Safety, Security and Administrative Procedures as an Obstacle for the Sea Transport Flows in the Baltic Sea Region Tõnis Hunt, Raivo Portsmuth, Kaidi Nõmmela Transportforum Linköping 10.01.2013
Penta project• Conducted as a part of Penta project funded by EU Central Baltic Interreg IVa programme and ports of Helsinki, Naantali, Turku and Stockholm• Project duration: January 2011 – August 2013• Project partners: • University of Turku, Centre for Maritime Studies • TFK -Transport Research Institute • Estonian Maritime Academy• „Safety, security and administrative procedures“ is theme of one of the work packages in the project• More information www.pentaproject.info
Work Pakage „Safety, security and administrative procedures“• Deals with national and international legislations and analyses coming requirements of security, safety and administrative procedures.• The aim was to determine the impacts of the coming requirements on the port communities.• Final research paper will be available in August 2013, including recommendations for decisionmakers and actors in the business.
Research methods• Questionnaires to and inteviews with actors• Previous studies on subject matter• Analysis of legal acts and coming requirements
Scope of research Legislative Framework - International, - European Union, - National, - Port
Legal acts as obstacles?• There are number of organizations, who give out maritime related rules, conventions, codes, circular letters etc.• IMO, WHO, ILO, EC, Maritime Administrations, etc.• There are about 50 IMO conventions, 30 IMO codes, 2500 IMO circular letters, 1700 IMO resolutions, thousands of pages of Classifications rules, a number of EU conventions and directives etc that must be followed constantly. All these documents have been created for various reasons and they have different objectives. In addition, the existing documents are being changed and modified continuously.
Interpretation of Legal Acts• Each country is free to find suitable interpretations and implement them in their national legislation. This means that countries may rely on several factors when interpreting, such as politics, cultural background, community interests, bureaucracy or economic interests. Therefore, interpretations may become very different in countries. Due to diversity in interpretations for example ship-owners sometimes have difficulties in applying all these rules on time, especially when regulations require major planning and investment.
Main barrier topics• Sulphur Oxide emissions standards;• Nitrogen Oxide emissions standards• Co-operation in IT field• Schengen regulation;• Competence management in port community;• Ballast water directive• Carbon Dioxide emissions limits• Maritime surveillance systems – AIS• Sanitary and veterinary regulations
Sulphur Oxide emissions standards Background Impact• The MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14 sets • An increased fuel price due to sharply increased limits on the SOx content of marine fuel oils. demand for the low sulphur fuel.• EU Sulphur directive (Directive 1999/32/EC • Low availability of fuel with the required sulphur amended by Directive 2005/33/EC) sets also content. standards for the sulphur content in marine • Technical problems in installing scrubbers on existing fuels. ships.• Inside the SECA the limit of SOx content in • Ports are required to receive scrubbers’ residues, marine fuel is 0.10% on and after which will increase port fees. 01.01.2015 • Third parties must establish residues processing• The global limit of SOx emission is chemical plant factories. determined 0.50% on and after 01.01.2020 • Low availability of alternative fuels (e.g. LNG) in ports. (date could be deferred to 01.01.2025). • Operating ships in SECAs will become• An option of using any fitting material, disproportionally more expensive. appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a ship • Modal shift or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or • Transport chain will change to shorter sea routes. compliance methods used as an alternative • The competitiveness of the SECA area will decrease. in order to meet the regulation standards. • The increased use of other potential transport corridors in order to avoid the SECA area.
Nitrogen Oxide emissions standards Background Impact• The MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI regulation • Ship-owners are required to adopt new 13 sets limits NOx emission from diesel technologies. engines. • The use of new technology adds additional costs• The control of NOx emissions is to ship-owners. implemented in new ships engines. • Designation of the Baltic Sea as a NECA would• The limits are depending of the engine’s increase the freight rates of shipping. rated speed. • The increased freight rates might lead to some• The NOx Technical Code 2008 specifies the modal shift in the BSR. requirements for testing, survey and • Decreased quantities of goods and modal shift certification of marine diesel engines. from sea to land transport will have negative• The basic regulations include a variety of impacts on the ports as well as the entire further restrictions and requirements. maritime sector
Co-operation in IT-field Background Impact• No specific regulation that would establish • Lack of trust in different IT-systems. requirements for the ports’ IT-systems. • Customers are obliged to provide several• Diversity of standards in electronic communication. different authorities with the same reports and• The ports are allowed to choose independently which tools and systems they use. data and enter the same information multiple• The EU has decided to move towards common times into different systems. standards, such as maritime single window system. • Wasting of time and resources for entering data• A draft roadmap “Integrated Maritime Surveillance: into different systems. a Common Information Sharing Environment for the European Union maritime domain”. • Decrease the reliability of the data due to• Ports are using different IT-systems and tools from diversity of standards in electronic each other. communication.• IT systems and tools are not compatible. • Users have hard time to learn how to use IT-• Some IT-systems used in ports have no option for systems due to poor GUI. checking the data quality.• Many failures in IT-systems. • Weaker competitiveness of ports compared to• In case of IT-system failures, an alternative system is those EU ports that have common IT platforms. typically absent.• Often IT-systems GUI are not user-friendly.• No financing and supporting program for the ports community to create common EU IT-system.
