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Unit 10 - Communication


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Unit 10 - Communication

  1. 1. STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP FOR INNOVATING THE TRAINING OF TRAINERS OF THE EUROPEAN AGRI-FOOD COOPERATIVES ToTCOOP+i PROJECT Competence Unit 10 / Training Unit 10 : Communication including Public Relations and use of Social Media
  2. 2. Index - Activity 1: Deep Listening - Activity 2: Explaining your conversational intent and inviting consent - Activity 3: Expressing yourself more clearly and completely - Activity 4: Translating your criticisms and complaints into requests for action - Activity 5: Asking questions more “open-endedly” and creatively - Activity 6: Thanking expressing more gratitude, appreciation, encouragement, delight - Activity 7: Adopting the “living-as-continuous-learning” approach - Activity 8: Non-verbal communications and interpretation of our and other’s body language - Activity 9: Composition and writing - Activity 10: Discovering Social Media - Activity 11: Discovering Social Media PR and Marketing
  3. 3. Here are seven challenges: 1. Start by listening more carefully and more responsively 2. Explaining your conversational intent and inviting consent 3. Expressing yourself more clearly and completely 4. Translating criticisms and complaints into requests 5. Asking questions more ”open-endedly” and more creatively 6. Thanking… Explore and express more appreciation, gratitude, challenge,encouragement and delight 7. Adopting the continuous learning perspective Challenge One Challenge Two Challenge Three Challenge Five Challenge Six Challenge Seven
  4. 4. Activity 1 - Deep listening RECEIVING SKILLS Listening is composed of six distinct components Hearing: The physiological process of receiving sound and/or other stimul. Attending: The conscious and unconscious process of focusing attention on external stimul. Interpreting: The process of decoding the symbols or behavior attended to. Evaluating: The process of deciding the value of the information to the receiver. Remembering: The process of placing the appropriate information into short-term or long-term storage. Responding: The process of giving feedback to the source and/or other receivers.
  5. 5. Deep listening - FACTS ABOUT LISTENING • Listening is our primary communication activity. • Our listening habits are not the result of training but rater the result of the lack of it. • Most individuals are inefficient listeners • Inefficient and ineffective listening is extraordinarily costly • Good listening can be taught
  6. 6. Deep listening - STYLES OF RECEIVING • There are a number of styles of receiving information. The appropriate style is dependent upon the relative importance of content compared to the relationship and the involvement of the individual receiving the information. Listening: Learned first, Used most (45%), Taught least. Speaking: Learned second, Used next most (30%), Taught next least. Reading: Learned third, Used next least (16%), Taught next most Writing: Learned fourth, Used Least (9%), Taught most.
  7. 7. Deep listening - RELATIONAL RECEIVING SKILLS Non-Listening: A style that is appropriate when the receiver has no need for the content and has minimal relationship with he sender. Pseudo listening: A way of "faking it" where the receiver feels obligated to listen even though they are preoccupied unable or unwilling to at that particular time. Defensive Listening: A style of listening used in situations where the receiver feels that he might be taken advantage of if he does not protect himself by listening for information directly relevant to him. Appreciative Listening: A style that is appropriate in a recreational setting where the listener is participating as a way of passing time or being entertained. Listening with Empathy: A style that teaches an individual to enter fully into the world of the other and truly comprehend their thoughts and feelings. Naively listening to customers: A style that helps build an ongoing relationship by helping the receiver understand the needs of the sender. Therapeutic Cathartic Listening: A listening style used by psychological counselors to help people who are having problems dealing with life situations. Therapeutic Diagnostic Listening: A listening style that is used to assess the needs of the sender.
  8. 8. Deep listening – TEN KEYS 1. Find areas of interest. The Poor Listener: Tunes out dry topics. The Good Listener: Seizes opportunities: "What's in it for me?" 2. Judge content, not delivery. The Poor Listener: Tunes out if delivery is poor. The Good Listener: Judges content, skips over delivery errors. 3. Hold your fire. The Poor Listener: Tends to enter into argument. The Good Listener: Doesn't judge until comprehension is complete. 4. Listen for ideas. The Poor Listener: Listens for facts. The Good Listener: Listens for central theme. 5. Be a flexible note taker. The Poor Listener: Is busy with form, misses content. The Good Listener: Adjusts to topic and organizational pattern.
