Animal diversity

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Animal diversity

  1. 1. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math Rapid Learning Center Presents … p g Teach Yourself AP Biology in 24 Hours *AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which does not endorse, nor is affiliated in any way with the Rapid Learning courses. The Evolution of e o ut o o Animal Diversity AP Biology Rapid Learning Series Wayne Huang, PhD Andrew Graham, PhD Elizabeth James, PhD Casandra Rauser, PhD Jessica Habashi, PhD Sara Olson, PhD Jessica Barnes, PhD Rapid Learning Center www.RapidLearningCenter.com/ © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 1
  2. 2. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Learning Objectives By completing this tutorial, you will learn about: Animal origin Animal Diversity Animal Evolution Cambrian Explosion Animal Classification 3/53 Animal Evolution – Concept Map Sponges Colonial Protists Bilaterally symmetrical flatworms Pseudocoelomes Most likely ancestor Most likely ancestor Animals Coeloms Coelom from Hollow outgrowth Radially symmetrical cnidarians Coelom from mass of cells Mollusks Annelids Arthropods Echinoderms Chordates 03/54 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 2
  3. 3. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Origin Introduction Characteristics of Animals Basic Features Animal Organ Systems Animal Body Fluids 5/53 Introduction Animal Diversity Comparisons are made by determining the characteristics of extinct animals with living animals. Evolution is the continuous genetic change in organisms as a i result of selection acting on their adaptation to an environment. Animals are heterotrophic. This means they need organic substrates to grow and develop. 6/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 3
  4. 4. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 What is an Animal? 1. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular. 2. They are heterotrophs without a cell wall. 3. Life cycle of animals include a diploid adult that produces eggs or sperms by meiosis. 4. They are responsive to their environment. 5. The body of animals become fixed as they develop although some undergo metamorphosis later on. 7/53 Characteristics of Animals Animals have distinct types of cell junctions. Animals are composed of diploid cells with the exception of gametes which are haploid. All animals go through embryonic stages that include the blastula and gastrula. 8/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 4
  5. 5. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Basic Features of Animals Animals are characterized by diploid cells. Animals develop from embryos. Sexual reproduction Animals have the ability to develop motile sperm and non motile eggs. Capable of complex and rapid movement. 9/53 Animal Organ Systems Skeletal Muscle Excretory Hormones Nervous Sensory 10/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 5
  6. 6. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Body Fluids Animals are able to move their body fluids, e.g. circulation by heart through the blood vessels. Yes, and the respiratory system can move and exchange O2 and CO2. And the excretory system moves urine and feces. 11/53 Animal Diversity Introduction Splitting f Ph l S litti of Phyla Parazoa Vs. Eumetazoa Radiata Vs. Bilateria Acoelomates Vs. Coelomates Protosomes Vs. Deuterosomes 12/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 6
  7. 7. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Introduction to Diversity Most animal phyla are invertebrates, i.e. they don’t have a backbone. There are about 35 animal phyla. There is an abundance in the number of species in any given location. 13/53 Splitting of Phyla Phyla are split according to their adult and embryological forms into Parazoa Vs. Eumetazoa Protosomes Vs. Deuterosomes Radiata Vs. Bilateria Acoelomates VS Coelomates VS. Example Nematode 14/53 Diploblastic Vs. Triploblastic © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 7
  8. 8. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Parazoa vs. Eumetazoa First splits in evolution Eumetazoa: Parazoa: Do not have tissues and body parts are primitive. The only surviving members are sponges. Well developed tissues and organs First split Split between animals lacking true tissues 15/53 Phylum porifera are the only extinct members of the Parazoa. Radiata vs. Bileria Radiata-bilateria split in early evolution Radiata Vs. Bilateria split Radiata Animals with radial symmetry and are diploblastic. Ex: Phylum cnidaria Bilateria Bilateria are all other animal groups which are bilateral symmetric and are triploblastic 16/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 8
  9. 9. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Symmetry Body symmetry Many animals, such as humans, are symmetrical. One side of their body is a mirror image of the other side. But other animals are asymmetrical. 17/53 Characteristics of Radiata Animals with radial symmetry posses a top and bottom, p , there is no distinct front, rear or sides Most radial animals are sessile organisms or planktonic (drifting or swimming aquatic forms) Radiata Animal Most active animals are generally bilateral All members of radiata are also diploblastic The radial symmetry enables adaptation to environment 18/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 9
