Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Population and economic development

4,371 views

Published on

Management - Population growth and its Effect on Economic Development

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Population and economic development

  1. 1. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Affiliated Institution of G.G.S.IP.U, Delhi B.Com (H) Indian Economy 888301 Population and Economic Development By Dr Vandana Malviya…
  2. 2. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population
  3. 3. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population growth and its Effect on Economic Development!!!
  4. 4. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population and Developed Countries • Growing population positively affects economic development: – Increased labor force for increased production; – Enhance demand for good and expands size of market; – Encourages capital formation
  5. 5. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population growth and Underdeveloped countries- 2 lines of thought • Population growth as boon to economic development:
  6. 6. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population growth an obstacle to economic development
  7. 7. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Relation between population growth and other economic factors • Population growth and production; • Population growth and agricultural development; • Population growth and labor force; • Population growth and employment; • Population growth and capital formation; • Population growth and balance of payments; • Population growth and vicious circle of poverty; • Population growth and balanced growth
  8. 8. Why a growing population? • India • Lack of Migration • Superstitious • Lack of Education • Desire for Male children • Fertility rate declining – Younger women having children
  9. 9. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population growth in India Census year Population ( in million) 1901 238.3 1911 252.0 1921 251.2 1931 278.8 1941 318.7 1951 360.9 1961 439.2 1971 548.1 1981 683.3 1991 846.4 2001 1028.7 2011 1210.1
  10. 10. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Causes of High Birth Rate • Economic Factors: • Mass poverty; • Predominance agriculture; • Majority of rural population living in joint families; • Gradually rising per capita income of high income group;
  11. 11. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Causes of High Birth Rate • Social Factors: • Universality of marriage; • Low age of marriage; • Liking for male child; • Religious beliefs; • Illiteracy and ignorance; • Low status of women in society; • Prevalence of joint family system.
  12. 12. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Reasons for low death rate • Improved medical facilities; • Effects of economic development; • Control of famines and epidemics; • Maternity hospitals and child care centers; • Spread of facilities for female education.
  13. 13. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population growth’s effect on India’s economic development • Population and national income: • Population and food problem: • Population and burden of unproductive population on productive population: • Population and unemployment; • Population and capital formation; • Population and increasing social and economic responsibility
  14. 14. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Life expectancy: – It has risen in last few decades; – In 1951 it was 45 years; – In 1981-91 it was 58.2 years; – In 2012-13 it was 64.6 years for males and 67.7 years for females.
  15. 15. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Density of population: – It measures the number of persons living over an area of 1 km radius; – In 1951 it was 117 persons; – In 2014 it rose to 382 persons.
  16. 16. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Infant mortality rate: – It measures children who die before 5 years; – In a report by US based organization Save the Children more newborns die on the first day in India; – Every year over 3,09,300 children do not live beyond 1st day in India. – In 1951 it was 250 per thousand – In 2014 it was 44 per thousand in 2011
  17. 17. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Composition of population: – It refers to the distribution of population in different age groups; – (0-14) years, (14 to 60) years and above 60 years; – At present age composition of India is young; – 37% of population below 15 years in India.
  18. 18. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Male-Female ratio: – Male population is more than females; – In 1901 female to male ration was 962:1000; – In 2011 female to male ration was 928:1000.
  19. 19. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Chief demographic features in India • Rural-urban population: – Gandhi ji said “true India resides in villages”. – In 1951 urban population was only 17% of total population; – In 2011 urban population rose to 22% because of migration from rural to urban.
  20. 20. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Population policy • People in rural and urban to be educated to adopt family planning techniques; • Married couples need to be informed about benefits of small families; • After independence the main focus of government has been on : – Lowering the birth rate; – Reducing infant mortality rate; – Improving the quality of life
  21. 21. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 • During 1951-74 about 307.15 crore rupee was spent on family planning programs; • In June 1975 to March 1977, all sorts of coercive measures were practiced to propagate family planning.
  22. 22. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 In 1977 government announced New National Policy • Public should be educated, persuaded and induced to adopt and practice various birth control measures; • No coercion should be practiced in propagation of family planning; • Education system to be formulated in such a manner that would create awareness among people on the importance of family planning;
  23. 23. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 In 1977 government announced New National Policy • Print media to be used for spreading message of family planning to remotest areas of he country; • Registration of marriage to be mandatory; • People opting for tubectomy to be compensated monetarily; • Some tax concessions were announced on the expenditure incurred by business houses on propagation of birth control measures.
  24. 24. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 National Policy on Population (2000) • The objectives of the policy to be achieved by 2010. It is divided in 3 objectives. • Short term objective: it aimed at looking after the needs of contraception and infrastructure with regard to health care; • Medium term objective: one child per couple; • Long term objective: it aimed at achieving a stable population during next 40 years
  25. 25. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Socio-demographic goals of NPP to be achieved by 2010. • Attend the unmet needs relating to child health care services; • Provide free education to children below 14 years of age; • Complete immunization of children; • Marriage of girls to be raised to 20 years and none should get married before 16 years; • 100% deliveries to be performed by professionally trained staff.
  26. 26. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 Socio-demographic goals of NPP to be achieved by 2010. • Registration of marriage, pregnancy, birth and death; • Check and prevent spread of AIDS; • Provide counseling regarding contraceptive services; • Popularize small family norms.
  27. 27. TRINITY INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES Sector – 9, Dwarka Institutional Area, New Delhi-75 • BR and DR has declined in last 13 years; • In 2015 projected Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is 149; • In 2017 projected Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is 127; • India projected Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is 38 in 2015; • India projected Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is 34 in 2017;

×