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Writing Instructional Practices In Kindergarten


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Professional Development Power Point on writing standards and recommendations for young children and teaching kid writing

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Writing Instructional Practices In Kindergarten

  1. 1. Writing Instructional Practices in Kindergarten<br />How can we stay within the expected guidelines yet keep instruction developmentally appropriate and assessment embedded and authentic?<br />
  2. 2. Gain some basic background knowledge about NAEYC (National Association for the Education of Young Children), DEC (The Council for Exceptional Children’s Division for Early Childhood) and Kid Writing.<br />Compare the Kentucky writing standards, IRA/NAEYC position statement and recommendations that are in place for kindergarten children. Explore how DEC’s recommendations for positive outcomes might help as we design instruction and assess learning.<br />Recognize and Overcome the barriers we incur when teaching writing to all young children. <br />Gain background knowledge and training on using “Kid Writing” as a way to implement daily writing instruction that is researched based, scaffolded, includes systematic phonics instruction and has authentic assessment.<br />Goal of This Professional Development<br />
  3. 3. A child comes home from his first day at school. His Mother asks, &quot;Well, what did you learn today?&quot;The kid replies, &quot;Not enough. They want me to come back tomorrow.&quot; <br />A little Educational Humor<br />
  4. 4. NAEYC is the nation’s largest organization of early childhood educators. The organization published position statements on Developmentally Appropriate Practices in 1986, 1987(revised to include infants and toddlers), 1997 and most recently in 2009. These position statements were originally developed to provide guidance to programs seeking accreditation, to respond to a trend of instructional push down that was not taking into account a child’s developmental needs and to address the misuse of assessment being used to deem readiness for kindergarten or to exclude children from private school settings. NAEYC also wanted to set standards for how young children learn so educators would know how to teach young children in the best way. Each revision has been made to reflect current trends and issues with educating young children. Newer revisions reflect cultural, educational and familial diversity that teachers must take into consideration when panning and implementing instruction. (Taken from a live oral interview on September 21 2009 with Dr. Mary Lou Hyson who was a staff member of NAEYC from 1987 to 2006 and helped develop these position statements) <br />Some of the services that NAEYC provides for adults and programs that work with young children are:<br />Peer reviewed journals<br />Books, posters, videos and brochures on a variety of topics of interest and need.<br />Professional development<br />An annual conference<br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />NAEYC<br />
  5. 5. The Division for Early Childhood (DEC) is one of seventeen divisions of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) - the largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted. DEC is especially for individuals who work with or on behalf of children with special needs, birth through age eight, and their families.<br />The most recent recommendation position statement was released in March of 2007 and it addresses curriculum, assessment and program evaluation that promote positive outcomes for all children. <br />DEC has collaborated with NAEYC on joint position statements that address early childhood curriculum and assessment. <br />Some of the services that DEC provides for professionals and families of young children are:<br />Peer reviewed journals<br />Annual conferences<br />Books, position statements, videos, posters<br />Innovations in research<br />Professional development<br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />DEC<br />
  6. 6. The International Reading Association is a Non profit global organization of individuals and institutions that is committed to promoting worldwide literacy. It has been operating since 1956 and has 85, 000 members. <br />Some of their goals are to:<br />Improve the quality of reading instruction.<br />Disseminate research and information about reading.<br />Encourage a lifetime reading habit. <br />Some of the services/programs they offer include:<br />Advocacy for education reform and global outreach<br />Provides awards and grants for reading advancement , research and professional development.<br />Publications<br />Professional Development opportunities<br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />IRA<br />
  7. 7. What do these organizations recommend as opposed to what The Kentucky Department of Education has in place for the program of studies? <br />The next series of slides look at specific recommendations/guidelines for how young children should explore and acquire writing and literacy experiences. Both NAEYC/IRA and DEC have recommendations broken down into phases or stages. KDE’s Program of Studies is written to reflect what a child should be able to do by the end of primary or third grade.<br />
  8. 8. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsKDE program of Studies written for the for End of Primary<br />Academic expectations<br />1.11 Students write using appropriate forms and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.<br />Big idea: Writing content: <br />students will understand that there are many reasons for writing, that different forms are appropriate for different purposes and audiences across content areas and have different features, writing must be developed and coherent and writing can be used to make meaning of ones own experience as well as other information and ideas. <br />Big Idea: Writing Structure<br />Students will understand that sentences must be clear, different types of structures are appropriate for different purposes, audiences and different forms of writing and structural elements such as context meaningful order of ideas, transitional words and conclusions all help to make meaning clear for the reader.<br />
