UN Security Council Res 1325 on Women, Peace and Security advocacy study


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A strong correlation between the sex of United Nations (UN) peace operation managers and their advocacy for the role of women in peacebuilding was found in an internet study carried out in May 2008. Senior female UN managers involved in peace processes are ten times more likely than male colleagues publicly to address women's roles as peacebuilders, yet of the sixty-six Special Representatives of the UN Secretary-General (SRSG), Deputy Special Representatives of the UN Secretary-General (DSRSG), and Special Envoys addressing peacebuilding who were listed on the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) web site in May 2008, only six were women. In view of the large numbers of women who become refugees or are internally displaced due to armed conflict, it is paramount that peace processes include them at all levels and in all aspects on an equal footing with men. Appointing more women to senior level positions in the UN is one way to achieve this aim. Nobel Peace Prize recipient Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is featured on page 8 in this presentation

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UN Security Council Res 1325 on Women, Peace and Security advocacy study

  1. 1. DEEDS - NOT WORDS IMPLEMENTATION OF 1325 Presentation to Norwegian Armed Forces conference on women and peacebuilding, by Gry Tina Tinde UNHCR Special Advisor on Gender Issues, Oslo, May 2008 Refugee Survey Quarterly article (May 2009) about the study
  2. 2. 1325 IGNORED DDR-meeting in Aveba, Dem Rep of Congo 2006
  3. 3. 1325 IGNORED <ul><li>Security Council members meet the Sudanese Foreign Minister in July 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1325 IGNORED <ul><li>Security Council delegation in Kosovo 2007 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1325 PARTIALLY IGNORED <ul><li>” Moving Sri Lankan peace forward”, Sri Lankan Embassy in US, 2007 </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1325: A landmark declaration <ul><li>Member states to ensure women’s representation at all decision-making levels for the prevention, management and resolution of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council to incorporate a gender perspective into peacekeeping missions </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary-General to appoint more women as special representatives and envoys and in field operations </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt a gender perspective when implementing peace agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Protect women from gender-based violence and end impunity </li></ul>
  7. 7. UNSC 1325 <ul><li>3. Urges the Secretary-General to appoint more women as special representatives and envoys to pursue good offices on his behalf, and in this regard calls on Member States to provide candidates to the Secretary-General, for inclusion in a regularly updated centralized roster; </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1 SRSG AND 5 DSRSG Ellen Margrethe Løj SRSG Liberia Henrietta Mensa-Bonsu DSRSG Liberia Rima Salah DSRSG Chad and CAR Ameerah Haq DSRSG Sudan Aracelly Santana DSRSG Nepal Bintou Keita DSRSG Burundi Ellen Margrethe Løj, SRSG Liberia
  9. 9. SRSG history 1945-2007 Carolyn McAskie, Canada Margaret J. Anstee, UK Angela King, Jamaica Elisabeth Rehn, Finland Gro Harlem Brundtland Norway Heidi Tagliavini Switzerland
  10. 10. LIBERIA’S EXAMPLE Swanee Hunt (left), director of the Kennedy School's Women and Public Policy Program, greets Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf at Hunt's home. In honor of her guest, Hunt is wearing a traditional Liberian dress that was specially decorated to support Johnson-Sirleaf's presidential candidacy.
  11. 11. REFORM AND ACCOUNTABILITY <ul><li>Resolution 1325 cannot be implemented without security sector reform, demobilization and reintegration </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution 1325 is an instrument for accountability by many actors including the UN, member states, mediators and peace-keeping missions </li></ul>Nyaradzayi Gumbonzvanda, Ex UNIFEM, World YWCA General Secretary
  12. 12. THE TYPICAL SRSG <ul><li>Male (23 of 24 are men) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 60 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Former foreign minister, ambassador, esp. to the UN, or Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Former SRSG or DSRSG </li></ul><ul><li>Decades of (net)working on UN issues </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no public display of interest in </li></ul><ul><li>gender equality or UNSC 1325 </li></ul>
  13. 13. SRSG’S WORDS COUNT <ul><li>Quote of SRSG Julian Harston in a 2006 interview in a UN mission magazine </li></ul><ul><li>I am lucky because I’ve got sort of old and bold now and people actually want to listen to what I have to say. So I get around at other people’s expense. This year alone I’ve been invited to give lectures in Bucharest, Nairobi, Hiroshima. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SRSG- A DANGEROUS JOB <ul><li>Suspected Islamic insurgents </li></ul><ul><li>fired four mortar rounds within a few </li></ul><ul><li>hundred meters of Mogadishu's airport </li></ul><ul><li>runway while Djinnit's plane was on the </li></ul><ul><li>ground. Several other rounds landed just </li></ul><ul><li>outside the prime minister's residence </li></ul><ul><li>shortly after Djinnit left. </li></ul><ul><li>Djinnit’s visit came days before an African </li></ul><ul><li>Union summit, at which the issue of </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia's security will be high on the agenda. </li></ul>Jan Eliasson, Said Djinnit Salim Ahmed Salim
