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Permeable
Paving
by
Tom Barrett
Green Water Infrastructure, Inc.


www.ThinkGWI.com
Follow on Twitter @TomBarrett_GWI
(317...
TheGREEN
Economy
LOW IMPACT SITE DEVELOPMENT
How Much Rain Falls in Chicago?

January 
     - 
 1.86"   Image of Rain Falling
February 
    - 
 1.58"
March
        - 
...
Thirty Year Average Monthly Rain Fall Chicago (1971 - 2000)
         5.00




         3.75
Inches




         2.50




 ...
How Much Water Falls in Chicago?
                     2,500 sq. ft. Roof

January 
 - 
 ,727 gallons
               2     ...
How Much Water Falls in Chicago?
                   ¼ Acre Residential Property

January 
     - 
1,880 gallons
          ...
How Much Water Falls in Chicago?
                 3 Acre Commercial Property

January 
 - 
 42,560 gallons
               ...
How Much Water Falls in Chicago?
                           City Block
                    (660’ x 660’ – 10 acres)
Januar...
How Much Water is in Rain Event?
                 ¼” Rain       ½” Rain        1” Rain

2,500 ft. sq.   390 gallons   779 ...
Landscape Ecology

Size the landscape to the
80% of the average rain
water production.
– Roof Runoff

– Hardscape Runoff

...
Stormwater Mitigation
Stormwater Mitigation

Stormwater Mitigation

Stormwater Mitigation

Stormwater Mitigation
Stormwater Mitigation

– Collection runoff near the
  source

– Slow it down

– Soak it in

– Filter it

– Apply it to the...
Peak Flow
                   (1 Acre Site)
                           Grass Field          Roof

1 Year Storm             ...
Peak Flow
                  (1 Acre Site)
                         Grass Field         Roof

1 Year Storm               10...
Peak Flow
                   (1 Acre Site)
                         Grass Field          Roof

1 Year Storm               ...
Peak Flow
                 (2,500 sq. ft. Roof)
                            Grass Field          Roof

1 Year Storm       ...
Peak Flow
                 (2,500 sq. ft. Roof)
                           Grass Field         Roof

1 Year Storm         ...
Peak Flow
                 (2,500 ft. sq. Roof)
                           Grass Field         Roof

1 Year Storm         ...
Change in Peak Runoff Flow Before and after Development
   300%


   225%


   150%


    75%


     0%
    1 Year Storm Y...
Detention and Volume Control


  Stormwater Mitigation


  Detention Underneath


  Elimination of Detention
  Ponds
How Much Water ?

  Rainfall   Surface Area   Water Volume


   1/4”       43,560 ft2    6,800 gallons


   1/2”       43,...
Base Storage Capacity
                                        Storage
Base Depth Surface Area Void Space
                 ...
Infiltration

 Replenishes the
 Groundwater Supply
 Currently 50% of our
 Drinking Water
 In the Future 80% of
 our Drinki...
Soil Infiltration Rates
     Soil Texture   Infiltration (in/hour)
 Sand                        8.30”
 Loamy Sand         ...
Improved Water Quality

Removes Suspended
Solids
Removes Phosphorus,
Nitrogen, and Metals
Removes Harmful
Pollutants - Oil...
Pollutant Removal
             Pollutant                      Median Pollutant Removal*
 Suspended Solids
                ...
Roadside Traction



Less Water
Roadside Traction



Less Ice
Design Considerations
Rainfall Intensity
Rainfall Duration
Runoff Coefficient is
Zero
Underdrain for Soil
Infiltration Rat...
strength, no-
units instead
ver options,
he Americans
ents, and allows
ration.
                      2
                   ...
UNILOCK PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING
                                                                                         Ni...
Pavement

• Pavers
• Concrete
• Asphalt
• Single-sized
 Aggregate
• Resin Bound
Joint Aggregate

• Pavers only
• Initial Filter
• 1/4” crushed,
  angular, chip stone
• ASTM No. 8
Setting Bed Aggregate

• Used in all systems
• Smooth Leveling
 Course
• No Sand
• ASTM No. 8
Base Aggregate