  9. 9. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsKDE program of Studies written for the for End of Primary<br />Big Idea: Writing Conventions<br />Students will understand that writers need to choose their language with care, depending on the content purpose and audience. Language should be concise and precise. Strong verbs and nouns, concrete details and sensory language help make meaning clear to the reader. Standard grammar and usage are important in making meaning clear to the reader. Writers need to use correct spelling, punctuation and capitalization. <br /> Writers need to document sources/give credit for the idea of others. <br />Big Idea: Writing Process <br />Students will understand that the writing process is a helpful tool in constructing and demonstrating meaning of content through writing. The stages are sometimes recursive. Writers work through the process at different rates. Often the process is enhanced by conferencing with others. <br />Primary skills for the writing process are: <br /> Focus, pre-write, draft, revise, edit, publish, reflect and evaluate. <br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />
  10. 10. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsNAEYC /IRA joint Position statement the Continuum of Children’s Development in Early Reading and Writing<br />Phase 2: Experimental reading and writing (goals for kindergarten)<br />Children develop basic concepts of print and begin to engage in and experiment with reading and writing.<br />Kindergartners can:<br />enjoy being read to and can retell simple narrative stories or informational texts<br />use descriptive language to explain and explore<br />recognize letters and letter-sound matches<br />show familiarity with rhyming and beginning sounds<br />understand left-to-right and top-to-bottom orientation and familiar concepts of print<br />match spoken words with written ones<br />begin to write letters of the alphabet and some high-frequency words<br />
  11. 11. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsNAEYC /IRA joint Position statementthe Continuum of Children’s Development in Early Reading and Writing<br />What teachers do:<br />encourage children to talk about reading and writing experiences<br />provide many opportunities for children to explore and identify sound-symbol relationships in meaningful contexts<br />help children to segment spoken words into individual sounds and blend the sounds into whole words (for example, by slowly writing a word and saying its sound)<br />frequently read interesting and conceptually rich stories to children<br />provide daily opportunities for children to write<br />help children build a sight vocabulary<br />create a literacy-rich environment for children to engage independently in reading and writing<br />
  12. 12. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsNAEYC /IRA joint Position statement the Continuum of Children’s Development in Early Reading and Writing<br />What parents and family members can do:<br />daily read and reread narrative and informational stories to<br /> children<br />encourage children’s attempts at reading and writing<br />allow children to participate in activities that involve writing and reading (for example, cooking, making grocery lists)<br />play games that involve specific directions (such as “Simon Says”)<br />have conversations with children during mealtimes and throughout the day<br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />
  13. 13. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Key recommendation: <br />All learners have access to and participate in the curriculum through multiple means of representation, engagement and expression.<br />Representation:<br />Multiple means of representation are built into the curriculum to address the widest range of learners possible. The goals and expectations, learning opportunities and lessons, toys/materials, and resources are designed to be multi-sensory, available in different formats, flexible, and to have multiple access points and levels of complexity, allowing children to participate in ways that best meet their needs.<br />
  14. 14. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Teachers use different and multiple formats to provide information and review critical concepts.<br />Kindergarten Examples for Representation may include:<br />When teaching letters of the alphabet the teacher will provide opportunities for the child to write the letter on paper, on a overhead projected on the wall , dry erase board, with shaving cream, in sand flour or cornmeal, etc. <br />They can make the letters out of Play Dough or putty.<br />Children will have the opportunity to find the letters in noodles, water, sand or some other multi sensory medium. <br />Children will have the opportunity to sing silly songs about the letters and move their bodies into the shapes of the letters. <br />They can read a book about letters of the alphabet<br />
  15. 15. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Engagement:<br />Multiplemeans of engagement are provided in order to appeal to, motivate, and meet the needs of a wide range of children. Children may choose for themselves from an array of options, enabling children to pursue their goals, develop preferences, build confidence, establish priorities, persist in the face of difficulty, and care about learning.<br />
