拜 祖先   ANCESTOR  WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先
What Christian Should Know About Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>Introduction of ancestor worship.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Signif...
What is Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>Ancestor worship  ( 拜祖 ), also ancestor veneration ( 敬祖 ), is a religious practice based...
What is Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>The core of ancestor worship is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief in a close relation be...
People of importance during their lifetime <ul><li>Either they were parents, clan leaders, or members of another family  <...
History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>Originated from the  商朝代   Shang Dynasty ( 1766-1050 BC )  and  周朝 代   Zhou Dynasty (1...
History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>It is an obligations within the family to worship the ancestors.  </li></ul><ul><li>Fa...
History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>The Shang worshipped a figure they called &quot;Shang Ti,&quot; or &quot;Lord on High....
5 Main Beliefs of Ancestor worship <ul><li>The world is divided into three levels: 天堂 heaven , 世界 earth , and the  地狱   un...
5 Main Beliefs of Ancestor worship <ul><li>A person needs to offer gifts to their ancestors in heaven, to show 尊敬 respect....
孔夫子   Confucian’s Filial Piety <ul><li>P urpose of ancestor worship is not to ask for favors but to do one's filial duty  ...
Influence of Confucian Teaching <ul><li>Filial piety is a core aspect of Confucian teaching. Without it, the system of rel...
What the Bible Teaches . . . <ul><li>In I Timothy 5:8  人若不看顾亲属,就是背了真道,比不信的人还不好,不看顾自己家里的人,更是如此。 </li></ul><ul><li>Paul asse...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>A Christian shows filial piety while his parents are sti...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>A Christian shows filial piety while his parents are sti...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>我儿,要谨守你父亲的诫命;不可离弃你母亲的法则(或作:指教), </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>The Bible pronounced a curse on those who dishonour thei...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Disrespect for parents will bring punishment from God.  ...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Disrespect for parents will bring punishment from God.  ...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Reverencing our parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy relatio...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Do not humiliate them. Obey and honour them:  </li></ul>...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Do not abuse them physically:  </li></ul><ul><li>虐待父亲、撵出...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>It is the responsibility of children to feed and support...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Jesus set for us a good example. (John 19:26-27).  </li>...
How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Exhort them gently. They are not sinless!  </li></ul><ul...
Christian should walk the talk! <ul><li>If we do not start visiting or taking them out for  LUNCH OR DINNER  while they ar...
Christian should walk the talk! <ul><li>You won’t be able to do it when they are gone. </li></ul>551-479 BC   Mother’s Day...
拜 祖先   ANCESTOR  WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>Introduction of ancestor worship.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Significance of ...
Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked.  <ul><li>The first is to distinguish between idolatry and anc...
Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked.  <ul><li>1Sa 15:23  悖逆的罪与行邪术的罪相等;顽梗的罪与拜虚神和偶像的罪相同。你既厌弃耶和华的命令,耶...
Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>Col 3:20  你们作儿女的,要凡事听从父母,因为这是主所喜悦的。 </li></ul><ul><li...
Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>The second is to find ways to show filial respect tha...
How Do Christian Show Filial Piety? <ul><li>To show our respect, we can always stand for a minute before the altar. There ...
How Do Christian Show Filial Piety? <ul><li>On grave sweeping day the  Christians participate in the cleaning of the grave...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ela...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Washing and Clothing the Deceased <ul><li>Symbolically wiping the body of the deceased 3 times with water to be done only ...
Presentation of Food and Paper Money <ul><li>“ The offering of food and joss paper signifies the continuing interdependenc...
Presentation of Food and Paper Money <ul><li>Christians should not get involved in this matter of offering paper money to ...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Religious Service <ul><li>The ceremony is usually conducted by Buddhist or Taoist monks and all the mourners are expected ...
Religious Service <ul><li>Confucius taught that male heirs could only perform the funeral rites: </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese...
Religious Service <ul><li>Incense must be lit to the bridge god at every bridge for permission to cross the bridge.  </li>...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Allow for relatives and friends to visit the family and pay their last respects to the dece...
Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Relatives and friends to pay their last respects to the deceased.  </li></ul><ul><li>The wa...
Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Worship is due only to God, and Christians must not bow to any persons.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Band in a Funeral Procession <ul><li>The funeral procession is normally headed by a band of musicians.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washin...
Some Related Superstitions  <ul><li>Visitors at the wake as well as to the funeral are usually given a strand of red threa...
Some Related Superstitions  <ul><li>As Christians we do not need to take the red threads or red packets offered to us beca...
Conclusion <ul><li>Chinese culture is steeped in filial piety which often involves idolatry.  </li></ul><ul><li>If Chinese...
