexibility and scalability of Containerization with Docker. The first example will discuss a simple two container model to encapsulate a database and application layer, which will lead to demonstration and discussion about more robust deployments that include features such as service discovery, automatic load balancing, and abstractions to simplify linking of containers. The context of the talk with be how Containerization enables architectural choice, scalability, and polyglot environments.

Docker and supporting technologies will be discussed to expose the multitude of supporting technologies within the ecosystem such as Flynn, Serf (makes or Vagrant), CoreOS, Deus, HAProxy and more.

Technologies that may be employed within containers during the demonstration include, Java, Scala, Akka, Docker, vert.x or node.js, memcached, mysql, mongo.

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2014, April 15, Atlanta Java Users Group

  1. 1. inBloom, Inc. Server to Cloud Convert a legacy platform to a micro-PaaS using Docker Todd Fritz April 15. 2014
  2. 2. inBloom, Inc. Agenda • Whoami • Important Announcement • Background • Containers • Create Local Environment • Using Vagrant • Using Docker • Graphical Interfaces for Docker • Shipyard • Two Container Example • Advanced Docker • Questions • References APRIL 2014 1
  3. 3. inBloom, Inc. Whoami Bio: http://www.linkedin/com/in/tfritz • Software Architect at inBloom  The opinions contained within this presentation may not represent my employer, but I think they should. • Evangelist of layered, distributed, Message-oriented-Middleware • Current focus is middleware through caching, noSQL data store • Exposed to different companies, projects, people and technologies • Novice bass player • Recent father of a five month old • Scuba diver; next adventure:  https://www.bikiniatoll.com/divetour.html APRIL 2014 2 No sleep for you!
  4. 4. inBloom, Inc. Important Announcement APRIL 2014 3
  5. 5. inBloom, Inc. Today is April 15th... APRIL 2014 4
  6. 6. inBloom, Inc. And, I am not a Dev Ops specialist. Just took an interest and within a few weeks this is what I learned. APRIL 2014 5
  7. 7. inBloom, Inc. Background APRIL 2014 6
  8. 8. inBloom, Inc. Note: This presentation will available via slideshare after today. This talk is part two of:  http://www.slideshare.net/ToddFritz/2014-04-03legacytocloud  Presented at Great Wide Open, April 3, 2014 Some files used while compiling this presentation  https://github.com/inbloom/AJUG-2014-04-15-docker APRIL 2014 7
  9. 9. inBloom, Inc. Approach the Legacy Monolith APRIL 2014 8 I’m a proud stovepipe, just bolted together, vroom vroom vroom vroom vroom.
  10. 10. inBloom, Inc. Decompose the Monolith APRIL 2014 9 Oh, nooo... My job security...
  11. 11. inBloom, Inc. Assemble a Decoupled, Modular System APRIL 2014 10 I have free weeknights and weekends now...