  15. 15. Leslie Abdela at PeaceWomen.org <ul><li>Women in Sri Lanka lobbied both domestic political leaders and the Norwegians in the hard work of bringing the country's civil war to an end - but they made no progress, and the killing goes on. </li></ul>Int’l Women’s Day 2008
  16. 16. CHANGING ATTITUDES <ul><li>Question from journalist at Press Briefing in Kosovo 23 Nov 2005: </li></ul><ul><li>I am wondering, would you increase the participation of the women leaders in the talks, regarding both sides, Serbian and Albanian, as regarding your side, on the basis of UN resolution 1325 ? </li></ul><ul><li>Response by UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari: </li></ul><ul><li>(Did not answer regarding Serbs and Albanians but described his own team and mentioned there were very few women in the room) (…) </li></ul><ul><li>It very often depends also what is the availability. Can somebody move, in some cases it is a question that person can’t move for family reasons, or other reasons, there are many constraints. But at least it is not a question of my attitude in this,(…) </li></ul>
  17. 17. KOSOVAR WOMEN CALL FOR INCLUSION IN PEACE PROCESS <ul><li>The complaint is contained in an open letter to the UN Special Representative, Søren Jessen-Petersen, on the occasion of International Women’s Day 2006. “The women of Kosova are concerned that their voices have been ignored or marginalized by both national and the UNMIK leadership,” says the letter. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the signatories of the letter, the Kosova Women’s Network (KWN), announced that it is joining with the renowned Serbian group, Women In Black, to monitor the status talks for a gender component. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kosova Women’s Network, an AP partner, comprises 85 women’s groups, including six Serbian and five Roma organizations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? <ul><li>The UN maintains that Kosovar’s political leaders should appoint the negotiators, but Igo Rogova of Kosova Women’s Network insisted that the UN has a mandate under UN Resolution 1325 to ensure women’s participation </li></ul><ul><li>Rogova also said there should be more women on the UN negotiating team and complained that there was only one woman in the office of the UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari </li></ul><ul><li>The Advocacy Project, news bulletin 8 March 2006 </li></ul>
  19. 19. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? <ul><li>The then Secretary General of the Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation, Kerstin Greback, pointed out in a Jan 2006 letter to UN Special Envoy for the future status process for Kosovo Mr Martti Ahtisaari the serious problems about the lack of women in the negotiation delegations. She also referred to UNSC Resolution 1325 </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Greback mentioned in the letter that the Contact Group calls on all parties to reject any form of violence. This must also include the most widespread violence of all, violence against women </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The WATC is made up by 10 Palestinian women’s organizations </li></ul><ul><li>In a 5 March 2008 letter to the UN Secretary-General, it called upon him to implement UNSC Res 1325 </li></ul>
  21. 21. ANY 1325 TALK? SRSG for Afghanistan Kai Eide meets with US President George W. Bush 29 April 2008
  22. 22. ANY 1325 TALK? UN head of Peacekeeping Operations Jean Marie Guehenno, left, with UNMIK chief Joachim Ruecker visit the northern Serb-dominated part of the Ethnically divided town of Kosovska Mitrovica, Kosovo, 4 May 2008.
  23. 23. 22 August 2007 Biographical Note SECRETARY-GENERAL APPOINTS HENRIETTA JOY ABENA NYARKO MENSA-BONSU of GHANA HIS DEPUTY SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR LIBERIA   United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today announced the appointment of Henrietta Joy Abena Nyarko Mensa-Bonsu of Ghana as his Deputy Special Representative (Rule of Law) for Liberia. Ms. Mensa-Bonsu is a Professor of the Faculty of Law, University of Ghana, and she is currently the Acting Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of Ghana. Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York                                 Secretary-General SG/A/1087 AFR/1570 BIO/3910
  24. 24. References to 1325 among 660 statements investigated 1: 632 (96%) Google references to ”Name Family Name” (SRSG/DSRSG or Special Envoy) with no mention of 1325 in first 10 search instances 2. 28 (4%) direct individual references to importance of UNSC 1325 96% <ul><li>632 no ref. </li></ul><ul><li>28 direct </li></ul>4 %
  25. 25. Individuals referring to 1325 Out of 66 SRSGs, DSRGs and Special Envoys, 12 had mentioned 1325 at least once in the first 10 Google hits. Hence 82 % had not mentioned 1325 in first 10 Google hits 1: 54 persons 2: 12 persons 82 %