  9. 9. Deep listening – TEN KEYS 6. Work at listening. The Poor Listener: Shows no energy output, fakes attention The Good Listener: Works hard; exhibits alertness. 7. Resist distractions. The Poor Listener: Is distracted easily. The Good Listener: Fights or avoids distractions; tolerates bad habits in others; knows how to concentrate. 8. Exercise your mind. The Poor Listener: Resists difficult material; seeks light, recreational material. The Good Listener: Uses heavier material as exercise for the mind. 9. Keep your mind open. The Poor Listener: Reacts to emotional words. The Good Listener: Interprets emotional words; does not get hung up on them. 10.Thought is faster than speech; use it. The Poor Listener: Tends to daydream with slow speakers. The Good Listener: Challenges, anticipates, mentally summarizes, weights the evidence, listens between the lines to tone and voice.
  10. 10. Deep listening - CONTENT RECEIVING SKILLS Insensitive Listening or Offensive listening: A style where the listeners main intent is to select information that can later he used against the speaker. Insulated Listening: A style where the listener avoids responsibility by failing to acknowledge that they have heard the information presented by the speaker. Selective Listening: A style where the listener only responds to the parts of the message that directly interests him. Bottom Line Listening: A style of listening where the receiver is only concerned about the facts. "Just the facts man." Court Reporter Syndrome: A style of taking in a speakers message and recording it verbatim. Informational Listening: A style that is used when the listener is seeking out specific information. Evaluative Listening: A style used to listen to information upon which a decision has to be made. Critical Incidence Listening: A style used when the consequence of not listening may have dramatic effects. Intimate Listening: The style that is appropriate when the speaker is communicating significant relational information being completely and wholly honest.
  11. 11. Activity 2 - Explaining your conversational intent and inviting consent
  12. 12. Many good communicators do this explaining intent/inviting consent without giving it any thought. They start important conversations by saying things such as: “Hi, Steve. I need to ask for your help on my project. Got a minute to talk about it?” “Uh…Maria, do you have a minute? Right now I’d like to talk to you about… Is that OK?” “Well, sit down for a minute and let me tell you what happened…” “Hello there, Mr. Sanchez. Say, uh…I’m not completely comfortable about this job. Can we talk about it for a few minutes?” “Hi, Jerry, this is Mike. How ya doin’? I want to talk to you about Fred. He’s in jail again. Is this a good time to talk?” When we offer such combined explanations-of-intent and invitations-to-consent we can help our conversations along in four important ways:  First, we give our listeners a chance to consent to or decline the offer of a specific conversation. A person who has agreed to participate will participate more fully.  Second, we help our listeners to understand the “big picture,” the overall goal of the conversation-to-come. (Many scholars in linguistics and communication studies now agree that understanding a person’s overall conversational intention is crucial for understanding that person’s message in words and gestures.
  13. 13.  Third, we allow our listeners to get ready for what is coming, especially if the topic is emotionally charged. (If we surprise people by launching into emotional conversations, they may respond by avoiding further conversations with us or by being permanently on guard.)  And fourth, we help our listeners understand the role that we want them to play in the conversation: fellow problem solver, employee receiving instructions, giver of emotional support, and so on. These are very different roles to play. Our conversations will go better if we ask people to play only one conversational role at a time.  Getting explicit. Often people conduct this “negotiation about conversation” through body language and tone of voice during the first few seconds of interaction. But since we often have to talk with people whose body language and tone of voice patterns may be quite different from ours, we may need to be more explicit and direct in the way we ask people to have conversations with us. The more important the conversation is to you, the more important it is to have your partner’s consent and conscious participation. On the other hand, just saying, “Hi!”, or talking about the weather does not require this kind of preparation, because very little is being required of the other person, and people can easily indicate with their tone of voice whether or not they are interested in chatting.