  12. 12. inBloom, Inc. Replacing a legacy system. Decompose. Analyze. Employ an iterative methodology  Leverage existing knowledge and literature  Some analysis before  Decompose and modularize (scale cube)  Separation of concerns  Proof of concepts are your friend Deployment environments  Private servers  Cloud (private, public)  Hybrid Platform architectures  Legacy  PaaS  xPaaS APRIL 2014 11
  13. 13. inBloom, Inc. xPaaS Topology APRIL 2014 12 https://img.en25.com/Web/RedHat/JB_xPaaS_Tech_Overview_11454037_v3_0913cd_web.pdf Enables specialization, layering, separated concerns, decoupling
  14. 14. inBloom, Inc. Containers APRIL 2014 13
  15. 15. inBloom, Inc. Container Technologies (VEs) • Warden (Cloud Foundry)  https://github.com/cloudfoundry/warden • Docker (from dotCloud, cloudlets)  https://www.docker.io/ • Google LMCTFY (let me contain that for you)  https://github.com/google/lmctfy  december, 2013 • OpenVZ APRIL 2014 14
  16. 16. inBloom, Inc. Virtual Environment (Container) vs. Virtual Machine APRIL 2014 15 http://www.slideshare.net/dotCloud/docker-intro-november
  17. 17. inBloom, Inc. Docker (per Wikipedia) (1/2) Docker: • Automates the deployment of applications inside software containers. • Extends Linux Containers (LXC) with a high-level API to provide a lightweight virtualization solution that runs processes in isolation. • Utilizes LXC, cgroups, and the kernel itself – • Unlike traditional virtual machines it does not include a separate operating system. • Kernel provides resource isolation (CPU, memory, block I/O, network, etc.) and separate namespaces to completely isolate application's view of the operating environment. APRIL 2014 16
  18. 18. inBloom, Inc. Docker (per Wikipedia) (2/2) Docker containers can be used to extend distributed systems so they run autonomously on a single physical machine, or with a single instance per node. Enables nodes to be deployed as resources are available to provide a seamless platform as a service (PaaS) – style deployment for systems like Apache Cassandra, Riak and related distributed systems.’ Integrates with Chef, Puppet, Vagrant, Nova, etc. APRIL 2014 17
  19. 19. inBloom, Inc. More Docker is a micro container framework for PaaS • https://www.docker.io/learn_more/ • Open-source • Easier scalability • Lightweight, portable, insulated containers • Reusable from dev (“local cloud”) through production • Can run at scale on VMs, bare metal, cloud; virtually anywhere • Encapsulate any payload (application) • Run consistently on and between virtually any server APRIL 2014 18
  20. 20. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 19 http://www.slideshare.net/dotCloud/docker-intro-november
  21. 21. inBloom, Inc. How it Works • Docker builds on lxc which offers system-level virtualization and has existed since linux 2.6.32 (December, 2009) – but prefer kernel 3.8+ • Docker has three parts  docker daemon runs as root to manage containers  docker containers spawn from images, which are tiny and can be versioned  docker repository allows images to be exchanged and versioned like code (public or private) • Each container has its own ip address • Link exposed ports and variables across containers through configuration using abassador containers to avoid hard coding (svendowideit):  consumer  redis-ambassador  redis • Port and pipework to expose containers outside host • Can share volumes, multi home, integrate containers into host network, and much more (ajug) • Continuous integration can generate versioned docker images, web hooks, repo notifications • Supervisor management tool to manage processes within container (http://supervisord.org/introduction.html) APRIL 2014 20
  22. 22. inBloom, Inc. Docker Uses • Common use cases:  Automate application packaging and deployment  Lightweight PaaS environments  Automate testing, continuous integration, and deployment  Deploy and scale web apps, databases, backend services • Growing adoption since dec 2013 • Red Hat fast-tracks Docker apps for enterprise Linux  http://www.infoworld.com/t/application-virtualization/red- hat-fast-tracks-docker-apps-enterprise-linux-238122 • Production ready deployment planned for December, 2014.  Support services planned for early 2015 APRIL 2014 21
  23. 23. inBloom, Inc. Reusable Containers and Cook Books APRIL 2014 22 http://www.slideshare.net/dotCloud/docker-intro-november A Docker container image may already exist
  24. 24. inBloom, Inc. Docker Basics APRIL 2014 23 http://www.slideshare.net/dotCloud/docker-intro-november Artifactory for virtualization images?
  25. 25. inBloom, Inc. Docker Images • The basic building block of a Docker container • Analogous to a slice of a VM image, containing application code or binaries, as well as the execution environment and dependencies • Images may be built atop each other • An image contains only the incremental changes required to transform its base image to the state required by the image • May contain metadata, such as how to run what is inside the image, expose ports, etc • Acts as an instantiable container template APRIL 2014 24
  26. 26. inBloom, Inc. Docker Containers • The result of starting a running process from an image and its dependencies • Represent a single process or service • Intra-container communication via sockets (Docker links). Containers can talk to each other. • Familiar lifecycle: started, stopped, or kill • Can create images from previously run containers, to persist changes made while container was executing APRIL 2014 25
  27. 27. inBloom, Inc. New in Docker 0.9 • Execution driver API  Customize execution environment around container; enables use of other isolation tools • Built in execution container – libcontainer  Alongside LXC, boosts stability, insulates Docker from different versions of LXC APRIL 2014 26
  28. 28. inBloom, Inc. But...we have Chef (or <other>)... (Do not upset Dev Ops, ever...) APRIL 2014 27
  29. 29. inBloom, Inc. Step Away from the Ledge... APRIL 2014 28 Image from the movie “The Lair of Filth” – no pun intended...
