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Tlaxcalteca Nation and Affiliated Tribes of Texas


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Tlaxcalteca Nation and Affiliated Tribes of Texas

  1. 1. Tlaxcalteca and Affiliated Tribes of Texas <ul><li>TIMELINE SUMMARY </li></ul><ul><li>12 th Century to 21 st Century </li></ul>
  2. 2. Pyramids to Missions to Present
  3. 3. Chicomostoc Place of Origin
  4. 4. Seven Tribes <ul><ul><ul><li>In approximately 1193 A.D seven tribes emerged from Chicomostoc, the seven caves - the bowels of earth - and settled in Aztlan, from where they subsequently undertook a migration southward in search of a sign that would tell them where to settle once more. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1 . Acolhua </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chalca </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tepanec a </li></ul><ul><li>4. Tlalhuica </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tlaxcalteca </li></ul><ul><li>6 . Xochimilca </li></ul><ul><li>7. Mexica </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Four Tlaxcaltecan Regions
  6. 6. Symbols: Tlaxcalan Regions
  7. 7. Symbols: Tlaxcala Regions
  8. 8. Four Tlaxcala Rulers in 1519 Xicotencatl of Tizatla, Maxixcatzin of Ocotelulco Tlehuexolotzin of Tepeticpac , Citalpopocatzin of Quiahuiztlan
  9. 9. Tlaxcalteca Warriors: Traditional Weapons / Armor
  10. 10. The Flower War was fought by smaller armies with one of their motives being to take sacrificial captives. Agreed upon battle by the different tribe leaders to engage in ritual battles that would provide the different tribes with enough sacrificial victims to appease the gods.
  11. 11. TLAHUICOLE: Otomi Warrior <ul><li>Tlahuicole was an Otomi born in 1497 in a northern Tlaxcala village. </li></ul><ul><li>He distinguished himself by his courage during the flowery wars. </li></ul><ul><li>In one of those wars, he killed a son of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma . </li></ul><ul><li>He was taken prisoner during a battle. </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma , impressed by his courage , made him a Leader in his Army. </li></ul>
  12. 12. TLAHUICOLE Cont. <ul><li>Tlahuicole fought for Moctezuma against the Tarasco’s, in the state of Michoacán, and upon his return he was offered his freedom. Tlahuicole refused to return to his homeland or stay as a general of the Mexica armies. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that he had disgraced his people and instead the brave warrior asked to die in combat. </li></ul><ul><li>He was taken to the wheel of gladiatorial sacrifice , tied at the waist to a circular stone , delivered a short truncheon and a shield to defend himself . </li></ul><ul><li>He killed eight soldiers, wounding another twenty , they finally overcame him . He was later sacrificed to Huitzilopochtli, God of the Mexica. </li></ul>
  13. 13. First European Encounter <ul><li>22 April 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Captain-General Herman Cortés dropped anchor in the Gulf Coast of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>31 August 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Cortés‘ army and his Indian allies encounter a hostile force of at least 30,000 Tlaxcaltecans </li></ul><ul><li>Tlaxcalteca warriors led by Xicotencatl, the younger, attack the Spaniards three times </li></ul>
  14. 14. Xicotencatl - The Younger
  15. 15. Conquistador: Armor / Weapons Tlaxcalteca Leaders were very impressed with the weapons and armor, horses and dogs and decided to form an alliance with the Spaniards.
  16. 16. Cortez Meets the Four Rulers
  17. 17. Alliance is Formed <ul><ul><li>1519 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Tlaxcala Rulers and Cortez agree to an Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>1520 </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Forces March on Tenochtitlan, the Aztec Capitol </li></ul><ul><li>1521 </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs surrender </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conquest of Tenochtitlan Must factor in the European Diseases.