  14. 14. To be invited into a conversation is an act of respect. A consciously consenting participant is much more likely to pay attention and cooperate than someone who feels pushed into an undefined conversation by the force of another person’s talking. It’s not universal, but to assume without asking that a person is available to talk may be interpreted by many people as lack of respect. When we begin a conversation by respecting the wishes of the other person, we start to generate some of the goodwill (trust that their wishes will be considered) needed for creative problem solving. I believe that the empathy we get will be more genuine and the agreements we reach will be more reliable if we give people a choice about talking with us. Say, “no.” Decline or re-negotiate a conversational invitation from someone When in doubt, gently prompt a person to clarify what kind of conversation she or he is trying to have with you Avoid conversations that are negative, self-defeating or self-destructive
  15. 15. Finding your voice in different situations. In the exercises at the end of this activity you will find a list of the most common conversational intentions. You can use the Exploratory List of Conversational Intentions to expand the range of the conversations you feel comfortable starting. The exercise pages provide a place for you to make notes as you work with a practice partner and explore how it feels to start each of the conversations on the list. Although few conversations are exactly alike, for the sake of exploration we can group most English conversations into approximately forty overlapping types of intention. I classify about thirty of these intents as fulfilling and about twelve as unfulfilling. The goal here is not to develop rigid logical categories, but instead to suggest many of the “flavors” of conversational intention that can be distinguished in everyday talking and listening (including exits and “time-outs”). The goal of presenting the list of fulfilling intentions is to help you feel empowered to start a wide range of new and more satisfying conversations. As you explore these lists feel free to add your own entries.
  16. 16. Intentions worth avoiding. In order to be realistic about how people actually behave, I have included a second list, at the end of this activity, that contains what I call conversational intentions that create problems. Here I have included motives such as to coerce, to deceive, to punish, to demean, “stone-wall,” etc. In our time, TV, movies, popular music and books continually bombard us with ready-made examples of extraordinary sarcasm, cruelty, and violence. So in the process of developing a positive personal style of interaction, we may have to struggle against what is almost a cultural brainwashing in favor of violence and against cooperation, respect and kindness. There are many moral arguments about these matters and I leave it to you to decide the issues of morality. I would, however, like to point out three of the most serious pragmatic liabilities of these coercive conversational intentions.
  17. 17. It will come back to you. The first is that whatever we do to others, we teach others to do back to us, both in conversation and in life in general. This was brought home to me quite chillingly over a period of years as I observed a stressed-out, single-mother friend of mine use sarcasm as a way of trying to discipline her bright ten-year-old son. Quickly the ten-year-old became a teenager who would speak to his mother with the same withering sarcasm she had used on him. They will leave. The unfulfilling intentions and actions on the second list may provide some short-term satisfaction as ways of venting feelings of anger or frustration. But the second drawback of these actions is that anyone who can avoid being the target of them will probably not stay around to be coerced or demeaned. And if someone can’t leave, no one involved will be happy.
  18. 18. Very bad things can happen. There are a variety of tragedies in recent years that illustrate how catastrophes can be created by coercive conversations: An engineer warned managers at the Challenger rocket site that cold weather would cause parts of the rocket to fail. The managers “stonewalled,” the rocket was launched, and the four astronauts on board died when the rocket exploded. An Air Florida airliner crashed on takeoff, killing almost all passengers on board, because the pilot coerced the reluctant copilot into taking off with too much ice on the wings. And it has become a recurring sorrow in the United States that teenagers continually humiliated at school return to murder their classmates and teachers. Such considerations suggest that it is in our own deep best interest to explore more sustainable conversational intentions.
  19. 19. Activity 3 - Expressing yourself more clearly and completely Filling in the missing information. If you observe people in conversation carefully, you will begin to notice that human communication works by leaving many things unsaid and depending on the listener to fill in the missing-but-implied information. For example, a receptionist may say to a counselor, ” Your two o’clock is here ,” a sentence which, on the face of it, makes no sense at all. She means ” Your client who made an appointment for two o’clock has arrived in the waiting room ,” and the counselor knows that. It’s amazing how much of the time this abbreviating and implying process works just fine. But, in situations of change, ambiguity, conflict, or great emotional need, our “shorthand” way of speaking may not work at all for at least three possible reasons.