  30. 30. inBloom, Inc. Chef & Docker • Docker is new and not ready for Production (yet) • Docker is for light Virtual Images • Chef for Virtual Machines • Chef is tried and true • Chef proven for provisioning VMs or changes to existing machines (small or complex) • Chef and Docker can be used together  Example: The Deis framework scales Chef nodes and Docker containers. But both are new.  Several other options including Tsuru (open source PaaS) • Docker useful to encapsulate applications or services APRIL 2014 29
  31. 31. inBloom, Inc. “The Docker Book” Not yet released, but available for pre-order http://www.dockerbook.com/ 1. Introduction to Docker 2. Installing Docker 3. Getting started with Docker 4. Working with Docker images and repositories 5. Testing with Docker 6. Building services with Docker 7. Using the Docker API 8. Extending Docker Also useful http://kencochrane.net/blog/2013/08/the-docker-guidebook/ APRIL 2014 30
  32. 32. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 31 Docker Deep Dive
  33. 33. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 32
  34. 34. inBloom, Inc. Create Local Environment APRIL 2014 33
  35. 35. inBloom, Inc. Install Prerequisites • Talk will focus on VM which fits more deployment scenarios • Install VirtualBox (4.3.x)  https://www.virtualbox.org/  Download and install into Host OS • Github repo for demo  https://github.com/inbloom/AJUG-2014-04-15-docker.git • Install Vagrant (1.5.x) – used for this talk  http://www.vagrantup.com/  Download and install into Host OS  Available Boxes: http://www.vagrantbox.es/ APRIL 2014 34
  36. 36. inBloom, Inc. Running Docker APRIL 2014 35 Common use case is to run within a VM  Optional if host OS is Linux (e.g. Ubuntu)  Benefit: A configured VM can be exported  OS X users can try boot2docker • “lighter” than VM, uses tiny core linux (24 Mb) • brew install boot2docker • https://github.com/boot2docker/boot2docker/ • Has limitations so not used in this talk (better for PoCs) • https://github.com/boot2docker/boot2docker/blob/master/ README.md
  37. 37. inBloom, Inc. Create an Account with the Docker Index https://index.docker.io/account/signup/ Sure looks like Maven Central. Versioned containers. From a host with Docker installed: $ docker login Username (): myusername Password: Email (): myusername@example.com Login Succeeded credentials are stored after login ~/.dockercfg /var/lib/docker/.dockercfg APRIL 2014 36
  38. 38. inBloom, Inc. Search the Index APRIL 2014 37 Search the Docker Index for images to reuse. (You may find places to contribute back images to the open source public repository.)
  39. 39. inBloom, Inc. Command Line Search APRIL 2014 38 Use search and be curious, for example, what has the founder of Docker pushed? You can download containers to reuse or examine contents for ideas.
  40. 40. inBloom, Inc. Pull an Image APRIL 2014 39 The index figures out the details. Can also push images, etc.