Schengen regulation Background Impact• Schengen regulations concerning to short- • This regulation has led to delays in border time visas of cruise passengers from third controls. countries are causing misunderstanding. • The current situation has a negative impact• Border guards have difficulty knowing on the cruise business and clients. how to properly mark the sort-time visas. • It will discourage more potential customers• A full passport control has been made in the Baltic cruise business. obligatory (inward and outward clearance) • Negative financial impact might affect all in every port during the cruise voyage ports and stakeholders involved, including from third countries. local participating cities and their economies due to a decline in amount of visitors.
Competence management in port community Background Impact• Investment in human resources and securing • Diversity of standards in port-logistics so called social sustainability is essential for qualifications around the BSR. ports to satisfy the demand for qualified • Ports have employees with different level of labour and stay competitive. competencies.• Growing demand for labour flexibility in • In some BSR countries qualification and training port-related logistics, growing intensity of cargo handling, more and more use of ICT in in the field of port and logistics are still in the port operations and the international phase of adjustment to the European regulations and standards (e.g. the standards, with low demand for standardized EU/ILO/IMO) are requiring ports to think services and a primary need to integrate the more about employees competence EQF into the national legislation. management in ports communities. • Ports are not worried about the competencies• In order to provide an opportunity to of their employees. standardize the skill levels of employees, the European Parliament and Council have • Some workers have to be “multi skilled” and adopted the European Qualifications move between different assignments and they Framework (EQF). have different competencies.• All BSR seaports are regulating their • Some ports do not consider it is necessary to employers’ competence individually, with harmonize the requirements of their workers little transnational compatibility with the EQF.
Ballast water directive Background Impact• From environmental experts’ point of • Ship-owners are required to use on-board view, ballast water represents a major installation of BWTS or other BWM measures. threat to the marine environment and • Ports may be required to invest new port ecosystem. reception facilities.• IMO adopted the International • The regulation adds additional costs to ship- Convention for the Control and owners (such as ballast water treatment Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and systems, more powerful diesel generator, Sediments. more powerful ballast water pumps/electric• The BWM Convention enters into force, engine, re-design costs). from 2016 onwards for existing vessels • Regional different BWM approaches would and from 2011/2012 onwards for new complicate shipping. builds.• As required by IMO BWE should be undertaken at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in water depths of at least 200 m.
Carbon Dioxide emissions standards Background Impact• Reduction of the greenhouse gas CO2 is • Ship-owners are required to find new ways to one of the key goals which the global meet the emissions standards. maritime industry has set itself. • Ship-owners are required to invest new• The first CO2 regulations were adopted by technology on board of vessels. IMO in July 2011. • Ports are required to invest in the• Governments at IMO agreed a infrastructure to maintain the comprehensive package of technical competitiveness. regulations for reducing shipping’s CO2 • New investments may lead to overall raise in emissions which will enter into force in maritime transport costs. January 2013.• The adopted regulations allow flag states to postpone the implementation of the EEDI by up to four years.
Maritime surveillance systems- AIS Background Impact• Complex administrative procedures are • All ship-owners are required to use automatic one of the major barriers to the ports. identification systems (AIS) on ships.• As ports’ communities consist of several • The Blue Belt project provides ship notification different institutions, the ship-owners are reports to customs authorities, with the aim of often required to go through complicated supporting customs by providing information procedures when entering and leaving the about the voyages of vessels engaged in intra-EU port. trade.• IMO adopted regulation 19 of SOLAS Chapter V- Carriage requirements for • The notification reports are generated shipborne navigational systems and automatically by SafeSeaNet and delivered to the equipment. relevant customs authority before a ships• In 2000, IMO adopted a requirement for estimated arrival. all ships to carry automatic identification • AIS and Blue Belt concept should made the systems (AISs) capable of providing information exchange between relevant parties information about the ship to other ships easier and faster. and to coastal authorities automatically.• EMSA had launched a "Blue Belt" project in May 2011.
Sanitary and veterinary regulations Background Impact• A number of different acts are regulating • The multiplicities of required documents are the sanitary and veterinary cargo trade requiring lot of work in the ports. between the EU countries and the third • Constantly changing regulations in the third countries and inside the EU. countries have been causing a lot of barriers• The ports have many trading routs and delays in the ports. between the third countries and the trade • Misunderstandings with the laboratory test with the third countries have been causing result have been causing unnecessary delays a number of barriers to the ports. inside the EU ports.• The non-EU goods have more complicated procedures, for example, the third countries regulations for food.
Conclusion• The research brought out the fact that in maritime industry, all parties are connected to each other.• It was impossible to look only the ports without including ship-owners, terminal operators, customs and other parties to the research.• All coming regulations and requirements, that are affecting the ship-owners, are also affecting the ports as well, and therefore the current study are covering all communities of the ports and in some cases more widely.• Also the issues are not as black and white as for example sulphur directive is creating problems for shipowners, at the same time it creates possibilities for shipbuilders and research institutions to create innovative solutions.