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Improving the Brazilian teaching
force through Public-Private
Partnerships:
An exploration in quality
Stephanie M. Hall
OverviewOVERVIEW
1. Background & Importance
2. Study Design
3. Findings
4. Implications & Conclusion
Improving Brazilian t...
The Problem: Unqualified Teachers
• 47% lack credentials, nationally
• up to 80% in rural areas
2014 National Education Pl...
The Solution: ProUNI
How it works:
1. private IHEs (non- and for-profit)
2. tax breaks for subsidized admission
3. target ...
ProUNI: 2005-2014
458,807 lack postsecondary training
12,225 ProUNI scholarships used by teachers
(MEC, 2015)
The issue:
ProUNI is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Under this PPP, a highly unregulated market of
for-profit IHEs has...
Research Question:
How do so-called unqualified teachers enrolled
in a teacher licensure program in a Brazilian for-
profi...
Why is this important?
• High performing systems prioritize teacher
quality.
• Common problem in LDCs.
(Darling-Hammond & ...
Why is this important?
Attempts at addressing educational access and
efficiency through 'market solutions' is a growing
tr...
Theoretical Perspectives
In education policy research, there exists a
tension between social justice and efficiency
(Ball,...
Sampling & Data Collection
Study design: small, qualitative, exploratory
open-ended interviews, Skype (Bogdan & Biklen, 20...
Participants
Participant Age
Years
teaching
Years in
coursework
Course
format
1 24 5 4 Hybrid
2 26 8 3 Hybrid
3 27 7 1 Hyb...
Findings: Disposition to Persistence
“When I failed to get the scholarship after the
first two attempts, I cried a lot. I ...
Findings: Disposition to Persistence
“I didn’t want to be the teacher everyone knew
was not ‘highly qualified’.”
These tea...
Findings: No retention efforts
“I don’t know who the other
ProUNI students are.”
“I have known a few ProUNI students who
h...
Findings: Positive Impact on Teaching
“When I started my job, everything was a little
vague, especially about teaching rea...
Findings: Positive Impact on Teaching
“I have taken ideas from a class on Saturday
and tried them the very next week.”
“If...
Findings: Neutral Perception of Quality
Under-qualified teachers of record who
undergo teacher licensure while working ful...
Findings: Neutral Perception of Quality
“My program, it is a typical program, right?”
“I am sure it has a common foundatio...
Implications
Has the program actually revealed the value of the
residency model?
Teacher education practices in high perfo...
Implications
Global education gaps will not close for
another 100 years if we continue with the
same policies and approach...
Conclusion: Efficiency or
Barriers to licensure are barriers to providing
a high quality teacher to all children.
Future r...
References:
Ball, S. J. (1997). Policy sociology and critical social research: A Personal review of recenteducation policy...
OverviewCONTACT
Stephanie M. Hall
University of Maryland
International Education Policy
halls@umd.edu
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Brazilian Teaching Paper