  10. 10. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Characteristics of Bilateria Bilateria animals have all sides present, such as a top, bottom, rear, front and sides. Radial symmetry of y y some animals is associated with an adaptation to a sedentary lifestyle 19/53 All members of bilateria are also triploblastic. Bilateral symmetry is associated with cephalization - an evolutionary trend to concentrate sensory organs on the anterior end. end This enables the animal to sense danger, food, etc. Forms of bilateral symmetry can have heads. Acoelomates vs. Coelomates Acoelomate animals, like flatworms have no body cavity the organs have direct contact with the epithelium. Acoelomates: animals with no coelom (body cavity). Coelomates animals have a “true coelom” or body cavity that is fluid filled and lined with a peritoneum. Most bilateral animals, including vertebrates are coelomates. 20/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 10
  11. 11. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Acoelomates Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals, phylum: Platyhelminthes. 21/53 Cnidarians Cnidarians exhibit radial symmetry 22/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 11
  12. 12. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes Protostomes together with deuterostomes and a few smaller phyla make up the Bilateria. In protostomes the first opening in development, the blastopore becomes the animal’s mouth. In deuterostome it becomes the anus. Deuterostomes are enterocoelous, meaning the folds of the archenteron form the coelom. Protostomes are schizocoelomates meaning a solid mass of embryonic mesoderm split to form a coelom. 23/53 Advantages Having a Coelom . The advantage of having a coelom include that there is room for growing internal organs. i t l Muscles can increase contraction and move fluid around. Have a circulatory system and fluids can transport nutrients throughout the organisms. Leads to development of the digestive system which is not dependent on other organs. 24/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 12
  13. 13. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Evolution Introduction Gastrulation G t l ti Animal Embryology Animal Birth Evolution Diploblastic & Triploblastic Animals 25/53 Introduction Animal Evolution Sir Darwin, , embryological changes take place during evolution. Why is that important? I noted in “The Origin of Species” “That we can see why characteristics derived from the e b yo should embryo s ou d be of equal o equa importance with those derived from the adult, for a natural classification includes all stages.” 26/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 13
  14. 14. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Gastrulation Gastrulation is an invagination of cells during the blastula phase of development to form a digestive cavity – called archenteron and two separate germ layers called an ectoderm and (internal endoderm) often a mesoderm develops between them. them There is only one opening to the digestive cavity which is known as the blastopore. The germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. 27/53 Animal Embryology Early embryological development Zygote Eight cell stage Cleavage Cleavage Blastula (hollow ball) Blastococi Cleavage Gastrula Blastocoels (Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm) 28/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 14
  15. 15. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Development of Multicellular Organisms Development of multicellular organisms likely occured with colonial protists. These were collection of identical cells. ll This is thought to have evolved into a hollow ball of nonspecific cells eventually cell specialization would have developed. Following specialization there would have been some in folding and gastrula like proto animals. 29/53 Features of Evolution Bilaterally symmetrical animals produce three germ layers The evolution of tissues involved cell specialization. The evolution of bilateral symmetry allowed organization of body parts, including cephalization, and increased motility. Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Three basic types of body plans Acoelomates with no body cavity Pseudocoelomates with a cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm Coelomates with a fluidfilled body cavity entirely within the mesoderm. 30/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 15
  16. 16. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Germinal Layer Evolution Lets have a closer look at the germinal layer of the blastocyst. The development of specialized layers was critical for the y evolution of animals with specialized tissues and organs. Mesoderm becomes muscle, skeletal and connective tissue. Endoderm becomes the digestive gut. Ectoderm becomes the outer surface and nervous tissue of animals. 31/53 Diploblastic Animals Diploblastic animals are those in which the ovum has two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm. Diploblastic organisms evolve from this kind of ovum and include cnidaria and ctenophores. The ctenophores endoderm allows them to develop true tissue. Cnidaria Ctenophores 32/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 16
  17. 17. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Triploblastic Animals Triploblastic animals have 3 ge germinal layers. a aye s Chordata Rotifera uses solar energy. Lets look at some examples of triploblastic animals. Arthropoda Platyhelminths Rotifera Mollusca Nematoda 33/53 The Cambrian Explosion Introduction Cambrian Explosion Explosive Evolution Expansion of Animal Diversity 34/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 17
  18. 18. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Introduction to Cambrian Era About 500 million years ago, extinct animals were identified in fossil records All surviving i i animals today can be traced back to their ancestors to this time period. Soft body fauna species have been dated back to 700 million years, but lacked sophistication and resembled acoelomates 35/53 Cambrian Explosion Development of hard body parts such as teeth which resulted in a more sophisticated diet, both as preditor and prey. Hard body parts were easily identified from fossil records. 36/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 18