  41. 41. inBloom, Inc. Create a Private Repo https://github.com/dotcloud/docker-registry git clone https://github.com/dotcloud/docker-registry.git cd docker-registry cp config_sample.yml config.yml pip install -r requirements.txt gunicorn --access-logfile - --log-level debug --debug -b -w 1 wsgi:application APRIL 2014 40
  42. 42. inBloom, Inc. Configure Private Repo https://github.com/dotcloud/docker-registry/blob/master/README.md http://blog.docker.io/2013/07/how-to-use-your-own-registry/ cp config/config_sample.yml config/config.yml Example config: prod: loglevel: warn storage: s3 s3_access_key: _env:AWS_S3_ACCESS_KEY s3_secret_key: _env:AWS_S3_SECRET_KEY s3_bucket: _env:AWS_S3_BUCKET storage_path: /srv/docker smtp_host: localhost from_addr: docker@myself.com to_addr: my@myself.com APRIL 2014 41
  43. 43. inBloom, Inc. Pull from Public Push to Private Repo # First, make sure you have the "ubuntu" repository: docker pull ubuntu # Find the image id that corresponds to the ubuntu repository docker images | grep ubuntu | grep latest ubuntu latest 8dbd9e392a96 12 weeks ago 263 MB (virtual 263 MB) # Tag to create a repository with the full registry location. # The location becomes a permanent part of the repository name. docker tag 8dbd9e392a96 localhost.localdomain:5000/ubuntu # Finally, push the new repository to its home location. docker push localhost.localdomain:5000/ubuntu APRIL 2014 42
  44. 44. inBloom, Inc. Dockerfiles • Dockerfiles are used to build containers by scripting actions to make up each layer of an image • Not as powerful as traditional configuration management software • For example, in discrete steps you can instruct Docker to build an image by taking a default Ubuntu image, apt-get installing several dependencies, and then adding your application code. Each Dockerfile command creates a new image layer, and clever structuring of the commands will allow them to becached and re-used. APRIL 2014 43
  45. 45. inBloom, Inc. Anatomy of a Dockerfile (1/2) https://www.docker.io/learn/dockerfile/level1/ # Always comment your code FROM ubuntu MAINTAINER Uncle Sam, uncle.sam@irs.gov RUN echo "deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise main universe" > /etc/apt/sources.list RUN apt-get update RUN apt-get install -y memcached The first line in a Dockerfile is FROM, which defines the base image (e.g. obtained via a docker search). RUN instructions execute any command against the current image and commits. Commands can be layered to conform to version control paradigms. APRIL 2014 44
  46. 46. inBloom, Inc. Anatomy of a Dockerfile (2/2) https://www.docker.io/learn/dockerfile/level2/ The ENTRYPOINT instruction triggers a command when the container starts # Launch memcached when launching the container ENTRYPOINT ["memcached", "-u", "daemon"] May want ENTRYPOINT instructions to run as user other than root. ENTRYPOINT ["memcached"] USER daemon The EXPOSE instruction exposes a port outside the container EXPOSE 11211 APRIL 2014 45
  47. 47. inBloom, Inc. Building an Image from a Dockerfile If Dockerfile is in current directory docker build . From stdin docker build - < Dockerfile From github docker build github.com/creack/docker-firefox Then, do a “docker images” to view REPOSITORY TAG ID CREATED SIZE ubuntu 12.04 8dbd9e392a96 4 months ago 131.5 MB (virtual 131.5 MB) <none> <none> 1dcfa24c8ca6 About a minute ago 52.27 MB (virtual 183.8 MB) APRIL 2014 46
  48. 48. inBloom, Inc. Name the New Image The new image lacks a name, so give it one docker tag 1dcfa24c8ca6 memcached Using the –t with build removes the added step docker build -t memcached . APRIL 2014 47
  49. 49. inBloom, Inc. Create VM clone git repo for this talk (OS X example) $ cd ~/Projects $ git clone git://github.com/inbloom/AJUG-2014-04- 15-docker.git $ cd AJUG-2014-04-15-docker/01_create_env Create VM using provided Vagrantfile  Preconfigured to setup Docker  Vagrant’s Docker Provisioner is your friend • http://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/provisioning/docker.html  http://blog.phusion.nl/2013/11/08/docker-friendly-vagrant-boxes/ $ vagrant up $ vagrant ssh APRIL 2014 48