• Used when subsoil
 conditions allow
• Minimum thickness
 4”
• ASTM No. 57
Subbase Aggregate

• Not always
 necessary
• Dictated by Subsoil
 Conditions
• Used for additional
 structural stability
•...
Subgrade

• Existing Soil
• Percolation
• California Bearing
 Ratio
• Penetrometer
Edge Restraint

• Vitally Important
• Concrete Curb for
 Vehicular Traffic
• Plastic may be
 Sufficient for Non-
 vehicula...
Underdrain Pipe

• Subsoil Permeablity
• Detention
 Requirements
• Release Rates
• Not Always
 Necessary
Geotextile Fabric

• Based Upon Existing
 Soil Characteristics


• Between Subsoil and
 Base Aggregate
UNILOCK PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING
                                                                                         Ni...
strength, no-
units instead
ver options,
he Americans
ents, and allows
ration.
                      2
                   ...
Police Station
Aurora, Illinois
Buckingham Fountain
Chicago, Illinois
POROUS PAVING • GREEN ROOFS • RAIN GARDENS • RAINWATER HARVESTING
NEW TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE SITE DEVELOPMENT
Green • Water • Infrastructure

Green • Water • Infrastructure

Green • Water • Infrastructure

Green • Water • Infrastruc...
Special Thanks
Thank You




P.O. BOX 124 WESTFIELD, INDIANA 46074
           317-674-34949
Permeable Paving: A New Tool for Sustainable Site Development
Permeable Paving: A New Tool for Sustainable Site Development
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Permeable Paving: A New Tool for Sustainable Site Development

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Permeable paving is a transformative approach to sustainable site development.

Permeable hard surface construction is part of a continuing series of engineering solutions to water management that protects, restores, and mimics the natural water cycle.

Permeable paving is an efficient solution for stormwater runoff. It will reduce flooding, increase water infiltration, recharge groundwater and improve water quality.

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Permeable Paving: A New Tool for Sustainable Site Development