  20. 20. First, our listeners may fill in a completely different set of details than the one we intended. Second, our listeners may not understand the significance of what we are saying (they get only some of the details, so miss the big picture). And finally, without actually intending to mislead anyone, we may leave out important parts of our experience that we find embarrassing or imagine will evoke a hostile reaction. The more serious the consequences of misunderstanding would be, the more we need to both understand our own experience better and help our listeners by giving them a more complete picture of our experience in language that does not attack them.
  21. 21. According to various communication researchers, there are five main dimensions of experience that your conversation partners can use to recreate your experience inside their minds. The more elements you provide, the higher the probability that your listener’s re-creation will match your experience. Examples in table format. The example in the table below outlines a five-part way of saying more of what we are experiencing. The shorthand version of the message below would be something like, “Stop that racing!” Here are the details of the five messages that are left out in the shorthand version: (Please read down the columns)
  22. 22. The Five Messages express: Example (in a hospital, nurse to young patient): seeing, hearing… 1. What are you seeing, hearing or otherwise sensing? (facts only) “John, when I see you racing your wheelchair down the hall… and feeling… 2. What emotions are you feeling? …I feel really upset… because I… 3. What interpretations, wants, needs, memories or anticipations of yours support those feelings? …because I imagine that you are going to hurt yourself and someone else, too… and now I want… 4. What action, information or commitment do you want now? …so I want you to promise me right now that you will slow down… so that… 5. What positive results will that action, information or commitment lead to in the future? (no threats) …so that you can get out of here in one piece and I can stop worrying about a collision.”
  23. 23. MORE EXAMPLES OF THE FIVE MESSAGES IN ACTION: 1. When I saw/ heard… 2. I felt… 3. because I…(need, want, interpret, associate, etc.) 4. and now I want (then I wanted)… 5. so that (in order to)… When I saw the dishes in the sink… …I felt happy… …because I guessed that you had come back from your trip to Mexico… …and I want you to tell me all about the Aztec ruins you saw… …so that I can liven up some scenes in the short story I’m writing. When I saw the dishes in the sink… …I felt irritated… …because I want to start cooking dinner right away… …and I want to ask you to help me do the dishes right now… …so that dinner will be ready by the time our guests arrive. When I saw the flying saucer on your roof… … felt more excited than I have ever been in my life… …because I imagined the saucer people would give you the anti-gravity formula… …and I wanted you to promise that you would share it with me… …so that we would both get rich and famous. When I saw the grant application in the office mail… …I felt delighted… …because I think our program is good enough to win a large grant… …and I want to ask you to help me with the budget pages… …so that we can get the application in before the deadline. When I saw the grant application in the office mail… …I felt depressed… …because I can’t see clients when I’m filling out forms… …and I want you to help me with the budget pages… …so that I can keep up my case work over the next three weeks.
  24. 24. Activity 4 - Translating your criticisms and complaints into requests for action Why many people have a hard time making requests. It often feels easier to say, “You’re wrong.” than it is to say “I need your help.” Making requests leaves us much more vulnerable in relation to our conversation partners than making criticisms or complaints. So people have a tendency to complain rather than to request. If we make a request, the other person could turn us down or make fun of us, and the risk of disappointment and loss of face is hard to bear. If we complain, on the other hand, we stand on the emotional high ground and our listener is usually on the defensive. However, to improve our chances of getting cooperation from another person, we need to ask for what we want and risk being turned down. With practice we can each learn to bear those risks more skillfully and gracefully.
