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Job Analysis and Design
What Is a Job?
JOB : A group of homogeneous tasks related by similarity of functions.
When performed by an employee in an exchange for pay, a job consists of duties,
responsibilities, and tasks (performance elements) that are
(1) defined and specific, and
(2) can be accomplished, quantified, measured, and rated.
From a wider perspective, a job is synonymous with a role and includes the physical and social
aspects of a work environment. Often, individuals identify themselves with their job or role
(foreman, supervisor, engineer, etc.) and derive motivation from its uniqueness or usefulness.
Job analysis
Job analysis Job analysis is a systematic process of collecting
the information on nature of a job, qualities and
qualifications required to a job, physical and mental
capabilities to require to a job, duties and responsibilities,
physical and mental effort required to perform a job,
necessary skills required to perform a job, working conditions
and environment for a job.
Job analysis is...
It is primary tool in putting right man on right job.
The process of job analysis involves the analyst gathering information about the duties of
the incumbent, the nature and conditions of the work, and some basic qualifications.
The measure of a sound job analysis is a valid task list. This list contains the functional or duty
areas of a position, the related tasks, and the basic training recommendations.
The intention behind job analysis is to
answer questions such as:
what is the need of the job to exist?
What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake?
When is the job to be performed?
Where is the job to be performed?
How is the job perform by an employee?
What qualities and qualifications are required to perform the job?
Job analysis is a detailed examination of :-
1) tasks that make up a job (employee role),
(2) conditions under which an employee performing his/her job, and
(3) what exactly a job requires in terms of aptitudes (potential for achievement), attitudes (behavior
characteristics), knowledge, skills, educational qualifications and the physical working condition of the
employee.
Its objectives include
(a) to determine most effective methods for performing a job.
(b) to increase employee job satisfaction.
(c) to identify core areas for giving training to employees and to find out best methods of training.
(d) development of performance measurement systems, and
(e) to match job-specifications with employee specifications while selection of an employee.
Job analysis takes
place before the
recruitment
process.
Procedure for job analysis
Job analysis is done by using two approaches one is work oriented
approach and second one is employee-oriented approach.
1. work-oriented approach
this approach focus on the actual task involved in a Job. this
approach mainly concentrate on duties, functions and
responsibilities involved in a job
Example
Job of court manager at Courts (judiciary), task-oriented approach of job analysis
statement include:
•The Court Manager shall function under the control and
guidance of the Chief Justice in the High Court, and the
District Judge in the respective district Courts.
•He shall work on policies and standards, based on
applicable directives of superior Courts, establish the
performance standards applicable to the Court
(including on timeliness, efficiency; quality of Court
performance; infrastructure; and human resources;
access to justice; as well as for systems for Court
management and case management.
•He will carry out an evaluation of the compliance of the
directives of the Court with such standards; identify
deficiencies and deviations; identify steps required to
achieve compliance, maintain such an evaluation on a
current basis through annual updates.
He will monitor the implementation of the approved CDP and
report to the District Judge and the High Court with the progress.
He will ensure that statistics on all aspects of the functioning of the
Court are complied and reported accurately and promptly
in accordance with systems established by the High Court.
He will ensure that reports on statistics are duly completed and
provided as required.
He will ensure that the processes, procedures, policies and
standards established by the High Court for Court Management
are complied with and that they safeguard quality, ensure
efficiency and timeliness and minimize costs to litigants and to the
State; and enhance access to justice.
He will ensure that case management systems are fully compliant with the
policies and standards established by the High Court for case management
and that they address the legitimate needs of litigants in terms of quality,
efficiency and timeliness, costs to litigants and to the State.
Standard systems for case management shall be developed by the High
Court time to time.
2. Employee oriented approach
This approach focuses on examining of human attributes needed to perform the
job perfectly. Human attributes have been classified into knowledge, skills,
attitude and other characteristics. Knowledge is the information people need in
order to perform the job. Skills are the proficiencies needed to perform each
task. Abilities are the attributes that are relatively stable over time. Other
characteristics are all other attributes, usually personality factors.
Example
The Court Manager shall have M.B.A. Degree or Advanced Diploma in General
Management from a recognized University/institution of India.
He shall have minimum 10 years' experience in the field of management,
experience/training in I.T Systems Management, H.R.M, Financial Systems
Management.
He shall not be more than 40 years of age.
He should have excellent communication skills.
He should have excellent Computer application skills.