  1. 1. Permeable Paving by Tom Barrett Green Water Infrastructure, Inc. www.ThinkGWI.com Follow on Twitter @TomBarrett_GWI (317) 674-3494 Copyright © Tom Barrett, 2011 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. TheGREEN Economy
  3. 3. LOW IMPACT SITE DEVELOPMENT
  4. 4. How Much Rain Falls in Chicago? January - 1.86" Image of Rain Falling February - 1.58" March - 2.59" April - 3.28" May - 3.75" June - 4.08" July - 3.39" August - 3.38" September - 2.91" October - 2.65" November - 2.09" December - 1.88" Total 33.44"
  5. 5. Thirty Year Average Monthly Rain Fall Chicago (1971 - 2000) 5.00 3.75 Inches 2.50 1.25 0 January February March April May June July August September October November December Month Graph of Chicago Rain Fall
  6. 6. How Much Water Falls in Chicago? 2,500 sq. ft. Roof January - ,727 gallons 2 Image of Rain Falling February - ,540 2 March - ,130 4 April - 5,735 May - ,268 5 June - 5,657 July - ,470 5 August - ,200 7 September - ,096 5 October - ,223 4 November - 4,691 December - 3,787 Total 6,525 5
  7. 7. How Much Water Falls in Chicago? ¼ Acre Residential Property January - 1,880 gallons 1 Image of Rain Falling February - 1,065 1 March - 7,990 1 April - 24,982 May - 2,945 2 June - 24,642 July - 3,828 2 August - 1,363 3 September - 2,199 2 October - 8,397 1 November - 20,434 December - 16,496 Total 46,221 2
  8. 8. How Much Water Falls in Chicago? 3 Acre Commercial Property January - 42,560 gallons 1 Image of Rain Falling February - 32,784 1 March - 15,876 2 April - 299,783 May - 75,344 2 June - 295,710 July - 85,934 2 August - 76,358 3 September - 66,383 2 October - 20,764 2 November - 245,203 December - 197,954 Total 2,954,654
  9. 9. How Much Water Falls in Chicago? City Block (660’ x 660’ – 10 acres) January - 75,195 gallons 4 February - 42,610 4 March - 19,581 7 April - 999,267 May - 17,805 9 June - 985,690 July - 53,105 9 August - ,254,515 1 September - 87,936 8 October - 35,873 7 November - 817,335 December - 659,842 Total 9,848,756
  10. 10. How Much Water is in Rain Event? ¼” Rain ½” Rain 1” Rain 2,500 ft. sq. 390 gallons 779 gallons 1,558 gallons Roof ¼ Acre 1,697 3,994 67,789 Residential Property 3 Acre 20,366 40,731 135,770 Commercial Property Chicago City 67,885 135,770 271,540 Block
  11. 11. Landscape Ecology Size the landscape to the 80% of the average rain water production. – Roof Runoff – Hardscape Runoff Balancing rain water to landscape creates a functional landscape that utilizes the site’s water production.
  12. 12. Stormwater Mitigation Stormwater Mitigation Stormwater Mitigation Stormwater Mitigation Stormwater Mitigation
  13. 13. Stormwater Mitigation – Collection runoff near the source – Slow it down – Soak it in – Filter it – Apply it to the landscape – Create habitats
  14. 14. Peak Flow (1 Acre Site) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 1.4 cfs 4.3 cfs 2 Year Storm 2.1 cfs 5.4 cfs 10 Year Storm 4.3 cfs 8.0 cfs 25 Year Storm 5.7 cfs 9.5 cfs 100 Year Storm 8.0 cfs 12.0 cfs cfs – cubic feet per second
  15. 15. Peak Flow (1 Acre Site) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 10.5 gps 32.2 gps 2 Year Storm 15.7 gps 40.4 gps 10 Year Storm 32.2 gps 59.8 gps 25 Year Storm 42.6 gps 71.1 gps 100 Year Storm 59.8 gps 89.8 gps gps – gallons per second
  16. 16. Peak Flow (1 Acre Site) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 630 gpm 1,932 gpm 2 Year Storm 942 gpm 2,424 gpm 10 Year Storm 1,932 gpm 3,588 gpm 25 Year Storm 2,556 gpm 4,266 gpm 100 Year Storm 3,588 gpm 5,388 gpm gpm – gallons per minute
  17. 17. Peak Flow (2,500 sq. ft. Roof) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 0.08 cfs 0.25 cfs 2 Year Storm 0.12 cfs 0.31 cfs 10 Year Storm 0.25 cfs 0.46 cfs 25 Year Storm 0.33 cfs 0.55 cfs 100 Year Storm 0.46 cfs 0.69 cfs cfs – cubic feet per second
  18. 18. Peak Flow (2,500 sq. ft. Roof) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 0.60 gps 1.85 gps 2 Year Storm 0.90 gps 2.32 gps 10 Year Storm 1.85 gps 3.43 gps 25 Year Storm 2.44 gps 4.08 gps 100 Year Storm 3.43 gps 5.15 gps gps – gallons per second
  19. 19. Peak Flow (2,500 ft. sq. Roof) Grass Field Roof 1 Year Storm 36 gpm 111 gpm 2 Year Storm 54 gpm 139 gpm 10 Year Storm 111 gpm 206 gpm 25 Year Storm 147 gpm 245 gpm 100 Year Storm 206 gpm 309 gpm gpm – gallons per minute
