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.Lecture on Psychopathology_1652266196000.pptx

  1. Psychopathology .
  2. Approaches to Psychopathology Psychological Approaches to Psychopathology Variety of approaches which make assumptions about the cause of abnormality: • Biological – biological factors • Cognitive – thought processes underlying the process • Behavioural – learning experiences are critical in understanding abnormality • Psychodynamic – early experience and unconscious processes are the key influences on behaviour (normal and abnormal)
  3. . • To understand how the biological approach views mental disorders • Biological Approach is also known as the Medical Model and/or Somatic* Model* somatic = ‘of the body’ • Bio approach to psychopathology studies THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIOUR AND THE BODY’S VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Most important is the NERVOUS SYSTEM, esp. • THE BRAIN, as this is the ‘processing centre’ controlling all complex behaviour. • In theory ALL BEHAVIOUR, AB/NORMAL CAN BE RELATED TO CHANGS IN BRAIN ACTIVITY
  4. Psychological disorders are physical illnesses • When the same symptoms frequently occur together, they represent a syndrome or disorder. • The cause, or ‘etiology’ may be one or more of the following: • Brain injury Infection Neurotransmitters Genetics • Think BING !Brain injury – hitting the head might cause psychological disorders – people who knock their heads might become ‘different people’ after wards Infection – infections such as syphilis can cause mental disorder type symptoms... • Neurotransmitters – too much or too little of a neurotransmitter might produce disorders – • high levels of dopamine are linked to schizophrenia • Faulty genes might cause some diseases that have psychological effects e.g. Huntington’s disease leads to a wearing away of mental abilities
  5. Brain injury - Remember Phineas Gage? • Accidental Brain damage can lead to psychological disorders. • After the accident, Phineas Gage was described as impulsive, disordered and having a different personality Some months after the accident, probably in about the middle of 1849. • Phineas felt strong enough to resume work. • But because his personality had changed so much, the contractors who had employed him would not give him his place again. • Before the accident he had been their most capable and efficient foreman, one with a well-balanced mind, and who was looked on as a shrewd smart business man.
  6. Cont’d • He was now fitful, irreverent, and grossly profane, showing little deference for his fellows. • He was also impatient and inflexible, yet capricious and vacillating, unable to settle on any of the plans he devised for future action. • His friends said he was "No longer Gage “characterized by irreverence or contempt for god or sacred principles or things; irreligious (not devoted to holy or religious purposes); unconsecrated; secular ( opposed to sacred), unholy; heathen; pagan: profane rites, not initiated into religious rites or mysteries, as persons, common or vulgar.
  7. Brain damage • A degeneration or malformation of brain cells can cause memory loss often present in Alzheimer’s disease. • Korsakoff’s syndrome occurs when Alcohol and drugs damage part of the brain involved in memory. • Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1), which affects the brain and nervous system. • Thiamine deficiency is often seen in people who consume excessive amounts of alcohol. • This is because: • Many heavy drinkers have poor eating habits. • Their nutrition is inadequate, and does not contain essential vitamins. • Alcohol can inflame the stomach lining and impede the body's ability to absorb the key vitamins it receives. • The main symptom is memory loss - particularly of events arising after the onset of the condition.
  8. . • Sometimes, memories of the more distant past can also be affected. Other symptoms may include: • difficulty in acquiring new information or learning new skills • change in personality − at one extreme the person may show apathy (unconcern, lack of emotional reaction), or at the other, talkative and repetitive behaviour • lack of insight into the condition. • Even a person with great gaps in their memory may believe that their memory is functioning normally • confabulation − inventing events to fill the gaps in memory. For example, a patient who has been in hospital for several weeks may talk convincingly about having just visited his auntie on the south coast earlier that day. • This is more common in the early stages of the illness.
  9. Infections • Sometimes an infection can cause a direct impact on the brain or one illness it causes can lead to a secondary illness that has psychological symptoms. • Example Syphilis bacterium causes a sexually transmitted disease known as syphilis. • It causes short-lived sores followed by general paresis - forgetfulness, mental deterioration and delusions of grandeur and persecution. • The influenza virus has been linked to schizophrenia. • Brown et al (2004)found that 14% of schizophrenic cases may be linked to the fetus being exposed to the ‘flu virus in the womb during the first trimester.
  10. Neurotransmitter Imbalance • Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter can lead to psychopathology. • One of the factors involved in schizophrenia is an excessive amount of dopamine. • High levels of serotonin have been thought be involved in the manic state of bi-polar depression. • Neurotransmitters have been studied quite a bit in relation to psychology and human behavior. • What we have found is that several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep. And, some play a role in mental illnesses.
  11. . • The following are those neurotransmitters which play a significant role in our mental health. • Dopamine – correlated with movement, attention, and learning • Too much dopamine has been associated with schizophrenia, and too little is associated with some forms of depression as well as the muscular rigidity and tremors found in Parkinson’s disease. • Drugs like cocaine increase dopamine levels and can induce schizophrenia –like symptoms. • Serotonin – plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior. • Too little serotonin is associated with depression and some anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder. • Some antidepressant medications increase the availability of serotonin at the receptor sites. • GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid) – inhibits excitation and anxiety • Too little GABA is associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders. • Some anti-anxiety medication increases GABA at the receptor sites.
  12. Genetics • Individuals may inherit a predisposition* to certain illnesses. These are carried on genes, through DNA, which pass from one generation to the next*PREDISPOSITION = Increased vulnerability to a particular disease based on genetic factors • Every human has 46 chromosomes (DNA) divided into 23 pairs. During reproduction, 23 chromosomes from mum and 23 chromosomes from dad are combined to make an embryo. • This is how we get our characteristics from both of our parents. If a disorder is caused genetically then we would expect individuals who are closely related to be more likely to have it. • How do we measure this? Concordance rate: measures how often two individuals who are closely related have the same disorder. • Research Twin Studies: Twins can be identical (monozygotic, MZ) or fraternal (dizygotic, DZ). Monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical DNA • McGuffin et al (1996)Studied twins where one of the pair already suffered from depression. • Assessed the co-twin and found…46% concordance rate for depression (MZ)20% concordance rate for depression (DZ)