拜 祖先   ANCESTOR  WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先
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Ancestor Worship

  1. 1. 拜 祖先 ANCESTOR WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先
  2. 2. What Christian Should Know About Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>Introduction of ancestor worship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Significance of Filial Piety. </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical Principles of Filial Piety </li></ul><ul><li>Necromancy: A False Filial Piety </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>Ancestor worship ( 拜祖 ), also ancestor veneration ( 敬祖 ), is a religious practice based on the belief that one's ancestors possess supernatural powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor worship in some cultures (such as Chinese) seeks to honor the deeds, memories, and sacrifice of the deceased. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Ancestor Worship? <ul><li>The core of ancestor worship is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief in a close relation between the living and the dead (who continue to influence the affairs of the living) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that the dead will help the living unless they aren't properly cared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestors are usually people of importance during their lifetime. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. People of importance during their lifetime <ul><li>Either they were parents, clan leaders, or members of another family </li></ul><ul><li>It is the children's duty, particularly the sons, to revere and care for their parents as they enter the afterlife. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>Originated from the 商朝代 Shang Dynasty ( 1766-1050 BC ) and 周朝 代 Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 B.C. ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang also believed that their ancestors dwelled in heaven after their death and continued to show an interest in their family and descendants. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>It is an obligations within the family to worship the ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Failing in one's duties to the ancestors could bring all sorts of disaster on a family. </li></ul>
  8. 8. History of Ancestor Worship <ul><li>The Shang worshipped a figure they called &quot;Shang Ti,&quot; or &quot;Lord on High.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The one disturbing fact of Shang sacrifice is that it certainly involved humans . </li></ul>
  9. 9. 5 Main Beliefs of Ancestor worship <ul><li>The world is divided into three levels: 天堂 heaven , 世界 earth , and the 地狱 underworld . </li></ul><ul><li>A person is not only connected to a father and mother, but all the relatives from the distant past . </li></ul><ul><li>The human body has two souls. One soul, called the 灵魂 hun , rises when a person dies. The other, called the 鬼魂 po , becomes a ghost. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 5 Main Beliefs of Ancestor worship <ul><li>A person needs to offer gifts to their ancestors in heaven, to show 尊敬 respect. </li></ul><ul><li>黄教的道士 Shamans are responsible for helping keep the different worlds in balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans are priests or priestesses which use magic to control events, cure the sick, and predict the future. They also perform rituals to make sure the hun and po souls were treated properly. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 孔夫子 Confucian’s Filial Piety <ul><li>P urpose of ancestor worship is not to ask for favors but to do one's filial duty </li></ul><ul><li>E xtends beyond caring for the &quot;living-living&quot; and the care for the &quot;living-dead.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The spirit of one's ancestor is dependent upon his descendants to provide for him incense, food, spirit money, and most of all, respect. </li></ul><ul><li>T o not practice these things is similar to ignoring the needs of living parents. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Influence of Confucian Teaching <ul><li>Filial piety is a core aspect of Confucian teaching. Without it, the system of relationships falls apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Showing respect to one's elders is a traditional &quot;given.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>When parents become old and unable to care for themselves, it is the obligation of the children to care for them. </li></ul>551-479 BC
  13. 13. What the Bible Teaches . . . <ul><li>In I Timothy 5:8 人若不看顾亲属,就是背了真道,比不信的人还不好,不看顾自己家里的人,更是如此。 </li></ul><ul><li>Paul asserts, &quot;If anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for his immediate family, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.&quot; </li></ul>551-479 BC
  14. 14. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>A Christian shows filial piety while his parents are still alive. </li></ul><ul><li>「藐视我名的祭司啊,万军之耶和华对你们说:儿子尊敬父亲,仆人敬畏主人;我既为父亲,尊敬我的在那里呢?我既为主人,敬畏我的在那里呢?你们却说:『我们在何事上藐视你的名呢?』 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A son honored his father&quot; (Mal 1:6). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  15. 15. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>A Christian shows filial piety while his parents are still alive. </li></ul><ul><li>神说:『当孝敬父母』;又说:『咒骂父母的,必治死他。』 (Matt 15:4). </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus said, &quot;Honour thy father and mother: and, He that cursed father or mother, let him die the death&quot; </li></ul>551-479 BC