  20. 20. Change in Peak Runoff Flow Before and after Development 300% 225% 150% 75% 0% 1 Year Storm Year Storm Year Storm Year Storm Year Storm 2 10 25 100 Stormwater Effects of Urbanization
  21. 21. Detention and Volume Control Stormwater Mitigation Detention Underneath Elimination of Detention Ponds
  22. 22. How Much Water ? Rainfall Surface Area Water Volume 1/4” 43,560 ft2 6,800 gallons 1/2” 43,560 ft2 13,600 gallons 1” 43,560 ft2 27,200 gallons
  23. 23. Base Storage Capacity Storage Base Depth Surface Area Void Space Capacity 12” 43,560 ft2 40% 130,300 gallons 18” 43,560 ft2 40% 195,500 gallons 24” 43,560 ft2 40% 260,700 gallons
  24. 24. Infiltration Replenishes the Groundwater Supply Currently 50% of our Drinking Water In the Future 80% of our Drinking Water
  25. 25. Soil Infiltration Rates Soil Texture Infiltration (in/hour) Sand 8.30” Loamy Sand 2.41” Sandy Loam 1.02” Loam 0.52” Silt Loam 0.27” Sandy Clay Loam 0.17” Clay Loam 0.09” Silty Clay Loam 0.09” Clay 0.06”
  26. 26. Improved Water Quality Removes Suspended Solids Removes Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Metals Removes Harmful Pollutants - Oil Water Polishing - the final step in cleaning
  27. 27. Pollutant Removal Pollutant Median Pollutant Removal* Suspended Solids 95% Phosphorus 70% Nitrogen 51% Metals 99% *Infiltration Trenches & Porous Pavement
  28. 28. Roadside Traction Less Water
  29. 29. Roadside Traction Less Ice
  30. 30. Design Considerations Rainfall Intensity Rainfall Duration Runoff Coefficient is Zero Underdrain for Soil Infiltration Rates of less than 1/2” per Hour Release Rate
  31. 31. strength, no- units instead ver options, he Americans ents, and allows ration. 2 4 .8 ead of sand, 1 d additional ting bed 0” (12,700 mm ) 3 7 t be avoided as 4 9 5 6 8 r ASTM No. 2, 6 ness. Installation y on sites with m ) is required for ust be designed ature, the ASTM r runoff in the also has an
  32. 32. UNILOCK PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING Nine Components of a Highly Successful Components of Permeable 1 CONCRETE PAVER With various aesthetically pleasing colors and textures, creative choices are not compromised by function. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) are the most durable of any porous pavement Permeable Pavement Pavement material. Unilock’s minimum 8,500 psi (57 MPa), high-strength, no- slump concrete allows water to infiltrate between paver units instead of through the material. The joint sizes vary between paver options, ranging from 0.25” (6 mm ) to 0.5” (13 mm ), which meet the Americans with Disabilities Act specifications for permeable pavements, and allows a minimum of 100” (2,540 mm ) per hour of surface infiltration. 2 1) Pavement 3 SETTING BED AGGREGATE – ASTM NO. 8 2) Joint Aggregate Using the 0.25” (6 mm ) crushed, angular, chip stone, instead of sand, provides a smooth leveling course for placing pavers and additional 1 structural interlocking of the PICPs. Unlike sand, the setting bed aggregate allows for rapid water infiltration with over 500” (12,700 mm ) 3 7 3) Setting Bed per hour through the 40 percent void-space. Sand must be avoided as a setting bed in a PICP application. 4 Aggregate 5 9 4) SUBBASE AGGREGATE – ASTM NO. 2 5 Base Aggregate Subsoil conditions will dictate the necessity of this larger ASTM No. 2, 8 6 crushed, angular, open-graded subbase aggregate thickness. Installation of such material will provide increased structural stability on sites with 5) Subbase poor soil conditions. A minimum thickness of 8” (203 mm ) is required for effective performance. Subbase aggregate thickness must be designed to sufficiently support anticipated loads. As an added feature, the ASTM Aggregate No. 2 subbase aggregate temporarily detains stormwater runoff in the 40 percent void-space of the material. The ASTM No. 2 also has an infiltration rate of over 500” (12,700 mm ) per hour. 7 EDGE RESTRAINT 8 UNDERDRAIN 9 GEOTEXTILE FABRIC
  33. 33. Pavement • Pavers • Concrete • Asphalt • Single-sized Aggregate • Resin Bound
  34. 34. Joint Aggregate • Pavers only • Initial Filter • 1/4” crushed, angular, chip stone • ASTM No. 8