  16. 16. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Teachers provide multiple and varied opportunities for children to be involved in learning.<br />The teacher designs many different opportunities to engage children in practicing their writing skills.<br />Examples of kindergarten engagement might include:<br />Finding and sorting children’s names in the class by same beginning letter.<br />Writing classmates names on dry erase boards to answer a survey question of the day.<br />Using the computer to type classmates names.<br />Play a game on the computer with software that has sight word spelling practice.<br />Using letter stamps to stamp out sight words.<br />Using cubes with alphabet letters written on them to connect and copy sight words<br />
  17. 17. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Expression:<br />Multiple means of expression ensures children have a variety of formats for responding, demonstrating what they know, and for expressing ideas, feelings, and preferences. In addition, children have options in their use of resources, toys, and materials, addressing individual strengths, preferences, and abilities.<br />
  18. 18. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Children have multiple opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.<br />Kindergarten examples for Expression may include:<br />Use the overhead projector or Elmo to create and display their work.<br />Use the Smart Board to visit an interactive Web site to share with their peers.<br />Make a model or representation.<br />Using words to talk (dictate).<br /> Writing notes and letters.<br /> Making pictures or a collage of board maker pictures.<br /> Creating songs or poems.<br />Using sign language or gestures.<br /> Using communication boards or assistive devices<br />
  19. 19. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Assessment/Progress Monitoring:<br /> Assessment/Progress monitoring conducted on groups of children or an individual child should be done by collaborative teams using multiple valid and reliable measures. Assessment/progress monitoring procedures should vary in terms of (a) format of items/questions (e.g., presented/posed through verbal questions, written directions, gestures, tactile models, and/or pictures); (b) complexity, wherein items represent a wide range of developmental skills and abilities; and (c) expectations, wherein children can demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a variety of ways (e.g., use of speech, signs, gestures, pictures, writing, art, and assistive technology). Assessment/progress monitoring procedures do not penalize children for physical, sensory, or cultural differences. <br />Assessments used with young children should also accommodate their individual strengths, preferences, abilities, and visual, auditory, and kinesthetic needs. Program administration provides support for collaborative data collection, analysis, interpretation, and use in decision making.<br />
  20. 20. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />Examples of Kindergarten Assessment/progress monitoring: <br />Assessment/progress monitoring is ongoing and conducted across all aspects of the curriculum by those who know the child best (e.g., family members, teachers, therapists). For example, a child’s teacher observes during specific lessons and transitions, and families help observe during<br /> extracurricular activities such as afterschool club meetings.<br />
  21. 21. Comparing Standards/RecommendationsDEC Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities<br />All areas of students’ health, growth, and development are assessed/monitored using a common comprehensive, universally designed, authentic, and curriculum-based measure(s) that aligns with state standards (e.g., writing and spelling probes and commercially available measures such as the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) presented by Good &<br /> Kaminski, 2003).<br />Assessment/monitoring data are used to inform day-to-day practices and enhance the lives of children and families, not just to meet federal, state, or agency requirements. For example, teams should use data to plan daily lessons, adapt equipment and learning materials, and/or guide the type and frequency of services<br />Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />
  22. 22. What do these comparisons mean to us as kindergarten teachers?<br />Kentucky’s program of studies has guidelines in place for what children need to know as writers but it does not include scope and sequence suggestions or make recommendations for diverse learners. <br />NAEYC/IRA position statement believes that children need systematic and specific phonemic awareness and literacy instruction and be exposed to a variety of genres and vocabulary with the help of a knowledgeable adult in order to become successful readers and writers. Activities to support this learning need to be developmentally appropriate and provide opportunity for the child to explore and use their environment in a safe and supported manner.<br />DEC challenges us as educators to be certain the curriculum is accessible to all children by making sure the content is represented in a way to meet all learning styles (visual, kinesthetic, auditory etc,), that activities both allow and encourage student engagement , that there are varied ways and means for children to express (show) what they have learned and that assessment be ongoing, done by familiar staff and used to guide and plan instruction. <br />
  23. 23. How can we overcome the barriers we face, adhere to state guidelines and meet the individual needs of diverse learners?<br />Intentionally plan writing activities with diverse learners in mind.<br />Intentionally teach children to believe they are writers and have a system of “previously taught” resources in place within the environment they can use to support their writing. <br />Break the process of writing down into developmental steps by both supporting and “pushing” writers to each new level of learning.<br />Systematically assess and let assessment guide the writing instruction.<br />As a team, develop a suggested scope and sequence of writing instruction based on the big ideas in the program of studies, and combined curriculum document keeping in mind DAP, NAEYC and DEC recommendations. Break it down into four nine week sections and create benchmarks. <br />
