Church history The church at this time period was becoming very unpopular Especially in France where the Roman Catholics (clergy) were considered very wealthy, and the clergy had 10 percent of all of Frances land Most countries with a combined government and religion had strong movements for government change
Age of Revolution The period from 1775 to 1848 A time of significant revolutionary movements It was a time to conquer the kings power and make the country a democracy Besides the American and Haitian Revolution there was the French Revolution, German Revolution and Italian Revolution (Year of Revolution).
French Revolution It all started when King Louis XIV brought France into debt with the need to gain more land by war in the 17th century. In hope to demolish the humongous debt King Louis XVI, Louis the XV grandson, raised the taxes for the lower class people but not the clergy or noble in 18th century. This angered the people. At the same time, there was bad weather so it was hard to grow crops especially wheat so the prices on bread (the food France lived off of) sky rocketed this causing a revolution Some big events that happened after that was the Declaration of Right of Man, Storming of Bastille, Women’s March to Versailles, and Reign of Terror. This revolution was important because it was the second country to have a revolution and become democratic following USA. It also let other countries know that if the French and United States of America can do it then they can start a democratic country too.
German Revolution Was also called the March Revolution in 1848 Was a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of German Confederation This also included Austrian Empire, there was 39 independent states The reason for revolting for middle class was political freedom, liberal states policies and nationalism while the working class wanted improvements to their working and living conditions In the end the two class’s split and the conservative aristocracy defeated it, forcing many liberals into exile.
Italian Revolution It was in 1848 Italy like Germany was split up into states It started when King Charles Albert wanting to unite Italy into one nation launched an attack on Austria empire Charles the king of Piedmont one of the four states believed in making the country liberal Sadly he underestimated how powerful the Austrian army was and got defeated at the Battle of Custoza (July 24, 1848) and was forced to make a treaty After this happened Austria stayed in power and the revolution was lost
Anti-Clericalism What is Anti-Clericalism? The opposition to the power and influence of religious institutions in secular civil affairs Most importantly, Enlightenment ideals and thoughts brought into question the need for religion, moreover Christianity
Anti-Clericalism cont. It played an important role in developing secularism in Europe Secularism: . philosophy a doctrine that rejects religion, especially in ethics Bringing the people to avoid religious interferences; especially in government
First Vatican CouncilConvoked by Pope Pius the IX on June 29, 1868Unlike the previous meetings which were held in LateranBasilica this was held in Vatican Basilica hence the nameWas convoked to deal with contemporary problems of therising influence of rationalism, liberalism, and materialism Its purpose, besides dealing with the contemporaryproblems, was to define Catholic doctrine concerning theChristian ChurchThere was an approval of only two constitutions theDogmatic Constitution on Christian Faith and the FirstDogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ
First Vatican Council Cont. It was the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church Of the 1,050 bishops who were eligible to participate only 700 attended Papal Infallibility was discussed too
Papal Infallibility It was a doctrine that taught the Pope is preserved from error when he declares a dogmatic teaching on faith It does not state either the Pope cannot sin in his own personal life or that he is necessarily free of error
The Syllabus of Errors The Syllabus of Errors was a decree from Pope Pius IX on December 8, 1864 that identified the errors that were condemned by the Church It is split into 10 sections, and there are a total of 80 prepositions, or points, in the Syllabus of Errors The Syllabus was created with different phrases from previous papal documents by the Pope. It does not explain why each preposition is condemned However, it gives reference to where the Pope explains why it was condemned
The Syllabus of Errors cont. As previously stated, it contained 10 sections. Those sections are:1. Pantheism, naturalism, and absolute rationalism (Propositions 1-7)2. Moderate rationalism (Propositions 8-14)3. Indifferentism, latitudinarianism (Propositions 15- 18)4. Socialism, communism, secret societies, biblical societies, clerico-liberal societies (This was not marked as a proposition)
The Syllabus of Errors cont.5. Errors concerning the Church and her rights (Propositions 19-38)6. Errors about civil society, considered both in itself and in its relation to the Church (Propositions 39-55)7. Errors concerning natural and Christian ethics (Propositions 56-64)8. Errors concerning Christian marriage (Propositions 65- 74)9. Errors regarding the civil power of the sovereign pontiff (Propositions 75-76)10. Errors having reference to modern liberalism (Propositions 77-80)
The Reactions to the Syllabus of ErrorsFrom the Non-Catholics View: For the most part, non-catholics took the Syllabus of Errors negatively They did not like the fact that they had to abide by these Church laws even though they were they were not CatholicFrom the Catholics View: There was a mixed reaction from the Catholics Some liked it Some need clarification on certain areas of it Some hated it
Pope Leo XII: Rerum Novarum Catholic clergy and laity had attempted to apply Catholic teachings to problems like poverty and injustice in the nineteenth century, a world of industry and labor As a papal diplomat in Belguim, future Pope Leo XII, saw the horrible conditions of the working people The people were continually exploited through capitalism and temptations from the rising powers, such as Socialism
Pope Leo XII: Rerum Novarum cont. In the Rerum Novarum Pope Leo XII defends the workers natural rights for justice, solidarity and their right to private property This balance carried this Catholic social teaching through social and economic crises of the twentieth century, and through the rise and fall of Communism
Architecture and Music http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hJf4ZffkoI&feature=related