  26. 26. How many mentioned 1325 just once? Out of the 12 SRSG, DSRSG or Special Envoys (of 66 individuals in total) who spoke of 1325, 6 mentioned it just once in the first 10 Google hits 6 mentioned only once
  27. 27. WHO SPOKE THE MOST ABOUT 1325? <ul><li>Among all 66 SRSGs, DSRSGs and Special Envoys who were examined only one spoke of 1325 five times in the 10 first direct hits: </li></ul><ul><li>Ellen Margrethe Løj , SRSG in Liberia. </li></ul><ul><li>Three persons spoke four times about 1325: </li></ul><ul><li>Youssef Mahmoud, Exec Rep of the S-G in Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Rima Salah , DSRSG for Chad and CAR </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Doss, SRSG for the Dem Rep of Congo </li></ul><ul><li>54 SRSG/DSRSG/Special Envoys did not mention 1325 in the 10 first Google hits </li></ul>
  28. 28. WHO SPOKE THE MOST ABOUT 1325? <ul><li>Two persons addressed 1325 three times: </li></ul><ul><li>Ameerah Haq , DSRSG in Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Martin, SRSG in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Six persons mentioned 1325 once: </li></ul><ul><li>Francois Louseny Fall, SRSG Central African Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>Abou Moussa, Prinicipal DSRSG Ivory Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan Ryan, DSRSG Liberia </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmedou Ould Abdallah, SRSG Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Ashraf Jehangir Qasi, SRSG Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Eliasson, Special Envoy to Darfur </li></ul>
  29. 29. NORWEGIANS AMONG THE 66 <ul><li>Kjell Magne Bondevik, Special Envoy for the Humanitarian Crisis in the Horn of Africa (0 hits) </li></ul><ul><li>Kai Eide, SRSG Afghanistan (0 hits) </li></ul><ul><li>Terje Rød-Larsen, Special Envoy for the Implementation of SC Res 1559 (0 hits) </li></ul><ul><li>TWO NORWEGIANS ON LIST OF ”OTHER HIGH LEVEL APPOINTMENTS”: </li></ul><ul><li>Gro Harlem Brundtland , Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Climate Change (0 hits) </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Egeland, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on matters relating to the prevention and resolution of conflict (2 hits) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Leslie Abdela at PeaceWomen.org <ul><li>Introduce an amendment to 1325 </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets and make the resolution enforceable, such that by 2015 all peace talks must (and not just should) comprise at least 40% women and at least 40% men </li></ul><ul><li>This would ensure that no more than 60% of any one sex is appointed to the top decision-making levels of international peace-talk teams </li></ul>
  31. 31. RECOMMENDATIONS IN GERMAN SHADOW REPORT <ul><li>The establishment of a monitoring position within the UN system which could check on the implementation of Resolution 1325, enlisting the help of NGOs and civilian representatives </li></ul><ul><li>The establishment of pools of national and international experts for the implementation of Resolution 1325 in post-war lands such as Afghanistan (could be coupled with the new mediation team) </li></ul>
  32. 32. CHANGE (UNWRITTEN) RULES FOR SRSG APPOINTMENTS <ul><li>There is a need for an action plan to increase the share of women </li></ul><ul><li>Target of 50 per cent by 2010 as with all UN staff, use indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability should count more than traditional criteria </li></ul>
  33. 33. CHANGE (UNWRITTEN) RULES FOR SRSG APPOINTMENTS <ul><li>Open application procedure and list of candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Job interview </li></ul><ul><li>Time frame for position </li></ul><ul><li>Open succession planning </li></ul><ul><li>Decouple process from influence of governments </li></ul>
  34. 34. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Create posts of speech writers with UNSC Res 1325 expertise for the SRSGs/DSRSGs </li></ul><ul><li>Train the UN standby team of negotiation experts on UNSC Res 1325 and include 1325 experts in the team </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation to the UN after the 2004 integrity study: Change the tone at the top </li></ul>
  35. 35. ‘ ON-CALL’ MEDIATION TEAM TO ADVISE PEACE ENVOYS IN FIELD   <ul><li>The Standby Team was chosen from a slate of hundreds of candidates, through a rigorous process that included an open invitation for nominations from United Nations Member States </li></ul><ul><li>UN Press conference 5 March 2008 </li></ul>
  36. 36. STANDBY TEAM OF NEGOTIATION EXPERTS <ul><li>Joyce Neu , USA, Team Leader </li></ul><ul><li>No direct match on 1325 in 10 first Google hits </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey Mapendere, Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>No direct match </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Gavigan (USA/Irland) </li></ul><ul><li>No direct match </li></ul><ul><li>John McGarry (Canada) (expert on power sharing) </li></ul><ul><li>No direct match </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Ladley (New Zealand) </li></ul><ul><li>No direct match </li></ul>
  37. 37. ACTION PLANS <ul><li>12 COUNTRIES HAVE AN ACTION PLAN FOR 1325 </li></ul><ul><li>Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>Source: National action plans - Peacewomen.org list </li></ul><ul><li>180 COUNTRIES DON’T – YET (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>