  25. 25. Why criticisms usually don’t get the positive result we want: Whenever we place people on the defensive, their capacity to listen goes down. Their attention and energy will often go into some combination of defending their position, saving face and counter-attacking. Only when they feel safe are they likely to listen and consider how they might meet our needs. The truth of the complaint is not the issue . Because mutual imitation or emotional “echoing” is so much a part of ordinary conversation, a criticism from one partner, no matter how justified , tends to evoke a criticism from the other, bogging the pair down in a spiral of accusations. To avoid this trap, you can to approach the other person not as a problem maker and adversary in a debate but as a problem-solving partner. By translating your complaint into a request, you “transform” the role you are asking the other person to play.
  26. 26. Specific action requests help to focus your listener’s attention on the present situation. Focus on the actions you want to take and the actions you want others to take in the present and future. (For example, use verbs and adverbs, such as “meet our deadlines regularly.”) Avoid proposing changes in a person’s supposed character traits (nouns and adjectives, such as “slow worker” or “bad team player”). “How can we solve this problem quickly?” will generally produce much better results than, “Why are you such an awful slow-poke?” In the latter kind of statement, I am actually suggesting to my conversation partner that the behavior I want changed is a fixed and perhaps unchangeable part of their personality, thus undermining my own goals and needs . .
  27. 27. Activity 5 - Asking questions more “open-endedly” and creatively Consider the difference between two versions of the same question, as each might occur in a conversation between two people in a close relationship: “Well, honey, do you want to go ahead and rent that apartment we saw yesterday?” AND… “Well, honey, how do you feel about us renting that apartment we saw yesterday?” The first version suggests a “yes” or “no” answer, favors “yes” and does not invite much discussion. A person hearing such a question may feel pressured to reach a decision, and may not make the best decision. Both versions imply a suggestion to rent the apartment, but the second question is much more inviting of a wide range of responses. Even if our goal is to persuade, we can’t do a good job of that unless we address our listener’s concerns, and we won’t understand those concerns unless we ask questions that invite discussion.
  28. 28. When your are under time pressure, it is tempting to push people to make “yes-no” decisions. But pressing forward without addressing people’s concerns has played a key role in many on-the-job accidents and catastrophes (such as the Challenger Space Shuttle explosion). You will find some examples of open-ended questions that could be helpful in: solving problems in a way that meets more of everyone’s needs, getting to know and understand the people around you better, and simply creating richer and more satisfying conversations. EXAMPLES OF OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS: “How comfortable are you with Plan B?” “How could I modify this proposal to meet more of your requirements?” “What kind of information do you need in order to go forward?” “How did you like that movie?” “What do you think about … moving the office to Boston?” (rather than “Is it OK with you if we… ?”) “How are you feeling about all of this?” “How ready are you to …?” (rather than “Are you ready to …?”)
  29. 29. Question-asking in everyday life. As we wrestle with each new challenge in life, we ask ourselves and others a continuous stream of questions. Question-asking is one of the main ways that we try to get a grip on whatever is going on, but we are usually not very conscious of the quality of questions we ask. “How could we work together to solve this problem?” is probably going to produce lots better results than “Why are you always such a jerk?” As noted above, not all questions are of equal value. “How could I have been so stupid?” or… “What could I learn from this experience?”
  30. 30. A tool for everyone. Asking conscious, creative and exploratory questions is not just for professionals; it is for all of us. We are each engaged in the process of trying to build a better life, a better family, a better workplace, a better world, just as if we were trying to build the world’s tallest building. We can apply in our own lives some of the styles of creative questioning that engineers use to build better bridges, psychotherapists use to help their clients and negotiators use to reach agreements. How am I going to nail that cheater? or… What would be best for me in this situation? The many examples of exploratory questions given by Donald Schön in The Reflective Practitioner suggest that we use questions to make a kind of ‘space’ in our minds for things we do not know yet (in the sense of understand), or have not decided yet, or have not invented yet, or have not discovered yet. “Hmmm,” an architect might think, “how could we arrange this building so that it follows the contour of the land?”