  50. 50. inBloom, Inc. Vagrantfile (1/2) # -*- mode: ruby -*- # vi: set ft=ruby : # Vagrantfile API/syntax version. Don't touch unless you know what you're doing! VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION = "2" Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config| config.vm.box = "phusion-open-ubuntu-12.04-amd64" config.vm.box_url = "https://oss- binaries.phusionpassenger.com/vagrant/boxes/ubuntu-12.04.3- amd64-vbox.box" config.vm.box_check_update = true config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |v| v.name = "docker1" v.memory = 8192 v.cpus = 4 end APRIL 2014 49
  51. 51. inBloom, Inc. Vagrantfile (2/2) if Dir.glob("#{File.dirname(__FILE__)}/.vagrant/machines/default/*/id").empty? # Install Docker pkg_cmd = "wget -q -O - https://get.docker.io/gpg | apt-key add -;" "echo deb http://get.docker.io/ubuntu docker main > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list;" "apt-get update -qq; apt-get install -q -y --force-yes lxc-docker; ” # Add vagrant user to the docker group pkg_cmd << "usermod -a -G docker vagrant; ” config.vm.provision :shell, :inline => pkg_cmd end end Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| for i in 8000..9000 config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: i, host: i end end APRIL 2014 50
  52. 52. inBloom, Inc. Using Vagrant APRIL 2014 51
  53. 53. inBloom, Inc. Vagrant CLI (1/4) A brief overview of Vagrant commands; not intended to replace other Production tools. Usage $ vagrant [options] <command> [<args>] -v, --version Print the version and exit. -h, --help Print this help. APRIL 2014 52
  54. 54. inBloom, Inc. Vagrant CLI (2/4) Common commands box manages boxes: installation, removal, etc. connect connect to a remotely shared Vagrant environment destroy stops and deletes all traces of the vagrant machine halt stops the vagrant machine help shows the help for a subcommand init initializes a new Vagrant environment by creating a Vagrantfile login log in to Vagrant Cloud package packages a running vagrant environment into a box plugin manages plugins: install, uninstall, update, etc. provision provisions the vagrant machine reload restarts vagrant machine, loads new Vagrantfile configuration resume resume a suspended vagrant machine share share your Vagrant environment with anyone in the world ssh connects to machine via SSH ssh-config outputs OpenSSH valid configuration to connect to the machine status outputs status of the vagrant machine suspend suspends the machine up starts and provisions the vagrant environment APRIL 2014 53
  55. 55. inBloom, Inc. Vagrant CLI (3/4) For help on any individual command vagrant <command> -h Or to see subcommand features vagrant box <subcommand> -h To see all subcommands vagrant list-commands APRIL 2014 54
  56. 56. inBloom, Inc. Vagrant CLI (4/4) $ vagrant package –h Usage: vagrant package [options] [name] Options: --base NAME Name of a VM in virtualbox to package as a base box --output NAME Name of the file to output --include FILE... Additional files to package with the box --vagrantfile FILE Vagrantfile to package with the box -h, --help Print this help APRIL 2014 55
  57. 57. inBloom, Inc. Vagrant Plugins vagrant plugin install --plugin-source https://rubygems.org --plugin- prerelease vagrant-vbguestvagrant vagrant plugin install vagrant-winnfsd APRIL 2014 56
  58. 58. inBloom, Inc. Export a Vagrant Box Once your VM is setup and configured, you can create an image from it $ vagrant package --base my_base_box To export a Vagrant box $ vagrant box add my_box package.box $ mkdir test_environment $ cd test_environment $ vagrant init my_box $ vagrant up $ vagrant ssh APRIL 2014 57
  59. 59. inBloom, Inc. Install Docker whale you be my container? APRIL 2014 58
