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NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Non Verbal Communication is communication without words.
It is communication that takes places through bodily gestures,
postures, facial expression, eye movements, spatial relationship,
touch, artifacts.
Non verbal communication refers to all external stimuli other than
spoken or written words, which includes body motion,
characteristics of appearance, characteristics of voice and use of
space and distancing.
All these modes of non-verbal communication taken together are
also known as body language. Body language plays a significant
role in oral communication.
In day to day oral communication, we keep on interpreting non-
verbal clues without being aware that we are doing so.
It is only recently that a systematic study has been made to analyze
non-verbal communication and KINESICS is the name given to
this branch of learning.
PERSONAL APPEARANCE
 The first impact on the audience/listener is created by the
personal appearance of the speaker.
 Even before the speaker utters the first word we begin to form
an opinion about him and visualize the way he is going to talk.
 Ones appearance may put the audience into a resistant or even
a hostile attitude or induce in them a receptive mood which is
essential for the success of communication.
 Dress, hairstyle, makeup etc., provide clues about the
personality of an individual.
 A uniform may indicate the kind of work one does or instill a
sense of oneness.
POSTURE
 It is an important part of body language and generally refers to
the way one stands, sits and walks.
 The movement of the body, the position of hands legs and
other parts of the body while standing or sitting reveal an
individual’s personality – whether he is vibrant, alive and
dynamic, nervous, confident and self assured etc.
 The way people hold themselves gives important information.
 A good speaker stands tall, feet together and the weight
directly over the instep, keeping the chin parallel to the floor at
right angles to the backbone.
 Standing in this posture before a group is in fact one of the
first essentials for success in speaking.
 A drooping shoulder and a protruding stomach indicate that
the speaker is discouraged, tired and worn out.
 While speaking, naturally there should be shifts in the posture.
These have to be cultivated. One must learn where to place
one’s hands and to shift the weight of the body on the legs
while speaking.
 Interested people always pay attention and lean forward.
 Leaning backward demonstrates aloofness or rejection.
 A firm handshake will give the impression of assertiveness or
honesty. Too firm can, however, seem arrogant or
challenging.
 Folding arms across your chest or body is protective and will
give the impression that you are closed, guarded and
defensive.
 People with arms folded, legs crossed and bodies turned away
signal that they are rejecting messages.
 People showing open hands, both feet planted on the ground
give signal that they are accepting message.
 A head held straight up signals a neutral attitude. A head
tilted to the side indicate interest while a head down gives a
negative and judgmental signal.
GESTURES AND MOVEMENT OF THE BODY
 They too play a significant role in making the communication
effective. A well timed gesture can drive a point home.
 Similarly, playing with a ring, twisting a key-chain or clasping
one’s hands tightly rob the speaker the effectiveness of his
communication.
 Oral communications are accompanied by gestures such as
shrugging of the shoulders, flourish of the hands, movement of
the head etc.
 In fact without the accompanying, it would be difficult to
speak.
 Gestures enhance the impact and add a greater value to what is
being said besides exercising a more powerful impact upon the
listener.
 Gestures can be used purposefully to emphasize meaning.
 Fidgeting (act or move of discomfort) shows boredom and
restlessness.
 Pressing fingers together to form a steeple shows interest,
assertiveness and determination.
 Touching the nose or rubbing indicates discomfort, or it may
even be a signal that your character is not being completely
honest.
 A hand in the back may indicate withdrawal from the
conversation.
NON VERBAL RESEARCHERS IDENTIFY FIVE MAJOR
TYPES OF MOVEMENTS:
EMBLEMS:
These are body gestures that directly translate into words or
phrases.
EXAMPLE:
Okay sign, the thumbs up for good job V for victory.
Emblems are culture specific.
V in India is different
Middle Finger up means different
Hugging in acceptable in some countries while in others it is not
and if withheld it may communicate unfriendliness.