  19. 19. Tlaxcaltecas Accept New Culture <ul><li>The four Tlaxcala Rulers accept Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>July 1520 - Four Rulers are baptized </li></ul><ul><li>Accept Spanish names </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tlaxcala Rulers Christianized <ul><li>Xicotencatl of Tizatla - Don Vicente </li></ul><ul><li>Maxixcatzin of Ocotelulco - Don Lorenzo </li></ul><ul><li>Tlehuexolotzin of Tepeticpac - Don Gonzalo </li></ul><ul><li>Citalpopocatzin of Quiahuiztlan - Don Bartolomé </li></ul>Indigenous Name Christian Name
  21. 21. 1521 - 1540 <ul><li>After 1521 - Spaniards and Allies spread Westward </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration/Conquest Michoacán, Colima, Jalisco etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Remained there until 1540 </li></ul><ul><li>Could not move Northward for another 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Could not penetrate the Gran Chichimeca </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Mexico's $150 Billion Gold State </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term investors have seen much higher gains, however, with two recent discoveries in Zacatecas. These discoveries have uncovered approximately $150 billion worth of precious and base metals. It was all found in... </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico's Golden State </li></ul><ul><li>Zacatecas is a landlocked state in Central Mexico, best known for its historic gold and silver mines. </li></ul><ul><li>The state's incredibly rich silver deposits were first discovered by colonial Spanish explorers during the 16th century. One hundred years later, the mines of Zacatecas were producing nearly a third of Spain's silver and a fifth of the world's supply. </li></ul><ul><li>But despite having already produced the equivalent of about $2.5 trillion worth of precious metals for the Spanish, geologists are using modern exploration techniques to find new gold and silver deposits in Zacatecas today. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent discoveries at the Peñasquito and Camino Rojo projects — both located in northeastern Zacatecas — have revealed a total resource of 40 million ounces of gold and the equivalent of 5.6 billion ounces of silver. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1560 - 1590 <ul><li>1560 - Viceroy Don Juan De Valasco makes request for 1000 Tlaxcaltecan Indians to relocate to the Gran Chichimeca </li></ul><ul><li>Plan fails - not enough volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>During that period, Silver is discovered to the north </li></ul><ul><li>1591 - Viceroy Don Luis De Valasco (son of Don Juan De Valasco) succeeds with request for 400 families from the Tlaxcaltecas </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1591 Agreement Reached <ul><li>1591 - Miguel Caldera (Mestizo) proposes plan </li></ul><ul><li>Convinces Tlaxcala leaders to negotiate a contract </li></ul><ul><li>Four Tlaxcalteca leaders agree to sending 100 families </li></ul><ul><li>from each of their regions </li></ul><ul><li>In return for sending 400 families to the Gran Chichimeca region, they will receive certain rights </li></ul>
  25. 25. RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES <ul><li>Tlaxcaltecan settlers in the Gran Chichimeca shall be Hidalgos (Noblemen) free from tributes, taxes, and personal service for all time. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be allowed to settle apart from Spaniards; Spaniards cannot take their property. </li></ul><ul><li>Tlaxcalans will at all times be apart from the Chichimecas, including lots, pastures, wooded lands, rivers, salt beds, mills and fishing rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Lands given to Tlaxcaltecans and the community as a whole will never be taken back due to non occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Markets in the new settlements shall be free from sales tax, excise tax and any other form of taxes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Rights and Privileges <ul><li>Tlaxcaltecan colonists and their descendents besides being Hidalgos and free of all taxes shall enjoy all exemptions and privileges already granted or to be granted in the future to the province and city of Tlaxcala. </li></ul><ul><li>The principles of Tlaxcala who go to the new settlements and their descendents, shall be permitted to carry arms and saddled horses without penalty . </li></ul>
  27. 27. The 400 Tlaxcaltecan Families <ul><li>June 6 th 1591 </li></ul><ul><li>____Tlaxcaltecans from Ocotelulco led by Captains Lucas de Monte Alegre and Miguel de Las Casas. </li></ul><ul><li>June 7 th 1591 </li></ul><ul><li>____Tlaxcaltecans left from Tizatlan led by Captain Buenaventura Paz. </li></ul><ul><li>June 9 th 1591 </li></ul><ul><li>_____Tlaxcaltecans left from Quiahuiztlan led by Captain Lucas Tellez. </li></ul><ul><li>June 9 th 1591 </li></ul><ul><li>_____Tlaxcaltecans left from Tepeticpac led by Captain Francisco Vasquez and Joaquin Paredes. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Names of Pioneers
  29. 29. The Great Migration Begins
  30. 30. Founded States and Cities <ul><li>Mexican States Founded by Tlaxcalteca settlers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Durango, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi and Zacatecas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded over 100 towns and cities including: </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Albuquerque , Santa Fe and Las Cruces New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Mission de San Antonio and Villa de San Andres de Nava in Texas, </li></ul>
  31. 31. Northern Expansion 1750
  32. 32. Pre–Texas Settlement 1750 <ul><li>1750 - Jose Escandón invites New Spain families to settle along the Rio Bravo. </li></ul><ul><li>Brings Tlaxcalteca Families from Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi. </li></ul><ul><li>New Settlement of Nuevo Santander De Revilla - straddles the Rio Bravo </li></ul>
  33. 33. Tlaxcaltecan Technology Spreads <ul><li>Agriculture activity brought labor instruments such as plows drawn by load animals. Crops would be mainly corn, ayocote, pumpkin, chayote, chilacayote, beans, tomato, variety of chili peppers and agave for water extraction honey, among many others, depending on the regional soil and climate. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tlaxcaltecan Agriculture <ul><li>  Tlaxcaltecans were already using different farm animal in teams for agricultural work . And they also used sheep, pigs and cattle for meat, dairy, wool and leather. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  35. 36. Baskets <ul><li>Basket making was another activity brought by the Tlaxcaltecans for storing and transporting foods, such as the chiquipextles, chiquihuites and tenates. Baskets of various sizes, and other objects such as backpacks, mats to sleep on, mats for wrapping the dead, made from reeds, estate, tulles and rods. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Grindstones Production of grains required grinding for flour. So grindstones become indispensable, including traditional hand grinders and wheeled European millstones.