  60. 60. inBloom, Inc. Installation It already is... (starting with a “bare” base box may required more effort to setup the OS, install components) APRIL 2014 59
  61. 61. inBloom, Inc. Verify the Installation vagrant@ubuntu-12:/vagrant$ docker info Containers: 0 Images: 0 Storage Driver: aufs Root Dir: /var/lib/docker/aufs Dirs: 0 Execution Driver: native-0.1 Kernel Version: 3.8.0-35-generic vagrant@ubuntu-12:/vagrant$ docker pull busybox vagrant@ubuntu-12:/vagrant$ docker info Containers: 0 Images: 4 APRIL 2014 60
  62. 62. inBloom, Inc. Testing Docker Hello World http://docs.docker.io/en/latest/examples/hello_world/ vagrant@ubuntu-12:/vagrant$ sudo docker pull busybox docker run busybox /bin/echo hello world C1=$(sudo docker run -d ubuntu /bin/sh -c "while true; do echo hello world; sleep 1; done”) docker ps list docker logs `C1` APRIL 2014 61
  63. 63. inBloom, Inc. Docker Container Lifecycle docker run creates a container. docker stop stops it. docker start will start it again. docker restart restarts a container. docker rm deletes a container. docker kill sends a SIGKILL to a container. Has issues. docker attach will connect to a running container. docker wait blocks until container stops. APRIL 2014 62
  64. 64. inBloom, Inc. Container Info Info docker ps shows running containers. docker inspect looks at all the info on a container (including IP address). docker logs gets logs from container. docker events gets events from container. docker port shows public facing port of container. docker top shows running processes in container. docker diff shows changed files in the container's FS. Import / Export No easy way to use Docker to import files into a container filesystem • Could use something like Cargo within a container to push in artifacts docker cp copies files or folders out of container filesystem docker export creates tarball from container filesystem APRIL 2014 63
  65. 65. inBloom, Inc. Docker Image Lifecycle docker images shows all images docker import creates an image from a tarball docker build creates image from Dockerfile docker commit creates image from a container docker rmi removes an image docker insert inserts a file from URL into image. (kind of odd, you'd think images would be immutable after create) docker load loads an image from a tar archive as STDIN, including images and tags (as of 0.7) docker save saves an image to a tar archive stream to STDOUT with all parent layers, tags & versions (as of 0.7) APRIL 2014 64
  66. 66. inBloom, Inc. 15 Docker Tips http://www.centurylinklabs.com/15-quick-docker-tips APRIL 2014 65
  67. 67. inBloom, Inc. Graphical Interfaces for Docker APRIL 2014 66
  68. 68. inBloom, Inc. Two main options for a graphical UI to manage Docker  Shipyard • https://github.com/shipyard/shipyard/wiki/QuickStart  DockerUI • https://github.com/crosbymichael/dockerui Shipyard allows containers to be managed, linked, and inspected via a UI APRIL 2014 67
  69. 69. inBloom, Inc. Shipyard APRIL 2014 68
  70. 70. inBloom, Inc. Shipyard features • Multiple host support • Create / Delete containers • View Images • Build Images (via uploaded Dockerfile or URL) • Import repositories • Private containers • Container metadata (description, etc.) • Applications: bind containers to applications that are setup with hipache • Attach container (terminal emulation in the browser) • Container recovery (mark container as "protected" and it will auto-restart upon fail/destroy/stop) • RESTful API APRIL 2014 69
  71. 71. inBloom, Inc. Shipyard (1/2) 1 line to install within a docker host: docker run -i -t -v /var/run/docker.sock:/docker.sock shipyard/deploy setup Shipyard Stack Deployed You should be able to login with http://<docker-host-ip>:8000 admin:shipyard APRIL 2014 70