  19. 19. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Explosive Evolution Flagellated cells Hollow spherical colonies Suspended in water Specialized cells with somatic functions Differentiated entity with infolded temporary digestive tract Proto animals with completely infolded two layered wall 37/53 Expansion of Animal Diversity Diversity also developed due to genes assisting in embryonic development. Animal diversity developed due to increased dependency on the predatory/prey relationship. And also because of the development of adequate environment oxygen to support active animal life style. 38/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 19
  20. 20. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Animal Classification Phylum and rules of classification are introduced. 39/53 Animal Evolution: Process 40/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 20
  21. 21. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Phylum Porifera: Sponges Most are marine and live singularly, attached to a substrate, and range in height from 1 cm to 2 m. 41/53 Phylum Cnidaria: Coelenterates Cnidarian show radial symmetry. Examples include Sea Anemones, Jelly fi h H d J ll fish, Hydra. In the form of a polyp (relatively fixed in position) or a medusa (swimming) 42/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 21
  22. 22. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Phylum: Platyhelminthes Flatworms There are three major groups of flatworms: Free-living planarians that live on rocks in marine and fresh water, parasitic flukes and tapeworms flukes, 43/53 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms Pseudocoelomates have a false body cavity. Body cavity lined on inside by endoderm and outside by mesoderm. The false cavity is used to give animals its shape. Examples include hook, ascaria, pin and filarial worms. 44/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 22
  23. 23. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Phylum Mollusks True circulatory system. Bilateral symmetry, complete digestive tract, coelom and internal organs g Outgrowth of body surface that functions as a shell, sensory reception and houses gills Common body plan Muscular foot and a mantle. Ex: Clams, scallops, and oysters. 45/53 Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worm Segmentation is subdivision of body in repeat parts. The phylum is also characterized by, nervous, circulatory and excretory systems. Earthworms have repeating segments. Segmentation provides body flexibility and mobility. Ex: Earthworm, leech, marine worm called polychaetes. 46/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 23
  24. 24. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Phylum Arthropoda: Insects In terms of diversity, geographical distribution and numbers, arthropoda numbers is the most successful phyla. Arthropods are segmented, have jointed appendages and have an exoskeleton composed of chitin. To grow, arthropods molt their exoskeleton, swell in size and secrete a new exoskeleton. Arthropoda have a skin/exoskeleton. Examples include: Insects, Crustaceans, Arachnids, millipedes and centipedes 47/53 Phylum Echinodermata: Echinoderm Many possess a well developed skeleton with numerous spines that extend outward to give the animal a spiny appearance. A unique feature is their water vascular system. Slow moving animal with a thin skin that covers an exoskeleton-includes sea urchins, brittle stars. Examples include: Sea urchins, starfish, brittle stars, sea cucumbers are exclusively marine animals. 48/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 24
  25. 25. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Phylum Chordata: Vertebrates Most important subgroup is vertebrata – animals that have a backbone or a vertebral column. Humans belong to this phylum. Includes major groups of vertebrate animals: cartilaginous fish, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. mammals 49/53 Question: Review _____ means that animals require organic substrate to grow and develop. ___________ Heterotrophic The life cycle of animals include an adult ____ somatic cells. ___________ Diploid Blastula and gastrula are ____ stages. ___________ Embryonic Animals have _____ sperm and ______ eggs. 50/53 Radial symmetry in animals is called. ___________ Motile, non-motile ___________ Bilateria © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 25
  26. 26. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Learning Summary Parazoa do not have true organelles and body parts are primitive. i iti Eumetazoa have well developed tissues and organs. Eukaryotic, multicellular heterotrophs have sensory, sensory respiratory, excretory and skeletal systems. Arthropods are the most successful of all phyla and have joint appendages and exoskeleton. In protostomes the first opening in development, the blastopore becomes the animal’s mouth. In deuterostome it becomes the anus. Embryonic stages include formation of zygote, blastula and gastrula Gastrulation - mode of development leading to animal differentiation. 51/53 Congratulations g You have successfully completed the core tutorial The Evolution of Animal Diversity Rapid Learning Center 52/53 © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 26
  27. 27. AP Biology Rapid Learning Series - 16 Rapid Learning Center Chemistry :: Biology :: Physics :: Math What’s N t Wh t’ Next … Step 1: Concepts – Core Tutorial (Just Completed) Step 2: Practice – Interactive Problem Drill Step 3: Recap – Super Review Cheat Sheet Go for it! 53/53 http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com © Rapid Learning Inc. All rights reserved. :: http://www.RapidLearningCenter.com 27

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