  37. 38. Ceramics <ul><li>The Tlaxcalans brought their ceramics that were used for brewing and depositing of grains and seeds. They continued their ceramic tradition of decorating objects such as pots, cajetes, comales, spoons, dishes, tecomates, among others, as well as build cuexcomates to store the grains. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Textiles <ul><li>Tlaxcalans brought their waist loom textile tradition which were very important to make small clothing, such as ayates, quexquemetls, tilmas, huipiles, petticoats and loincloth, but also brought with them the traditional European foot loom that produced the internationally famous sarapes and jorongos with the technique known as &quot;saltillo&quot;, which are already so characteristic and part of the current traditional charro, known as &quot;sarape veined&quot; costume. This required the cultivation of cotton and certain species of agave for extraction and production of fibers to natural. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Tlaxcaltecan Culture <ul><li>To make converts of the indigenous peoples, the friars would use dances, music, singing and theatre, activities performed in the liturgical calendar, forming part of religious ceremonies, dances of Moors and Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Carnival, the Advent, Posadas, etc., are even today in some populations of this area an important part of its devotional festivals showing the use of traditional Tlaxcalteca instruments of pre-Hispanic time such as the tepanhuehuetl and teponaztle. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Tlaxcaltecan Culture <ul><li>The newly converted Tlaxcaltecans traveled with the recently adopted Catholic devotions and traditional holidays bringing along images of St. Stephen, St. Michael the Archangel, San Francisco, St James, and the Virgin of the Assumption among many others. </li></ul><ul><li>They would also name the new settlements with the names of their patron saints. </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>As the 2 nd Governor of Texas his first actions were against the Indian tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1839 his troops drove the Cherokee tribes from Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>A similar campaign was fought against the Comanche. </li></ul><ul><li>Lamar believed that it was necessary to bring about the “total extinction&quot; of the Indian tribes. </li></ul>
  42. 46. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1847 - 1848 <ul><li>People living along the Rio Grande are given a year to decide: </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in place and become an American citizen or move to Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors lived on both sides of the Rio Grande. </li></ul><ul><li>The ones who decided to stay on the Texas side became “White;” the others remained Mexican citizens </li></ul>
  43. 47. Abuelos
  45. 49. coyotl coyote coyote atolli atole corn gruel, porridge huexolotl guajolote turkey comalli comal griddle
  46. 50. aguacate chichimeco elote ajolote chichipico empacho alicantre chicle epazote ameyal chicon espanto apaxtle chile esquite arriate chilocoayote ezcuintle atlatl chilpayate guajolote atole chinamite huaxteco atoyac chipil huazontle ayocote chipocludo huehue ayotl chipote huitlacoche cacahuate chipotle huizache cacles chiquihuite huizti cacomixtle chocolate itacate cajete cihuatl ixtac calli citlalli ixtle capulin coco jicama chachalaca comal jicara chanate coyote jicote chapopote cozcacuahtli jitomate chayote cuate jojoque chicalote cuauhtli maguey chichi cuithache malacate chichigua ejote mapache
  47. 51. matlapilli quentonitl tlaconetla mayate quetzal tlacos mazatl quexquemetl tlacuache mecate quiote tlacuilo metate sincuate tlapale mezquite tamal tlasli meztli tata tlatoani mitote tatema tochtle molcajete tatemarse toloaqhe mole tecajete tololoche moyote tecalli tomate nana tecolote tonatiuh nixtamal tecomate totonaco nopal tecomcuate tule ocelote tejocote tuna ocote tejon tzonteco papalote temazcal tzontzontle petate temolote xochitl pichicato teocalli yolotl pichicuate tepatl zacate pinacate tetl zapote pinole texcal zopilote pulque tezontle zoquete quelite tiza
  48. 52. Legacy Plans
  49. 53. Survival Strategy Tlaxcalteca Nation and Affiliated Tribes of Texas <ul><li>Our Tribal members are descendents of those Tlaxcalteca, Chichimeca, Guachichle, Huichol, and Coahuilteco Indians. </li></ul>
  50. 54. Tlaxcalteca Nation & Affiliated Tribes of Texas Form of Self Governance <ul><li>Our form of governance is evolved from our traditional Atlipetl type of government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Principle speaker Tlatoani (Governor) presides over the Cabildo (Council). </li></ul><ul><li>Each Family has one Representative called a Regidor (Council person) that will communicate those issues that could affect the whole TNATT population to the Cabildo (Council). </li></ul><ul><li>The Cabildo convenes as required to address any issues that could affect the TNATT population. </li></ul>
  51. 55. Present Clan Leaders Teodosio, Yolanda, Edwardo
  52. 56. Maintain Traditions Honor our Sacred Peyote Medicine
  53. 57. Maintain Traditional Arts & Crafts Gathering of Nations Pow Wow
  54. 59. Huichol Art