  35. 35. Setting Bed Aggregate • Used in all systems • Smooth Leveling Course • No Sand • ASTM No. 8
  36. 36. Base Aggregate • Used when subsoil conditions allow • Minimum thickness 4” • ASTM No. 57
  37. 37. Subbase Aggregate • Not always necessary • Dictated by Subsoil Conditions • Used for additional structural stability • ASTM No. 2
  38. 38. Subgrade • Existing Soil • Percolation • California Bearing Ratio • Penetrometer
  39. 39. Edge Restraint • Vitally Important • Concrete Curb for Vehicular Traffic • Plastic may be Sufficient for Non- vehicular areas.
  40. 40. Underdrain Pipe • Subsoil Permeablity • Detention Requirements • Release Rates • Not Always Necessary
  41. 41. Geotextile Fabric • Based Upon Existing Soil Characteristics • Between Subsoil and Base Aggregate
  42. 42. UNILOCK PERMEABLE INTERLOCKING Nine Components of a Highly Successful Components of Permeable 1 CONCRETE PAVER With various aesthetically pleasing colors and textures, creative choices are not compromised by function. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) are the most durable of any porous pavement Permeable Pavement Pavement material. Unilock’s minimum 8,500 psi (57 MPa), high-strength, no- slump concrete allows water to infiltrate between paver units instead of through the material. The joint sizes vary between paver options, ranging from 0.25” (6 mm ) to 0.5” (13 mm ), which meet the Americans with Disabilities Act specifications for permeable pavements, and allows a minimum of 100” (2,540 mm ) per hour of surface infiltration. 2 1) Pavement 3 SETTING BED AGGREGATE – ASTM NO. 8 2) Joint Aggregate Using the 0.25” (6 mm ) crushed, angular, chip stone, instead of sand, provides a smooth leveling course for placing pavers and additional 1 structural interlocking of the PICPs. Unlike sand, the setting bed aggregate allows for rapid water infiltration with over 500” (12,700 mm ) 3 7 3) Setting Bed per hour through the 40 percent void-space. Sand must be avoided as a setting bed in a PICP application. 4 Aggregate 5 9 4) SUBBASE AGGREGATE – ASTM NO. 2 5 Base Aggregate Subsoil conditions will dictate the necessity of this larger ASTM No. 2, 8 6 crushed, angular, open-graded subbase aggregate thickness. Installation of such material will provide increased structural stability on sites with 5) Subbase poor soil conditions. A minimum thickness of 8” (203 mm ) is required for effective performance. Subbase aggregate thickness must be designed to sufficiently support anticipated loads. As an added feature, the ASTM Aggregate No. 2 subbase aggregate temporarily detains stormwater runoff in the 40 percent void-space of the material. The ASTM No. 2 also has an infiltration rate of over 500” (12,700 mm ) per hour. 7 EDGE RESTRAINT 8 UNDERDRAIN 9 GEOTEXTILE FABRIC
  43. 43. strength, no- units instead ver options, he Americans ents, and allows ration. 2 4 .8 ead of sand, 1 d additional ting bed 0” (12,700 mm ) 3 7 t be avoided as 4 9 5 6 8 r ASTM No. 2, 6 ness. Installation y on sites with m ) is required for ust be designed ature, the ASTM r runoff in the also has an
  44. 44. Police Station Aurora, Illinois
  45. 45. Buckingham Fountain Chicago, Illinois
  46. 46. POROUS PAVING • GREEN ROOFS • RAIN GARDENS • RAINWATER HARVESTING NEW TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE SITE DEVELOPMENT
  47. 47. Green • Water • Infrastructure Green • Water • Infrastructure Green • Water • Infrastructure Green • Water • Infrastructure Green • Water • Infrastructure
  48. 48. Special Thanks
  49. 49. Thank You P.O. BOX 124 WESTFIELD, INDIANA 46074 317-674-34949
  • BrijeshSavani4

    Jan. 29, 2021
  • MdAsad50

    Oct. 16, 2019
  • MarkMichael5

    Sep. 12, 2016

Permeable paving is a transformative approach to sustainable site development. Permeable hard surface construction is part of a continuing series of engineering solutions to water management that protects, restores, and mimics the natural water cycle. Permeable paving is an efficient solution for stormwater runoff. It will reduce flooding, increase water infiltration, recharge groundwater and improve water quality.

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