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Friends And Social Networks 2 08 08 (Tin180 Com)

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Friends And Social Networks 2 08 08 (Tin180 Com)

  1. 1. Friends and social networks
  2. 2. Strong and Weak Ties <ul><li>Strong ties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often reinforced by other ties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weak ties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquaintances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May link otherwise unconnected actors </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Back to relationships and networks: <ul><li>What produces (solidary) groups? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) similarity/selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) (inter-)dependence </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Start with an interesting theory: <ul><li>Balance theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple theory of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generates ideal-types of social structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be tested against data </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Balance Theory <ul><li>A theory of action </li></ul><ul><li>Basic idea is that persons seek to avoid tension or dissonance in their relations </li></ul><ul><li>predicts that persons will change their relations in order to avoid dissonance </li></ul><ul><li>Scope conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on triads (groups of three) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes only positive (+) or negative (-) relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes symmetry of relations </li></ul></ul>Balance theory
  6. 6. Unbalanced triad Balance theory Romeo Juliet Capulet - + + Romeo Juliet Capulet + + + Balanced Romeo Juliet Capulet - - + Balanced Romeo Juliet Capulet - + - Balanced
  7. 7. Balance and Transitivity <ul><li>Balanced triads where no dissonance exists between members is called a transitive triad </li></ul><ul><li>Technical measure of transitivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triads are transitive if the product of the sides is positive ( + x + x + = + ; - x + x - = + ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triads are intransitive if the product of the sides is negative ( + x + x - = - ) </li></ul></ul>Balance theory
  8. 8. Transitive Triads Intransitive Triads Balance theory A D E + + + A D E - - + A D E - - - A D E - + +
  9. 9. ? W. Virginia Caucus: On the 2 nd round of balloting, McCain’s supporters voted for Huckabee
  10. 10. More on balance theory <ul><li>Some cultural rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The friend of a friend is a friend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An enemy of my friend is my enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The friend of my enemy is my enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The enemy of my enemy is my friend </li></ul></ul>Balance theory
  11. 11. <ul><li>Can’t build a society from negative relations (things fall apart…) </li></ul>A D E - - -
  12. 12. But balance can produce groups Balance theory Trick: find the triads D I A B E C G J F H
  13. 13. Balance theory ---> ---> Friends with Enemies with + - A D E + + + A B E + - - B I E - - + B D I A E - - - - + + + +
  14. 14. Balanced Opposition Friends with Enemies with D A B E C G J F H Balance theory I
  15. 15. Balance Theory and the Formation of Groups <ul><li>In a world with only symmetric relations, we will find structures of balanced opposition (opposing solidary groups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Us ” and “ them ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups whose coherence comes from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities to those within; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difference from those outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Real World examples of balanced opposition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global alliances </li></ul></ul></ul>Balance theory

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