Job Description
JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and
responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a
vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive
in nature, and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as :
•Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
•The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
•The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
•Necessary qualifications that are required for job.
•Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
•The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance
of that job.
Examples of Job Description
Advantages of Job Description
◦ It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide
and monitor their performances.
◦ It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
◦ It assists in manpower planning.
◦ It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
◦ It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a
specific job.
◦ It also helps in chalking out training and development programs.
JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to
perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can
be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an
appropriate position. The contents are :
Job title and designation
Educational qualifications for that title
Physical and other related attributes
Physique and mental health
Special attributes and abilities
Maturity and dependability
Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
Advantages of Job Specification
It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.
It helps in giving due justification to each job.
It also helps in designing training and development programs.
It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
It helps in job evaluation.
It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra
benefits to the employees.
Differences between a job description and
a job specification
Job description is a document
which states an overview of
the duties, responsibilities and
functions of a specific job in an
organization.
Job specification is a statement
of the qualifications,
personality traits, skills, etc.
required by an individual to
perform the job.
Differences between a job description and a job specification
Content
Job description usually lists out the job title, location, job summary, working environment, duties
to be performed on the job, etc.
Job specification lists out the qualifications, experience, training, skills, emotional attributes,
mental capabilities of an individual to perform the job.
Measures
Job description measures the tasks and responsibilities attached to the job.
Job specification measures the capabilities that the job holder must possess to perform the job.
Usefulness
Job description offers ample information about the job which helps the management in
evaluating the job performance and defining the training needs of an employee.
Job specification helps the candidates who are applying for a job to analyze whether they are
eligible for a particular job or not.
Benefit
Job description statement helps the organization to be clear about 'Who should do what'.
Job specification statement helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion,
bonus, internal transfers and salary increase.
A job analysis will show:
1. Job oriented activities, which is the description of the exact activities to be performed such as
teaching, coaching, facilitating, mentoring and so on.
2. Who a worker is to report to as well as the relationship of a worker with others which include
superiors, colleagues and subordinates.
3. Behaviors performed during the work such as coordinating, checking, auditing and various
decision makings.
4. Equipment, materials, tools to be used in performing the work such as software, machines
etc.
5. Job context like the physical working conditions, work schedule, organizational context, social
context, incentives etc.
6. Personal data related to the job such as technical skills, training, work experience etc.
7. Personal attribute like aptitude, physical characteristics, personality, interest, passion, values
etc.
job analysis into two subsets:
· Job Description: this consists of job title, job location, job summary,
reporting to, working conditions, job duties and machine used to be
used, hazards etc.
· Job Specification: Qualification, experience, training, skills,
responsibilities, emotional characteristics, sensory demands etc.
Having considered job analysis, let’s consider a closely related
concept- Job Design.
BASIS FOR
COMPARISON
JOB ANALYSIS JOB DESCRIPTION
Meaning A deep research on a particular job to ascertain every small
details about it, is known as Job Analysis.
A comprehensive job summary depicting the job contents
in short but in an exhaustive manner.
What is it? Process Statement
Concept A process of determining all the necessary requirements and
aspects of a job.
A concise statement of what a job demands.
Incorporates Tasks, responsibilities, skill, abilities, working conditions and
adaptabilities of a certain job.
Duties and Responsibilities, authority, purpose and scope
of a specific job.
Mode Oral or Written Written
Advantage Helpful in Recruitment and Selection of manpower Helpful in ascertaining whether an applicant is eligible as
per the set standards.
Job Design
Creating a job design is the succeeding step to job
analysis. Job analysis provides information about
the skills and competency required to perform a
job efficiently.
Conversely, job design strives at organizing tasks,
duties, and responsibilities associated with a job
to achieve organizational as well as individual
objectives.
Job design is a relatively new term in HRM.
Job Design
Job design" refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is
organized. Job design helps to determine:
1) What tasks are required to be done or what tasks is part of the
job?
2) How are the tasks performed?
3) What amount are tasks are required to be done?
4) What is the sequence of performing these tasks?
Difference between job
design and job analysis
• Job analysis involves the evaluation and analysis of a
job, in terms of the tasks, responsibilities, skills, tools,
knowledge and expertise required to fulfill the job
requirements successfully.
 Job design dictates the way work tasks are arranged
to arrive at the maximum efficiency and optimal
outcomes.
• Job design follows job analysis, and the purpose of
both job analysis and design is to create the best fit
among the company’s needs and individual with the
right skills, knowledge and capabilities to deliver to
those needs.
Job design involves
administrative areas such
as:
A well-designed job will encourage
a variety of 'good' positions, have
reasonable strength requirements,
require a reasonable amount
of mental activity, and help foster
feelings of achievement and self-
esteem.
Job Simplification
It means breaking the job into relatively easier sub-parts
with the intention to enhance the individual’s
productivity by minimizing the physical and mental
efforts required to perform a complex job.
Once the complex task is divided into the relatively easier
tasks, each task is assigned to the individuals who
perform these repeatedly. By doing the same thing again
and again, the employees gain proficiencies in the jobs
assigned to them and as a result, the profitability of the
organization increases.
Under the job simplification method, the organization
saves its training cost, as a very low level of skills is
required to perform the simplified jobs. Also, the job
speed increases, as the individual is required to perform
a small portion of the previously larger and complex job.
This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
Job Rotation
Employees are shifted between
two or more assignments or jobs at
regular intervals of time in order to
expose them to all verticals of an
organization.
It is a pre-planned approach with
an objective to test the employee
skills and competencies in order to
place him or her at the right place.
In addition to it, it reduces the
monotony of the job and gives
them a wider experience and helps
them gain more insights.
Job Enrichment
It is the job design technique used to increase the satisfaction among
the employees by delegating higher authority and responsibility to them
and thereby enabling them to use their abilities to the fullest.
is a common motivational technique used by organizations to give an
employee greater satisfaction in his work.
It means giving an employee additional responsibilities previously
reserved for his manager or other higher-ranking positions.
An enriched job gives the employee more self-management in his
duties.
Example
For example, a marketing executive might think that their
job would be enriched by taking on some responsibility for
social media marketing
Job Enlargement
The Job Enlargement refers to the horizontal expansion of jobs wherein more and more
activities, and tasks are added to the existing job scope at the same level in the organization.
In other words, job enlargement means increasing the scope of duties and responsibilities of an
individual by adding the related activities to his existing job profile and generally without any
change in his authority and his level in the hierarchy in the organization.
The purpose behind the job enlargement is to increase the employee flexibility and reduce the
monotony that occurs gradually over a period.
This technique which is used to broaden the scope of the employee’s activities with the intent to
increase his responsibility and duties and minimize the boredom that he may be facing with his
existing job duties. But however, the employee can consider this approach as a negative step
taken by the management; wherein he is required to do more task or activities for the same
amount of pay.
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JOB ANALYSIS ETC.pptx

  • 2. What Is a Job? JOB : A group of homogeneous tasks related by similarity of functions. When performed by an employee in an exchange for pay, a job consists of duties, responsibilities, and tasks (performance elements) that are (1) defined and specific, and (2) can be accomplished, quantified, measured, and rated. From a wider perspective, a job is synonymous with a role and includes the physical and social aspects of a work environment. Often, individuals identify themselves with their job or role (foreman, supervisor, engineer, etc.) and derive motivation from its uniqueness or usefulness.
  • 3. Job analysis Job analysis Job analysis is a systematic process of collecting the information on nature of a job, qualities and qualifications required to a job, physical and mental capabilities to require to a job, duties and responsibilities, physical and mental effort required to perform a job, necessary skills required to perform a job, working conditions and environment for a job.
  • 4. Job analysis is... It is primary tool in putting right man on right job. The process of job analysis involves the analyst gathering information about the duties of the incumbent, the nature and conditions of the work, and some basic qualifications. The measure of a sound job analysis is a valid task list. This list contains the functional or duty areas of a position, the related tasks, and the basic training recommendations.
  • 5. The intention behind job analysis is to answer questions such as: what is the need of the job to exist? What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake? When is the job to be performed? Where is the job to be performed? How is the job perform by an employee? What qualities and qualifications are required to perform the job?
  • 6. Job analysis is a detailed examination of :- 1) tasks that make up a job (employee role), (2) conditions under which an employee performing his/her job, and (3) what exactly a job requires in terms of aptitudes (potential for achievement), attitudes (behavior characteristics), knowledge, skills, educational qualifications and the physical working condition of the employee. Its objectives include (a) to determine most effective methods for performing a job. (b) to increase employee job satisfaction. (c) to identify core areas for giving training to employees and to find out best methods of training. (d) development of performance measurement systems, and (e) to match job-specifications with employee specifications while selection of an employee.
  • 7. Job analysis takes place before the recruitment process.