  72. 72. inBloom, Inc. Shipyard (2/2) Within each container to shipyard manage you will also need to setup and register the Shipyard Agent. See http://github.com/shipyard/shipyard-agent for details. Download to the host: sudo curl https://github.com/shipyard/shipyard- agent/releases/download/v0.2.5/shipyard-agent -L -o /usr/local/bin/shipyard-agent sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/shipyard-agent Register the host: ./shipyard-agent -url http://myshipyardhost:shipyardport -register vagrant@ubuntu-12:/usr/local/bin$ ./shipyard-agent -url - register 2014/04/14 02:27:48 Using for the Docker Host IP for Shipyard 2014/04/14 02:27:48 If this is not correct or you want to use a different IP, please update the host in Shipyard 2014/04/14 02:27:48 Registering at 2014/04/14 02:27:48 Agent Key: 597d7d4db3d44daca47ff114e48144d2 Register a host with the shipyard deployment. shipyard-agent -url http://my-shipyard-host:port -key 597d7d4db3d44daca47ff114e48144d2 APRIL 2014 71
  73. 73. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 72 Containers
  74. 74. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 73 Container (Redis)
  75. 75. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 74 Container (Redis logs)
  76. 76. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 75 Images
  77. 77. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 76 Applications
  78. 78. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 77 Container Console
  79. 79. inBloom, Inc. Two Container Example APRIL 2014 78
  80. 80. inBloom, Inc. Linking Containers Links allow containers to communicate through TCP/IP ports. Suppose we start a container that exposes port 1337 docker run -name CONTAINER docker run -d -link CONTAINER:ALIAS -name LINKED user/wordpress Exposed ports and aliases of parent will show up in child container $ALIAS_PORT_1337_TCP_PORT $ALIAS_PORT_1337_TCP_ADDR More robust example (many more can be found via Googling) http://blogs.atlassian.com/2013/11/docker-all-the-things-at-atlassian-automation-and-wiring/ APRIL 2014 79
  81. 81. inBloom, Inc. About Ambassador Containers Encourage portability by avoiding hardcoding and linking via an ambassador. (consumer) -> (redis-ambassador) --network--> (redis-ambassador) -> (redis) • Avoids restarting a consumer to attach to a different service • Restart the client ambassador container that the consumer is connected to, to rewire a consumer to talk to a different service • This pattern allows a transparent transition to to a different docker host for a consumer http://docs.docker.io/en/latest/use/ambassador_pattern_linking/ APRIL 2014 80
  82. 82. inBloom, Inc. Ambassador Container Linking - Host A: Startup Redis big-server $ docker run -d --name redis crosbymichael/redis - Host A: Add ambassador linked to Redis big-server $ docker run -d --link redis:redis --name redis_ambassador -p 6379:6379 svendowideit/ambassador - Host B: Add ambassador that sets env client-server $ docker run -d --name redis_ambassador -- expose 6379 -e REDIS_PORT_6379_TCP=tcp:// svendowideit/ambassador - Host B: Use Redis client container to talk to remote server client-server $ docker run -i -t --rm --link redis_ambassador:redis relateiq/redis-cli redis> ping PONG APRIL 2014 81
  83. 83. inBloom, Inc. Advanced Docker APRIL 2014 82
  84. 84. inBloom, Inc. Load Balanced APRIL 2014 83 http://mdavey.wordpress.com/2014/01/07/devops-docker/
  85. 85. inBloom, Inc. Distributed Producer-Consumer APRIL 2014 84 http://www.appneta.com/blog/automated-testing-with-docker/
  86. 86. inBloom, Inc. Docker and Open vSwitch (1/2) • Docker and Open vSwitch for container isolation with VLANs between 2 hosts running Open vSwitch • Containers 1 & 3 are on VLAN 10 whereas containers 2 & 4 are on VLAN 20  1 & 3 can ping each other but cannot ping 2 or 4 • 4 bridges, 10 interfaces, 2 VLANs, 1 GRE tunnel and 4 containers. • Starts in 1 second... • Source (with code and cook book): http://fbevmware.blogspot.com/2013/12/coupling-docker-and-open-vswitch.html APRIL 2014 85
  87. 87. inBloom, Inc. Docker and Open vSwitch (1/2) APRIL 2014 86
  88. 88. inBloom, Inc. PaaS Frameworks • Deus • CoreOS • Flynn APRIL 2014 87