ILLUSTRATORS
These are gestures that enhance the verbal message they
accompany.
While referring something to the left, you might gesture towards
the left.
Most of you illustrate with your hands.
You may also use illustrators to communicate the shape or size of
objects when you are talking.

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Non verbal communication

  • 1. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Non Verbal Communication is communication without words. It is communication that takes places through bodily gestures, postures, facial expression, eye movements, spatial relationship, touch, artifacts. Non verbal communication refers to all external stimuli other than spoken or written words, which includes body motion, characteristics of appearance, characteristics of voice and use of space and distancing. All these modes of non-verbal communication taken together are also known as body language. Body language plays a significant role in oral communication. In day to day oral communication, we keep on interpreting non- verbal clues without being aware that we are doing so. It is only recently that a systematic study has been made to analyze non-verbal communication and KINESICS is the name given to this branch of learning.
  • 2. PERSONAL APPEARANCE  The first impact on the audience/listener is created by the personal appearance of the speaker.  Even before the speaker utters the first word we begin to form an opinion about him and visualize the way he is going to talk.  Ones appearance may put the audience into a resistant or even a hostile attitude or induce in them a receptive mood which is essential for the success of communication.  Dress, hairstyle, makeup etc., provide clues about the personality of an individual.  A uniform may indicate the kind of work one does or instill a sense of oneness. POSTURE  It is an important part of body language and generally refers to the way one stands, sits and walks.  The movement of the body, the position of hands legs and other parts of the body while standing or sitting reveal an individual’s personality – whether he is vibrant, alive and dynamic, nervous, confident and self assured etc.  The way people hold themselves gives important information.  A good speaker stands tall, feet together and the weight directly over the instep, keeping the chin parallel to the floor at right angles to the backbone.  Standing in this posture before a group is in fact one of the first essentials for success in speaking.  A drooping shoulder and a protruding stomach indicate that the speaker is discouraged, tired and worn out.  While speaking, naturally there should be shifts in the posture. These have to be cultivated. One must learn where to place one’s hands and to shift the weight of the body on the legs while speaking.
  • 3.  Interested people always pay attention and lean forward.  Leaning backward demonstrates aloofness or rejection.  A firm handshake will give the impression of assertiveness or honesty. Too firm can, however, seem arrogant or challenging.  Folding arms across your chest or body is protective and will give the impression that you are closed, guarded and defensive.  People with arms folded, legs crossed and bodies turned away signal that they are rejecting messages.  People showing open hands, both feet planted on the ground give signal that they are accepting message.  A head held straight up signals a neutral attitude. A head tilted to the side indicate interest while a head down gives a negative and judgmental signal.
  • 4. GESTURES AND MOVEMENT OF THE BODY  They too play a significant role in making the communication effective. A well timed gesture can drive a point home.  Similarly, playing with a ring, twisting a key-chain or clasping one’s hands tightly rob the speaker the effectiveness of his communication.  Oral communications are accompanied by gestures such as shrugging of the shoulders, flourish of the hands, movement of the head etc.  In fact without the accompanying, it would be difficult to speak.  Gestures enhance the impact and add a greater value to what is being said besides exercising a more powerful impact upon the listener.  Gestures can be used purposefully to emphasize meaning.  Fidgeting (act or move of discomfort) shows boredom and restlessness.  Pressing fingers together to form a steeple shows interest, assertiveness and determination.  Touching the nose or rubbing indicates discomfort, or it may even be a signal that your character is not being completely honest.  A hand in the back may indicate withdrawal from the conversation.
  • 5. NON VERBAL RESEARCHERS IDENTIFY FIVE MAJOR TYPES OF MOVEMENTS: EMBLEMS: These are body gestures that directly translate into words or phrases. EXAMPLE: Okay sign, the thumbs up for good job V for victory. Emblems are culture specific. V in India is different Middle Finger up means different Hugging in acceptable in some countries while in others it is not and if withheld it may communicate unfriendliness.