  • 8. Procedure for job analysis Job analysis is done by using two approaches one is work oriented approach and second one is employee-oriented approach. 1. work-oriented approach this approach focus on the actual task involved in a Job. this approach mainly concentrate on duties, functions and responsibilities involved in a job
  • 9. Example Job of court manager at Courts (judiciary), task-oriented approach of job analysis statement include: •The Court Manager shall function under the control and guidance of the Chief Justice in the High Court, and the District Judge in the respective district Courts. •He shall work on policies and standards, based on applicable directives of superior Courts, establish the performance standards applicable to the Court (including on timeliness, efficiency; quality of Court performance; infrastructure; and human resources; access to justice; as well as for systems for Court management and case management. •He will carry out an evaluation of the compliance of the directives of the Court with such standards; identify deficiencies and deviations; identify steps required to achieve compliance, maintain such an evaluation on a current basis through annual updates. He will monitor the implementation of the approved CDP and report to the District Judge and the High Court with the progress. He will ensure that statistics on all aspects of the functioning of the Court are complied and reported accurately and promptly in accordance with systems established by the High Court. He will ensure that reports on statistics are duly completed and provided as required. He will ensure that the processes, procedures, policies and standards established by the High Court for Court Management are complied with and that they safeguard quality, ensure efficiency and timeliness and minimize costs to litigants and to the State; and enhance access to justice. He will ensure that case management systems are fully compliant with the policies and standards established by the High Court for case management and that they address the legitimate needs of litigants in terms of quality, efficiency and timeliness, costs to litigants and to the State. Standard systems for case management shall be developed by the High Court time to time.
  • 10. 2. Employee oriented approach This approach focuses on examining of human attributes needed to perform the job perfectly. Human attributes have been classified into knowledge, skills, attitude and other characteristics. Knowledge is the information people need in order to perform the job. Skills are the proficiencies needed to perform each task. Abilities are the attributes that are relatively stable over time. Other characteristics are all other attributes, usually personality factors.
  • 11. Example The Court Manager shall have M.B.A. Degree or Advanced Diploma in General Management from a recognized University/institution of India. He shall have minimum 10 years' experience in the field of management, experience/training in I.T Systems Management, H.R.M, Financial Systems Management. He shall not be more than 40 years of age. He should have excellent communication skills. He should have excellent Computer application skills.
  • 12.
  • 13. Job Description JOB DESCRIPTION is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature, and it constitutes all those facts which are related to a job such as : •Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern. •The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job. •The nature of authority- responsibility relationships. •Necessary qualifications that are required for job. •Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern. •The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.
  • 14. Examples of Job Description
  • 15. Advantages of Job Description ◦ It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances. ◦ It helps in recruitment and selection procedures. ◦ It assists in manpower planning. ◦ It is also helpful in performance appraisal. ◦ It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job. ◦ It also helps in chalking out training and development programs.
  • 16. JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are : Job title and designation Educational qualifications for that title Physical and other related attributes Physique and mental health Special attributes and abilities Maturity and dependability Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
  • 17. Advantages of Job Specification It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure. It helps in giving due justification to each job. It also helps in designing training and development programs. It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees. It helps in job evaluation. It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.
  • 18. Differences between a job description and a job specification Job description is a document which states an overview of the duties, responsibilities and functions of a specific job in an organization. Job specification is a statement of the qualifications, personality traits, skills, etc. required by an individual to perform the job.
  • 19. Differences between a job description and a job specification Content Job description usually lists out the job title, location, job summary, working environment, duties to be performed on the job, etc. Job specification lists out the qualifications, experience, training, skills, emotional attributes, mental capabilities of an individual to perform the job. Measures Job description measures the tasks and responsibilities attached to the job. Job specification measures the capabilities that the job holder must possess to perform the job.
  • 20. Usefulness Job description offers ample information about the job which helps the management in evaluating the job performance and defining the training needs of an employee. Job specification helps the candidates who are applying for a job to analyze whether they are eligible for a particular job or not. Benefit Job description statement helps the organization to be clear about 'Who should do what'. Job specification statement helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, bonus, internal transfers and salary increase.
  • 21. A job analysis will show: 1. Job oriented activities, which is the description of the exact activities to be performed such as teaching, coaching, facilitating, mentoring and so on. 2. Who a worker is to report to as well as the relationship of a worker with others which include superiors, colleagues and subordinates. 3. Behaviors performed during the work such as coordinating, checking, auditing and various decision makings. 4. Equipment, materials, tools to be used in performing the work such as software, machines etc. 5. Job context like the physical working conditions, work schedule, organizational context, social context, incentives etc. 6. Personal data related to the job such as technical skills, training, work experience etc. 7. Personal attribute like aptitude, physical characteristics, personality, interest, passion, values etc.