  16. 16. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>我儿,要谨守你父亲的诫命;不可离弃你母亲的法则(或作:指教), </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;My son, keep thy father’s commandment, and forsake not the law of thy mother&quot; (Prov 6:20). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  17. 17. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>The Bible pronounced a curse on those who dishonour their parents. God was very serious about this matter </li></ul><ul><li>(Exod 21:15, 17; Lev 20:9; Prov 20:20, 30:17). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  18. 18. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Disrespect for parents will bring punishment from God. </li></ul><ul><li>「打父母的,必要把他治死。 </li></ul><ul><li>「咒骂父母的,必要把他治死。 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;And he that smites his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. And he that cursed his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death&quot; (Exod 21:15, 17). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  19. 19. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Disrespect for parents will bring punishment from God. </li></ul><ul><li>戏笑父亲、藐视而不听从母亲的,他的眼睛必为谷中的乌鸦啄出来,为鹰雏所吃。 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The eye that mocked at his father, and despised to obey his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it (Prov 30:17). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  20. 20. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Reverencing our parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy relationship with the ones who brought us into this world. </li></ul><ul><li>They nurtured and fed us and gave us good things in life. How could we not honour them in return? </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We obey ; honour and caring for them and by consulting them when making any major decisions. </li></ul>551-479 BC
  21. 21. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Do not humiliate them. Obey and honour them: </li></ul><ul><li>谨守律法的,是智慧之子;与贪食人作伴的,却羞辱其父。 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Whoso keeps the law is a wise son: but he that is a companion of riotous men shamed his father&quot; (Prov 28:7). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  22. 22. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Do not abuse them physically: </li></ul><ul><li>虐待父亲、撵出母亲的,是贻羞致辱之子。 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;He that wasted his father, and chased away his mother, is a son that caused shame, and bring reproach&quot; (Prov 19:26). </li></ul>551-479 BC
  23. 23. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>It is the responsibility of children to feed and support them. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius especially pointed out that &quot;in feeding one’s parents, the important thing is not the richness of the food, but the pleasure and happiness of the parents. </li></ul>551-479 BC
  24. 24. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Jesus set for us a good example. (John 19:26-27). </li></ul><ul><li>In the OT, we find Joseph taking care of his father for 17 </li></ul><ul><li>years. </li></ul>551-479 BC
  25. 25. How can a Christian show his filial piety to his parents? <ul><li>Exhort them gently. They are not sinless! </li></ul><ul><li>Do not rebuke them openly before others. </li></ul><ul><li>He not only needs to honour them, feed them, and not to disgrace them, but he must also admonish them and lead them to the Lord. </li></ul><ul><li>Helping one’s parents to walk in the true way is one of the filial pious deeds.&quot; </li></ul>551-479 BC
  26. 26. Christian should walk the talk! <ul><li>If we do not start visiting or taking them out for LUNCH OR DINNER while they are still Alive. </li></ul>551-479 BC
  27. 27. Christian should walk the talk! <ul><li>You won’t be able to do it when they are gone. </li></ul>551-479 BC Mother’s Day or Father’s Day or Birthdays may be too late.
  28. 28. 拜 祖先 ANCESTOR WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先
  29. 29. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>Introduction of ancestor worship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Significance of Filial Piety. </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical Principles of Filial Piety </li></ul><ul><li>Funeral Burial </li></ul>
  30. 30. Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>The first is to distinguish between idolatry and ancestor practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Idolatry is clearly sin. Christianity cannot tolerate the worship of gods other than the One True God. </li></ul><ul><li>When people are brought to Christ in baptism, they must turn from idolatry to loyalty to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Lev 26:1 「你们不可做什麽虚无的神像,不可立雕刻的偶像或是柱像,也不可在你们的地上安什麽錾成的石像,向他跪拜,因为我是耶和华你们的神 。 </li></ul><ul><li>You shall make no idols to yourselves; and you shall not set up for yourselves graven images, or a memorial pillar. And you shall not set up any image of stone in your land in order to bow down to it. For I am Jehovah your God. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>1Sa 15:23 悖逆的罪与行邪术的罪相等;顽梗的罪与拜虚神和偶像的罪相同。你既厌弃耶和华的命令,耶和华也厌弃你作王 。 </li></ul><ul><li>For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idol-worship. Because you have rejected the Word of Jehovah, He has also rejected you from being king! </li></ul><ul><li>The first is to distinguish between idolatry and ancestor practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Idolatry is clearly sin. Christianity cannot tolerate the worship of gods other than the One True God. </li></ul><ul><li>When people are brought to Christ in baptism, they must turn from idolatry to loyalty to God. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>Col 3:20 你们作儿女的,要凡事听从父母,因为这是主所喜悦的。 </li></ul><ul><li>Children, obey your parents in all things, for this is well-pleasing to the Lord. </li></ul><ul><li>Lev 19:32 「在白发的人面前,你要站起来;也要尊敬老人,又要敬畏你的神。我是耶和华。 </li></ul><ul><li>You shall rise up before the gray head and honor the face of the old man, and fear your God. I am Jehovah. </li></ul><ul><li>The second is to find ways to show filial respect that are both culturally appropriate and compatible with Scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hebrews showed respect for their ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian should change his practices to show respect and to be consistent with Biblical teaching. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Christian response to 2 ancestor practices must be reworked. <ul><li>The second is to find ways to show filial respect that are both culturally appropriate and compatible with Scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hebrews showed respect for their ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian should change his practices to show respect and to be consistent with Biblical teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Exo 20:12 「当孝敬父母,使你的日子在耶和华你神所赐你的地上得以长久。 </li></ul><ul><li>Honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long upon the land which Jehovah your God gives you. </li></ul>