  • 6. ILLUSTRATORS These are gestures that enhance the verbal message they accompany. While referring something to the left, you might gesture towards the left. Most of you illustrate with your hands. You may also use illustrators to communicate the shape or size of objects when you are talking.
  • 7. AFFECT DISPLAYS These are movements of the face (smiling, frowning) but also of the hands and general body (body tenseness, relaxing posture) communicate emotional meaning. You might just smile while saying how happy you are to see your friend.
  • 8. REGULATORS: These are behaviors that monitor, control, coordinate or maintain the speaking of another individual. For example When you nod your head it means keep on speaking. When you lean forward and open your mouth you would like to say something.
  • 9. ADAPTORS: These are to satisfy one’s personal needs. For example Scratching to relieve an itch, Alter adaptors are directed on the person with whom you are speaking like removing lint from the other persons jacket, straightening their tie or folding your arms in front of you to keep others at a comfortable distance.
  • 10. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS: The face is the most expressive:  Smile indicates friendliness  Frown indicates discontent  Raised eyebrow indicates disbelief  Tightening of the jaw muscles indicates antagonism (hostility)  An expressionless face may confuse the listener  Brightness in the eyes may keep their interest sustained and also evoke enthusiasm  Exuding zeal when one is making a point may make the job of a speaker easy  Biting lips, raising the eyebrows, blinking the eyes too often certainly hinders the smooth flow of communication.
  • 11. EYE CONTACT Eye contact with the listener is the most important aspect of the body language. The eye is the extension of the brain and a window of the soul It tells if the speaker is sincere and whether the listener is interested. It also means gaining feedback, enabling the speaker to alter, adjust and reframe his message while transmitting it. This is automatic and the speaker and listener. Studies show that better eye contact leads to more effective communication. A good speaker therefore always looks at all sections of his audience and not at the ground and ceiling. If some part is ignored they lose interest.
  • 12. SPATIAL COMMUNICATION OR SPATIAL DISTANCES: The study of communication through spatial distances is called PROXEMICS. INTIMATE DISTANCE: Ranging from actual touching to about 18 inches. Each person experiences the sound, smell and feel of the other’s breath. Intimate distance is used for lovemaking, comforting and protecting. This distance is short and people do not consider it proper in public.
  • 13. PERSONAL DISTANCE: This refers to a protective ‘bubble’ 18 to 4 feet Keeps the person protected and untouched Can still touch the other person by stretching his arms. SOCIAL DISTANCE 4 to 12 feet Social gatherings are conducted at this distance Offices of high officials the desks are positioned this way. PUBLIC DISTANCE 12 to 25 feet distance At this distance one can take a defence action if one is threatened.
  • 14. SPACE DISTANCING DIFFERS FROM CULTUR TO CULTURE. In India two males can hug each other and walk hand in hand because they are good friends. Abroad this may give the wrong meaning.
  • 15. TOUCH COMMUNICATION: Also called HAPTICS In the case of a child it is fondled, caressed, patted and stroked. This indicates positive emotions as support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest or intent or affection. Touch may control or direct the behaviours, attitudes or feelings of other persons. In attention getting you touch to gain his/her attention as if to say ‘look at me’ or ‘look over here’ RITUAL TOUCHING Shaking hands to say hello or goodby Hugging, kissing or putting arms around other’s to say farewell Helping someone to get out of the car.
  • 16. ARTIFICTUAL COMMUNICATION: Black colour indicative of death in many cultures, white signals peace and red indictes anger and danger. Students perceive a faculty dressed informally as friendly, fair and enthusiastic and flexible. If dressed formally he is perceived as prepared, knowledgeable and organized. Jewellery also communicates messages like a wedding ring or engagement ring. If you wear a rolex watch it indicates you are rich.
  • 17. SOME COMMON NON VERBAL BEHAVIOUR AND THEIR INTERPRETATION: