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Social Media in Command & Control: A proof-of-principle experiment

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ISCRAM2013 presentation of Tim Grant: proof-of-principle experiment shows that concept development and further experimentation would be worthwhile into applying social media in Command & Control systems

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Social Media in Command & Control: A proof-of-principle experiment

  1. 1. Social media in C2:Proof-of-principle experimentTim Grant, Fred Geugies, Peter Jongejanr̅
  2. 2. Overview• Goals:– To describe proof-of-principle experiment to testextended framework for C2 using social media (SM)• Outline:– Relevant theory– Proof-of-principle experiment:• Design• Performance• Results & analysis– Conclusions & further researchBaden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment2
  3. 3. Theory (1)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment3Citizen1 CitizennBuildingsituationawareness(a) Integration,aggregation andvalidation ofcitizen generatedcontentEarly warning;Instructions(b) CitizenCommunicationSenderCitizenOrganizationsOrganizations Citizen ReceiverReuter, Marx & Pipek, 2011(c) Self HelpCommunities“Run uphill to escape tsunami”Organization(d) Inter-organizationalCrisisManagementInter-organizationalcommunication
  4. 4. Theory (2)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment4ReceiverOrganization CitizenSender Citizen White et al (2009)Starbird & Pane (2010)Starbird & Stamberger (2010)Bajpal & Jaiswal (2010)Latonero & Shklovski (2010)Tapia et al (2011)Wiedenhöfer et al (2011)Thomson et al (2012)Starbird Muzny & Palen (2012)Denis et al (2012)Terpstra et al (2012)Zielinski & Bügel (2012)Manso & Manso (2012)Addams-Moring (2007)Vieweg et al (2008)Liu et al (2008)Sutton et al (2008)Hughes et al (2008)Hughes & Palen (2009)Kavanaugh et al (2010)Sutton (2010)Perng et al (2012)Kavanaugh et al (2012)Organization Montells et al (2006)Reuter et al (2009)Manso & Manso (2012) (intra-org only)Valtonen et al (2004)Addams-Moring et al (2005)Eysink Smeets & Sillem (2005)Wood (2005)Zimmerman (2005)Sillem & Wiersma (2006)Seddign et al (2006)Latonero & Shklovski (2010)Kelley et al (2011)Wiedenhöfer et al (2011)Denis et al (2012)Nilsson et al (2012)Sutto et al (2012)Manso & Manso (2012)
  5. 5. Theory (3)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment5Mintzberg, 1980C-level (CEO, CFO, CIO)(i.e. policy makers)Back-officeFirst responders / onsite /employees in the field(front-office)(Process Under Control)Controllers / commanders(line-managers)(Controlling Process)
  6. 6. Theory (4)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment6ReceiverOrganisations CitizensCP PUCSender Citizens (N/A) (a) Citizen-generatedcontent(c) Self-helpOrganisations PUC Observations(SITREPs)On-site / self-synchronisation(could be seen as (d)intra-organisationalcoordination)(b) CitizencommunicationsCP (d) Inter-organisationalcoordinationInstructions(Op Orders / plans)(N/A)Jongejan & Grant, 2012
  7. 7. Theory (5)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment7observationsinstructionsoutputsinputsControlling ProcessProcess Under ControlEnvironmentOrganizationCitizensFocus ofour researchPastresearch
  8. 8. Proof-of-principle (1)• Proof-of-principle:– “Realization of idea, concept, or theory todemonstrate feasibility or potential for use”– Characteristics:• Small prima facie experiment• Raises technology readiness level (TRL):– TRL 2: Technology concept formulated (Jongejan & Grant, 2012)– TRL 3: Analytical & experimental proof of concept– “Faster, better, cheaper” = new vs. old:• Condition A: legacy C2 technology (e-mail, paper maps)• Condition B: social media in C2 (Twitter, CrowdMap)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment8Wikipedia, 2013Mankins, 1995
  9. 9. Proof-of-principle (2)• Experiment design:– Scenario:• Transporting food by truck from Port Sudan to Darfur– Simulated organization:• CP: NGO HQ in Europe• PUCs in Sudan: Truck convoy, fuel supplier, & NGO rep• Command Post Exercise (CPX); rest hand-simulated– Human subjects:• Officer-cadets:– Early 20’s; 3rd/4thyear; digital natives; selected on availability– Trained in network-enabled (military) C2Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment9
  10. 10. Proof-of-principle (3)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment10NGO HQ in Europe(CP)Truck convoy(PUC1)Diesel fuel supplier(PUC2)Rep in Khartoum(PUC3)Geugies, 2012Email: up & down hierarchy(Condition A)SM: across hierarchy (“network-centric” / “self-synchronisation” / ”empowered”)(and up & down hierarchy if so addressed using @)(Condition B)
  11. 11. Proof-of-principle (4)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment11Geugies, 2012
  12. 12. Proof-of-principle (5)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment12Twitter (comms)CrowdMap (SA)Geugies, 2012
  13. 13. Proof-of-principle (6)Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment13Geugies, 2012
  14. 14. Proof-of-principle (7)• Results (1/2) – N.B. triangulation:– (Subjective) Questionnaires:• Positive:– Benefit (3); self-synchronization (1); overview (1)• Negative:– Security (1); information overload (1); need clear jargon (1)– (Objective) Predicted vs actual (simulated) times:Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment14Geugies, 2012Condition A (email) Condition B (SM)Predicted time 5 days 5 hours 4 days 8 hoursActual time 5 days 5 hours 4 days 6½ hours
  15. 15. Proof-of-principle (8)• Results (2/2):– (Objective) Numbers of messages:Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment15Geugies, 2012Actor Messages sent Messages receivedCondition A Condition B Condition A Condition BCP (NGO HQ) 24 5 (intent 1) 27 23PUC1 (trucks) 26 37 32 23PUC2 (fuel) 10 11 17 18PUC3 (rep) 4 8 8 9Totals: 64 61 84 73
  16. 16. Conclusions & limitations• Conclusions:– Proof of principle supports theoretical framework– SM technology aligned to network-centric “business model”:• Facilitates self-synchronization / empowerment• Limitations:– No replication– Same subjects ran Condition A followed by Condition B:• Countered learning effect by extra event in Condition B• Anticipated learning by predicting shorter makespan, Condition B– Hence, claiming only proof of principle:• IF use SM technology AND users trained in network-enabled C2Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment16
  17. 17. Further research• Contribution:– Further research into social media in C2 is justified• Possible further research:– Raising TRL: Concept Development & Experimentation (CDE)– Socio-organizational issues:• Harnessing wisdom of the crowd• Roles for volunteers• Recruiting & training digital natives– Fit with other technologies:• Bring Your Own Device• App stores (for crisis response & management)• Natural language processing (speech to text; extract geo info)– Peter and I seek collaborators!Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 17
  18. 18. Any questions?Tim GrantProfessor emeritusRetired But Active Researcher (R-BAR)tim.grant.work@gmail.com+31 (0)638 193 749
  19. 19. Reserve slides
  20. 20. Theory (7)Level DescriptionTRL 1 Basic principles observed and reportedTRL 2 Technology concept and/or application formulatedTRL 3 Analytical & experimental function and/or characteristic proof-of-conceptTRL 4 Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environmentTRL 5 Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environmentTRL 6 System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in relevant environmentTRL 7 System prototype demonstration in space [i.e. operational] environmentTRL 8 Actual system completed and flight-qualified through test & demonstrationTRL 9 Actual system flight-proven through successful mission operationsBaden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment20Mankins, 1995 (ESA variant)
  21. 21. John Wayne 2.0Baden-Baden, 15 May 13Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment21Collignon, Volkskrant, 2013

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