  • 22. job analysis into two subsets: · Job Description: this consists of job title, job location, job summary, reporting to, working conditions, job duties and machine used to be used, hazards etc. · Job Specification: Qualification, experience, training, skills, responsibilities, emotional characteristics, sensory demands etc. Having considered job analysis, let’s consider a closely related concept- Job Design.
  • 23. BASIS FOR COMPARISON JOB ANALYSIS JOB DESCRIPTION Meaning A deep research on a particular job to ascertain every small details about it, is known as Job Analysis. A comprehensive job summary depicting the job contents in short but in an exhaustive manner. What is it? Process Statement Concept A process of determining all the necessary requirements and aspects of a job. A concise statement of what a job demands. Incorporates Tasks, responsibilities, skill, abilities, working conditions and adaptabilities of a certain job. Duties and Responsibilities, authority, purpose and scope of a specific job. Mode Oral or Written Written Advantage Helpful in Recruitment and Selection of manpower Helpful in ascertaining whether an applicant is eligible as per the set standards.
  • 24. Job Design Creating a job design is the succeeding step to job analysis. Job analysis provides information about the skills and competency required to perform a job efficiently. Conversely, job design strives at organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities associated with a job to achieve organizational as well as individual objectives. Job design is a relatively new term in HRM.
  • 25. Job Design Job design" refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: 1) What tasks are required to be done or what tasks is part of the job? 2) How are the tasks performed? 3) What amount are tasks are required to be done? 4) What is the sequence of performing these tasks?
  • 26. Difference between job design and job analysis • Job analysis involves the evaluation and analysis of a job, in terms of the tasks, responsibilities, skills, tools, knowledge and expertise required to fulfill the job requirements successfully.  Job design dictates the way work tasks are arranged to arrive at the maximum efficiency and optimal outcomes. • Job design follows job analysis, and the purpose of both job analysis and design is to create the best fit among the company’s needs and individual with the right skills, knowledge and capabilities to deliver to those needs.
  • 27. Job design involves administrative areas such as: A well-designed job will encourage a variety of 'good' positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self- esteem.
  • 28. Job Simplification It means breaking the job into relatively easier sub-parts with the intention to enhance the individual’s productivity by minimizing the physical and mental efforts required to perform a complex job. Once the complex task is divided into the relatively easier tasks, each task is assigned to the individuals who perform these repeatedly. By doing the same thing again and again, the employees gain proficiencies in the jobs assigned to them and as a result, the profitability of the organization increases. Under the job simplification method, the organization saves its training cost, as a very low level of skills is required to perform the simplified jobs. Also, the job speed increases, as the individual is required to perform a small portion of the previously larger and complex job. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  • 29. Job Rotation Employees are shifted between two or more assignments or jobs at regular intervals of time in order to expose them to all verticals of an organization. It is a pre-planned approach with an objective to test the employee skills and competencies in order to place him or her at the right place. In addition to it, it reduces the monotony of the job and gives them a wider experience and helps them gain more insights.
  • 30. Job Enrichment It is the job design technique used to increase the satisfaction among the employees by delegating higher authority and responsibility to them and thereby enabling them to use their abilities to the fullest. is a common motivational technique used by organizations to give an employee greater satisfaction in his work. It means giving an employee additional responsibilities previously reserved for his manager or other higher-ranking positions. An enriched job gives the employee more self-management in his duties.
  • 31. Example For example, a marketing executive might think that their job would be enriched by taking on some responsibility for social media marketing
  • 32. Job Enlargement The Job Enlargement refers to the horizontal expansion of jobs wherein more and more activities, and tasks are added to the existing job scope at the same level in the organization. In other words, job enlargement means increasing the scope of duties and responsibilities of an individual by adding the related activities to his existing job profile and generally without any change in his authority and his level in the hierarchy in the organization. The purpose behind the job enlargement is to increase the employee flexibility and reduce the monotony that occurs gradually over a period. This technique which is used to broaden the scope of the employee’s activities with the intent to increase his responsibility and duties and minimize the boredom that he may be facing with his existing job duties. But however, the employee can consider this approach as a negative step taken by the management; wherein he is required to do more task or activities for the same amount of pay.