  31. 31. The answer will involve a complex mix of discovering, inventing, understanding, and deciding , all pulled together partly by the creative power of the question. This thinking process is easier to imagine when we use visual examples, such as designing a house to blend into a hillside (but not cause a landslide!). But these same elements are present in all our cooperative problem-solving activities. Asking questions can allow us to start thinking about the unknown, because questions focus our attention, and provide a theme for continued exploration. Questions are like the mountain climber’s hook-on-the-end-of-a-rope: we throw the hook into the unknown, and we pull ourselves into the future. But we need to learn how and where to throw, so that we pull ourselves into a better future. How can I do this without anybody finding out? or… If I do what I am thinking about doing, what kind of person will that help to make me?
  32. 32. Activity 6 - Thanking expressing gratitude, appreciation, encouragement, delight In order to build more satisfying relationships with the people around you, make a conscious effort to express more gratitude, appreciation, delight, affirmation, and encouragement. Because life continually requires us to attend to problems and breakdowns, it gets very easy to see in life only what is broken and needs fixing. But satisfying relationships (and a happy life) require us to notice and respond to what is delightful, excellent, enjoyable, to work well-done, to food well-cooked, etc.
  33. 33. It is the ongoing expression of gratitude and appreciation that makes a relationship strong enough to accommodate differences and disagreements when they come along. Thinkers and researchers in many different fields have reached a similar conclusion: healthy relationships need a core of mutual appreciation. Expressing more appreciation is probably the most powerful and rewarding of the steps described in this workbook, and it is one of the most demanding. Some writers on the subject go so far as to propose that gratefulness is key to a happy life and peace with God! (If only how to get there were so clear!) Expressing appreciation is certainly a much more personal step than, say, learning to ask open-ended questions.
  34. 34. Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all others. –Cicero, ‘Pro Plancio,’ 54 B.C. To express gratitude in a meaningful way, a person needs to actually feel grateful, and that often involves looking at a person or situation from a new angle. Expressing appreciation thus involves both an expressive action and an inner attitude . My hope for this activity is that it will help to put “Explore and Express More Appreciation” on your lifetime Do List. Unfortunately, there is no button in our brains that we can push to make ourselves instantly more grateful and appreciative. But there are countless opportunities each day to grow in that direction.
  35. 35. Activity 7 - Adopting the “living-as-continuous-learning” approach Make the practices described in Activity 1 through 6 important parts of your everyday living and learning. Pay attention to each conversation as an opportunity to grow in skill, awareness and compassion. Work to redefine each of your “opponents” in life as a learning and problem-solving partner. Assist the processes of change in your world by personally embodying the changes, virtues and styles of behavior you want to see in others.
  36. 36. In order for us to invest the necessary time and effort required to become radiantly successful communicators, it is vital for us to develop a faith in the possibilities of our own development (and in the development of our families, and of all the teams of which we are members). People everywhere plant and tend the vegetables in their gardens with the faith that there will be a harvest. Musicians practice every day with the faith that their skills will improve. At their best, parents and coaches believe in us so that, relying on their encouragement, we practice enough to have the successes that will allow us to start believing in ourselves. As your coach via the printed page, I hope the information in this activity (and readings) will support you in believing in yourself more deeply, so that you will practice enough to discover your own many capacities for skillfulness and excellence.
  37. 37. Could practice matter more than talent?? A recent statistical analysis of Olympic gold medal winners produced a result that is both startling and reassuring. The single most important factor in winning a gold medal was having practiced longer than one’s competitors. The analysis showed that the winners had consistently started to practice their skills earlier in life than everyone else in the contests. The evidence strongly suggests that gold medal winners are not necessarily more talented than everybody else. They just work much harder and much longer at being athletes than everyone else does. What this suggests to me is that, with practice, most skills are within the reach of most people. From an article in the New York Times, October 11, 1994.
  38. 38. Over-learning Doing what comes naturally A homework assignment for the rest of our lives Self-forgiveness, the secret partner of learning Embracing the trial and error of living Our homework assignment for this activity is to continue the process that began at the moment of our births: to keep on learning about the life that lives between us. One way of helping that learning happen is to keep a journal of your experiences as you try new ways of listening and expressing yourself, new ways of asking questions and expressing appreciation. You can think of your journal as a patient listener who is available twenty-four hours a day! In addition to daily learnings, your journal can be a place where you make periodic reviews of your progress. For example, how do you feel about your overall level of skill, satisfaction and development in each of the activities listed on the following page? If you write down your answers to this life- inventory every year or two in your journal, you will begin to see more clearly the dimensions of your own life journey.