  89. 89. inBloom, Inc. Flynn uses etcd A highly-available key value store for shared configuration and service discovery. etcd is an open-source distributed key value store that provides the backbone of CoreOS clusters and the etcd client runs on each machine in a cluster. etcd gracefully handles master election during network partitions and the loss of the current master. Your applications can read and write data into etcd. Common examples are storing database connection details, cache settings, feature flags, and more. Features • Simple, curl-able API (HTTP + JSON) • Optional SSL client cert authentication • Benchmarked 1000s of writes/s per instance • Properly distributed using Raft protocol • Keys support TTL • Atomic test and set • Easily listen for changes to a prefix via HTTP long-polling https://coreos.com/using-coreos/etcd/ APRIL 2014 88
  90. 90. inBloom, Inc.APRIL 2014 89
  91. 91. inBloom, Inc. Flynn uses Systemd CoreOS uses systemd as the core of its distributed init system, fleet. Systemd is well supported in many Linux distros, making it familiar to most engineers. Every aspect of CoreOS is deeply integrated with systemd. • Performance
Systemd boots extremely fast, with our goal to keep it under 1s. • Journal
Systemd's logging journal has modern features such as JSON export, forward sealing, and indexing for fast querying. • Socket Activation
While this might be a bit of a throw back to the inetd days, we think socket activation is particularly useful for inter-service dependency management. Systemd has an extremely rich syntax that can describe the attributes of a particular service. Your services can express hard or soft dependencies, the order of launch relative to those dependencies, and identify conflicting services. Docker containers are much easier to manage when you can specify whether they automatically restart per container and customize the timing for restarting. APRIL 2014 90
  92. 92. inBloom, Inc. Flynn uses Discoverd A simple but powerful service discovery system written in Go. Backed by etcd, but can be extended to use ZooKeeper or other distributed consistent stores. Discoverd lets your services find each other in a constantly changing environment. With discoverd and a client you can: • Register a service as online • Locate online instances of a service • Get notified when instances of a service change • Determine a "leader" for any set of services There are three pieces to the discoverd system: • discoverd itself • Client library and API • Backend store (etcd, Zookeeper, etc) APRIL 2014 91
  93. 93. inBloom, Inc. questions APRIL 2014 92
  94. 94. inBloom, Inc. references APRIL 2014 93
  95. 95. inBloom, Inc. reference material https://www.docker.io/ http://deis.io/overview/ http://cjlarose.com/2014/03/08/run-docker-with-vagrant.html http://www.vagrantup.com/ http://blog.docker.io/2014/04/docker-0-10-quality-and-ops-tooling/ http://docs.docker.io/en/latest/examples/hello_world/#running-examples http://mesosphere.io/2013/09/26/docker-on-mesos/ https://medium.com/devops-programming/7f5fd023158f http://docs-v1.vagrantup.com/v1/docs/base_boxes.html http://docs.docker.io/en/latest/installation/ubuntulinux/ https://phunehehe.net/docker-vs-chef-vagrant/ http://www.centurylinklabs.com/top-10-startups-built-on-docker/ http://www.slideshare.net/julienbarbier42/building-a-saas-using-docker http://coreos.com/blog/docker-dynamic-ambassador-powered-by-etcd/ https://github.com/shipyard/shipyard-agent http://blog.docker.io/ http://blog.relateiq.com/why-docker-why-not-chef/ http://www.dockerbook.com/ http://www.centurylinklabs.com/building-complex-apps-for-docker-on-coreos-and-fig/ http://txt.fliglio.com/2013/12/service-discovery-with-docker-docker-links-and-beyond/ http://www.centurylinklabs.com/auto-loadbalancing-with-fig-haproxy-and-serf/ http://www.centurylinklabs.com/build-a-2-container-app-with-docker/ http://sysadvent.blogspot.com/2013/12/day-13-controlling-cluster-of-servers.html http://txt.fliglio.com/2013/12/service-discovery-with-docker-docker-links-and-beyond/ APRIL 2014 94