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Brazilian Teaching Paper

  1. 1. Improving the Brazilian teaching force through Public-Private Partnerships: An exploration in quality Stephanie M. Hall
  2. 2. OverviewOVERVIEW 1. Background & Importance 2. Study Design 3. Findings 4. Implications & Conclusion Improving Brazilian teachers through PPPs:
  3. 3. The Problem: Unqualified Teachers • 47% lack credentials, nationally • up to 80% in rural areas 2014 National Education Plan: ensure all teachers are “licensed and highly qualified” (MEC, 2011) Under-qualified P-12 teachers in Brazil:
  4. 4. The Solution: ProUNI How it works: 1. private IHEs (non- and for-profit) 2. tax breaks for subsidized admission 3. target population: low-income students and/or teachers seeking licensure 2005: Brazilian University for All Program (ProUNI)
  5. 5. ProUNI: 2005-2014 458,807 lack postsecondary training 12,225 ProUNI scholarships used by teachers (MEC, 2015)
  6. 6. The issue: ProUNI is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Under this PPP, a highly unregulated market of for-profit IHEs has emerged (McCowan, 2007). Year # of private IHEs 1996 711 1999 1,097 2008 2,252
  7. 7. Research Question: How do so-called unqualified teachers enrolled in a teacher licensure program in a Brazilian for- profit IHE perceive the quality of the training they receive?
  8. 8. Why is this important? • High performing systems prioritize teacher quality. • Common problem in LDCs. (Darling-Hammond & Rothman, 2015; EI, 2012; OECD, 2014)
  9. 9. Why is this important? Attempts at addressing educational access and efficiency through 'market solutions' is a growing trend (Ball, 2012). The IHE market, which has grown because of ProUNI should provide a quality experience that makes this upgrading of teacher worth it.
  10. 10. Theoretical Perspectives In education policy research, there exists a tension between social justice and efficiency (Ball, 1997). Cost and quality tend to be cut in PPPs for education (Epstein, 2013).
  11. 11. Sampling & Data Collection Study design: small, qualitative, exploratory open-ended interviews, Skype (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007; Sullivan, 2013) Criteria for participation: public P-12 teacher posess no post-secondary degree enrolled in teacher training at a for-profit IHE
  12. 12. Participants Participant Age Years teaching Years in coursework Course format 1 24 5 4 Hybrid 2 26 8 3 Hybrid 3 27 7 1 Hybrid 4 30 9 1 Distance 5 32 12 3 In-person 6 41 20 1 Distance
  13. 13. Findings: Disposition to Persistence “When I failed to get the scholarship after the first two attempts, I cried a lot. I felt desperate, because really, it was a dream and desire, and now that I am finishing the degree, for me, it is like a dream come true.”
  14. 14. Findings: Disposition to Persistence “I didn’t want to be the teacher everyone knew was not ‘highly qualified’.” These teachers are not unqualified on purpose. They believe they value higher education more because they were unable to reach it before.
  15. 15. Findings: No retention efforts “I don’t know who the other ProUNI students are.” “I have known a few ProUNI students who have quit because they found a better job.”
  16. 16. Findings: Positive Impact on Teaching “When I started my job, everything was a little vague, especially about teaching reading... Only when I started college, did I feel I understood my students’ learning. For my project, I am focusing on phonological awareness, which is something that helps me help my kids.”
  17. 17. Findings: Positive Impact on Teaching “I have taken ideas from a class on Saturday and tried them the very next week.” “If I have something I am learning, especially something difficult, I usually also talk about it with the coordinator at my school.”
  18. 18. Findings: Neutral Perception of Quality Under-qualified teachers of record who undergo teacher licensure while working full- time have neutral perceptions of the quality of their programs.
  19. 19. Findings: Neutral Perception of Quality “My program, it is a typical program, right?” “I am sure it has a common foundation.” “I cannot recall anything I hoped to learn that I have not.”
  20. 20. Implications Has the program actually revealed the value of the residency model? Teacher education practices in high performing systems: longer internship experiences medical residency model reduced contact time in first years on the job (Darling-Hammond & Rothman, 2015)
  21. 21. Implications Global education gaps will not close for another 100 years if we continue with the same policies and approaches. Innovation is needed to quicken the pace; such can be tested or found in LDCs. (Winthrop & McGivney, 2015)
  22. 22. Conclusion: Efficiency or Barriers to licensure are barriers to providing a high quality teacher to all children. Future research: Is the qualifying exam the barrier? Why are take-up rates so low?
  23. 23. References: Ball, S. J. (1997). Policy sociology and critical social research: A Personal review of recenteducation policy and policy research. British Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 257-275. Ball, S.J. (2012) Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary. London: Routledge. Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. (2007) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Pear A & B. Darling-Hammond, L. and Rothman, R. (2015) Teaching In A Flat World: Learning from High-Performing Systems. NY: Teachers College Press Education International (EI). (2012). Trained teachers for all: Closing the trained teacher gap. Global Campaign for Education: Washington, DC. Epstein, W.N. (2013) Contract theory and the failures of public-private contracting. Cardozo Law Review 34(6), 1-46. McCowan, T. (2007). Expansion without equity: An analysis of current policy on access to higher education in Brazil. Higher Education, 53: 579-598. MEC: Ministry of Education (2011; 2015) ProUni. ProUni Portal. http://prouniportal.mec.gov.br/index.php OECD (2014). Lessons from TALIS. Paris. Redden, E. (2015, June 16). US For-Profits in Brazil. Inside Higher Ed. Sullivan, J.R. (2013) Skype: An appropriate method of data collection for qualitative interviews? The Hilltop Review, 6(1), 54-60. Winthrop, R. and E. McGivney. 2015. Why wait 100 years? Bridging the gap in global education. Brookings Institution.
  24. 24. OverviewCONTACT Stephanie M. Hall University of Maryland International Education Policy halls@umd.edu

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