  39. 39. Activity 8 - Non-verbal communications and interpretation body language
  40. 40. Is it possible to communicate without words? Studies show that over half of your message is carried through nonverbal elements: • Your appearance • Your body language • The tone and the pace of your voice. Language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. Messages can be communicated through. 1. Gestures: It includes movement of hands, face or other parts of the body. 2. Posture or Body language 3. Facial expressions 4. Eye contact 5. Emblems 6. Haptics 7. Appearance & object
  41. 41. Meaning can also be communicated through object • Clothing • Hairstyle • Architecture • Symbols • Dance • Icons (Image, picture, or representation) • Handwriting style • Arrangement of words • Physical layout of a page Body Motion (Kinetic Gestures) Movements of the: • Body • Limbs • Head • feet and legs • facial expressions • eye behavior • posture
  42. 42. Paralanguage 1. How - not what you say. 2. Speech behavior • Voice quality and pitch • Range and rhythm control • Tempo • Articulation • Resonance • Glottis control • Vocal and lip control We Express Ourselves Through…. Posture ( Gait, Walk, sitting) (Position of body) Gestures ( Movements of hands , Legs, fingers etc.) (A Motion of hand, head or body to emphazize an idea or emotion while speaking) Facial Expressions (Eyes, eyebrows, lips,chin)
  43. 43. Activity 9 - Composition and writing • What is a Composition about? In a composition you are mostly supposed to give your opinion about an issue and support it with the help of logical arguments and examples. Title Introduction Main Part Conclusion • The Function of the Title Arouse the reader’s interest Introduce or hint at the topic • The Structure of a Composition
  44. 44. • Creating a Title You may try to attract attention e.g. with the help of: an allusion a pun an alliteration a quotation a question • Evaluating Titles Imagine you want to write a composition about the problem of road rage. Which do you consider the best title? • The Function of the Introduction Introduce the topic and purpose of the composition Arouse the reader’s interest in the topic Lead to the main part It often gives the writer’s opinion about a controversial issue.
  45. 45. • Introduction Personal Anecdote Real Or Hypothetical Example Question Quotation Surprising/Shocking Statistics Striking Image • Main Part Normally your main part should consist of three paragraphs. Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence that summarizes the main idea of the paragraph. Indent the first line of each new paragraph. In a “Discuss” composition there are four paragraphs. • Arranging Paragraphs Paragraphs should be arranged in climactic order i.e. from the weakest to the most convincing argument.
  46. 46. • “Discuss” Topics When the topic demands “Discuss”, you should give two pros and two cons. Begin with the weaker arguments and finish with the more convincing ones. • Conclusion Don’t just repeat yourself. Don’t present new arguments. It is often elegant to refer back to the introduction or the title.
  47. 47. Activity 10 - Discovering social media SOCIAL MEDIA Social media is definied as a group of Internet-based applications that allow the Creation and exchanges of user-generated content. Social media gives users an easy-to-use way to communicate and network with each other on an unprecedented scale.
  48. 48. What are you trying to communicate and how will you communicate it? Facebook: For casual interactions, sharing links, sharing photos and videos. No character limit. Twitter: For short casual interactions, sharing links, sharing photos and videos. Character limit 140, great for specialized topics. YouTube: A video sharing site. Upload and share videos, people can comment on them. LinkedIn: For professional interactions – great for creating professional groups for students. FourSquare: Allows customers to “check in” at your location. You can also provide facts or coupons for customers, and they can comment on your location. Instagram, Vine, or Tumbler: For short and visual media, fun and very casual.