  24. 24. What is Kid Writing?<br />It is Evidenced/Research based<br />Provides integrated, systematic phonics instruction that is embedded with whole language.<br />Supports early writing success that produces literacy success.<br />Designed to meet each child on their own individual instructional level.<br />A writing process that begins day one and builds.<br />Using Kid Writing as a tool and basis for writing instruction<br />
  25. 25. Students need to see modeled writing to learn how thinking processes are involved in writing.<br />Provides a similar learning structure each time.<br />Teachers are able to design mini lessons based on need that surfaces in children’s writing on a day to day basis that is geared specifically to that child’s or classroom’s needs and that are tied to core content.<br />It is purposeful for students and teachers. It is more of a philosophy about teaching writing rather than a program that expects kids to be learning on it’s pace. This approach allows you to meet the children where they are and provide daily support at their own instructional level. <br />Assessment is embedded and authentic. <br />Why use Kid Writing as Writer’s Workshop?<br />
  26. 26. Children are engaged in whole group or small group modeled Kid Writing mini lesson.<br />It is best done as a small group writing workshop daily.<br />Children are taught that this is a risk free time and are encouraged to move around the room to get access to resources they might need for writing and thinking.<br />All teachers and assistants in the room are involved in leading conferences with children and gathering authentic assessment. <br />Students participate in sharing work with peers. This also is a way to begin to publish work.<br />What does Kid Writing look like?<br />
  27. 27. Instruction starts or ends with a mini-lesson which is designed with the prior days overall assessment results in mind as you also move through core content. What did they or did they not understand or what are they needing and using in their writing? Use daily instruction as a time and place for introducing new word wall words and kid crowns for the children to use in their writing. Try to incorporate newly introduced words into modeled writing as another way to reinforce the new words. <br />Students draw a picture and begin writing. (at first, only a rare few will be able to write without the adult support) Move around the room and as you see the children who are ready or “hung up” in the thinking process, begin conferences. <br />Conference- this is an integral part of Kid Writing. This is where the instruction, assessment and support takes place. You get to meet each child at their own personal level and gear instruction to match and support where they are individually on the writing continuum. Don’t forget to praise what they did well and then give a push or a challenge for tomorrows writing workshop.<br />Adult underwriting- This is where you write what they wrote in conventional or adult underwriting. Read the adult writing back to them twice as you touch each word and then have them reread it back to you. This reinforces concepts of print and reading skills.<br />Share- pick two or three children daily to share what they wrote with the class. All ears are on the reader at this time. <br />What are the basic steps for Writing Workshop ?<br />
  28. 28. Assessment is authentic and embedded in the instruction.<br />Create a developmental writing continuum and fill it out periodically on each child throughout year. There are some nice ones in the back of the Kid Writing book with examples that illustrate each level or phase of writing. Write the days date on the list that best matches the child’s writing on that day. <br />Make anecdotal notes about what the child is doing well and where they need to go in terms of instruction. <br />Keep small checklists in your pocket or a baggie to staple to the back of the day’s work. Leave a space for comments and you have anecdotal notes and a checklist.<br />Keep a class checklist on a clipboard to check off writing behaviors noted that day.<br />Keep a portfolio of work. That is why it is so important to date each days work, so you can see when behaviors changed. <br />Assessment<br />
  29. 29. Ask yourself these things:<br />What can I take away from the PD this week that will enhance my writing workshop instruction?<br />How am I individualizing writing instruction ?<br />What adaptations/modifications can I have available and ready to use on a daily basis when individualizing instruction? <br />Reflections<br />
  30. 30. Cardonick, I., & Feldgus, E. ( 1999). Kid Writing : A systematic Approach to Phonics, Journals, and Writing Workshop (2nd ed.). United States of America: Wright Group/McGraw –Hill<br />Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children (2007, March). Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities: Recommendations for Curriculum, Assessment and Program Evaluation. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />International Reading Association and National Association for the Education of Young Children(1998). Learning to Read and Write: A Joint Position Statement of The International Reading Association and The National Association of the Education of Young Children. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />Kentucky Department of Education. (2006) 2006 revised Program of Studies Primary Education. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from<br />.<br />Resources<br />