  49. 49. Social Media Principles 1. Who you are Personalization 2. Who you know Brows network 3. What you do Generate an activity stream Share an activity stream Process an activity stream Generate an activity stream 1. Automatic Google History, Google Analytics 2. Blog 3. Micro-blog Twitter, yammer, 4. Mailing groups Google groups 5. Social network tools Facebook, Digg, FriendFeed
  50. 50. Why Twitter works? Asking why twitter works? Time
  51. 51. News / Live Feed Time
  52. 52. Google Groups Time Time
  53. 53. Share activity stream  Web pages ◦ Twitter, Facebook, friendFeed…  email  Sms ◦ twitter  IM ◦ Twitter…  RSS Feeds
  54. 54. Time Aggregate your Life stream From different sources - Twitter - Blog - Facebook - Digg …
  55. 55. Process activity streaming  Overwhelming amount of information ◦ Need for abstraction  Collaborative analysis  Automatic formatting Use social medias to improve your online presence
  56. 56. Micro-BloggingBookmarking Social networks Specialized Social networks Review s Social media sites have variegated functions, members and missions Unfortunately, there is no universal social network ?
  57. 57. Tactics for Any Budget  Host a blog  Participate on industry leading blogs and conversations  Host or sponsor a podcast  Host/participate on discussion boards  Try Viral video  Create a group on a social network  Run media on a social network  Add social bookmarking links to your content Best Practices  Attempt to leverage an existing social networks.  Avoid creating your own network surrounding your brand:  Experiment with creating networks catering to specific audiences or special interests, not brands  Listen and study the community before you enter the discussion  Converse and don’t shout  Be prepared to relinquish control of the brand  Be honest and transparent about your involvement  Learn through experimentation 62
  58. 58. Activity 11 - Discovering social media public relations and marketing  Are your customers likely to be online?  Are you ready to handle negativity?  How will you incorporate this into people’s daily jobs?  How will you measure the results?  How long are you willing to give it a try?  What’s your willingness to experiment, take risks and adjust your plans? Are You Ready for Social Media?
  59. 59.  Increase customer base  Generate leads  Drive sales  Build awareness  Make money from your content  Establish thought leadership  Educate customers  Customer-source part of your product development  Reach internal communication What Are Your Goals?
  60. 60.  Identify your goals  Identify your target audience  Create a profile or brand  Find the social media that’s right for you  Plan a time frame  Include Search Engine Optimization (SEO)  Measure progress toward goals Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  62. 62. Challenges to Social Media
  63. 63. Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy • Identify Your Target Market – Who are your customers? – What characteristics do they have? – What age group do they come from? – What are their spending or shopping habits? – Do they shop online? – What social media applications are they using? Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  64. 64. Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy • Create a Profile or Brand – As you create your online profiles, think about your screen name • Website Domain Name – • Twitter – • Facebook – • Delicious – • E-mail – jonhsmith@nextgenweb Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  65. 65. • Decide on appropriate social media applications – Which ones are your customers using? – Start with one - Understand it, utilize it effectively and then expand your online presence – Write good and appropriate content – Build relationships; listen and engage with your followers Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  66. 66. • Plan the time frame – Map out a schedule for updating content – This should be accomplished on a regular basis – Follow the schedule Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  67. 67. • Include Search Engine Optimization (SEO) – Focus on Good Phrases – Avoid “Vanity” keywords – Use Google’s AdWords Keyword Tool – Remember the value of repetition – Guide your content strategy Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy
  68. 68. Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy • Develop a content strategy plan – Content should be both useful and usable by customers – Develop a plan for creating this type of content – Develop a plan for getting the content published • Not as easy as it sounds • Publishing or uploading content takes a dedicate effort on your part
  69. 69. Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy • Measure progress toward goals – Did we learn something about our customers that we didn’t know before? – Did our customers learn something about us? – Were we able to engage our customers in new conversations?
  70. 70. Incorporating Social Media Into Your Marketing Strategy Parts of a Social Media Strategy  Social networks  Blogs  Microblogging  Wikis  Podcasts  Forums  Online Communities  Multimedia sharing  Social bookmarking  RSS readers  GEO tracking  Recommendations and reviews
  71. 71. Blogs still remains the focal point for your marketing Social media Aggregation Blog Specialized Social networks Traffic points to your blog Micro-BloggingBookmarking Social networks Review s