  34. 34. How Do Christian Show Filial Piety? <ul><li>To show our respect, we can always stand for a minute before the altar. There is no need for us to bow before the altar or photo of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians must not use joss-sticks at all. This is not a matter of custom or culture but is religious in nature. We are not to worship a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Lev 26:1 「你们不可做什麽虚无的神像,不可立雕刻的偶像或是柱像,也不可在你们的地上安什麽錾成的石像,向他跪拜,因为我是耶和华你们的神。 </li></ul><ul><li>You shall make no idols to yourselves; and you shall not set up for yourselves graven images, or a memorial pillar. And you shall not set up any image of stone in your land in order to bow down to it. For I am Jehovah your God. </li></ul><ul><li>Jer 10:5 他好像棕树,是镟成的,不能说话,不能行走,必须有人抬著。你们不要怕他;他不能降祸,也无力降福。 </li></ul><ul><li>They are like a rounded post, and they cannot speak. They must surely be lifted, because they cannot walk. Do not be afraid of them; for they cannot do evil nor good, for it is not in them. </li></ul>
  35. 35. How Do Christian Show Filial Piety? <ul><li>On grave sweeping day the Christians participate in the cleaning of the grave sites and offer prayers of thanksgiving to God for their ancestors and place flowers on the grave. </li></ul><ul><li>Th is is done in the spirit of thanksgiving to God rather than as communion with the spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>2Ki 17:15 </li></ul><ul><li>厌弃他的律例和他与他们列祖所立的约,并劝戒他们的话,随从虚无的神,自己成为虚妄,效法周围的外邦人,就是耶和华嘱咐他们不可效法的; </li></ul><ul><li>They ignored the LORD's warnings and commands, and they rejected the solemn agreement he had made with their ancestors. They worshiped worthless idols and became worthless themselves. The LORD had told the Israelites not to do the things that the foreign nations around them were doing, but Israel became just like them. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Food and Paper Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a Funeral Wake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band in a Funeral Procession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Related Superstitions (red threads, sweets, peanuts, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An elaborate religious ritual and ceremony. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping to appease the gods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departed parents don’t have to suffer too much in hell or remain there for too long. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping the gods will be lenient to their ancestors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are religious in nature and tainted with superstitions. Let the Christian stay out of these rituals (2 Cor 6:16). </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Washing and Clothing the Deceased <ul><li>Symbolically wiping the body of the deceased 3 times with water to be done only by the sons. </li></ul><ul><li>To Chinese belief, &quot;a person with an unclean body will be despised and punished in Hell.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>After the washing, the deceased is dressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some personal belongings are also placed in the coffin for use in the afterlife. </li></ul><ul><li>A pearl, coin or grain of rice is placed in the mouth of the decease to ensure a smooth journey. (To bribe the hell official) </li></ul><ul><li>Coins are put in the person’s left hand for paying the guardian spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoes are put on the person’s feet to prepare for the long journey. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Presentation of Food and Paper Money <ul><li>“ The offering of food and joss paper signifies the continuing interdependence between the family and dead relative.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Paper-money is to &quot;bribe&quot; the spirits (i.e. the hungry ghosts, so that they would not harm our ancestors; and our ancestor would bless us). </li></ul><ul><li>A dual purpose is seen here: the living seek protection and seek a smooth journey for their departed relative. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper money is scattered on the road to prevent wandering spirits disturbing the deceased on its way to the grave. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Presentation of Food and Paper Money <ul><li>Christians should not get involved in this matter of offering paper money to the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>The dead and the living do not have any contact (2 Sam 12:23). </li></ul><ul><li>The spirits of the departed cannot return to harm us (Heb 9:27). </li></ul><ul><li>We need not fear any evil spirit (Rom 8:31). </li></ul><ul><li>Christians should also abstain from folding paper money etc. (1 Thess 5:22). This is not their job. </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of help can be rendered instead. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Food and Paper Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Service </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Religious Service <ul><li>The ceremony is usually conducted by Buddhist or Taoist monks and all the mourners are expected to participate. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a religious rite &quot;during which the soul of the deceased is supposed to be led through its journey into the spirit-world.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The eldest son must carry the urn of joss sticks (or lantern) and follow the priest to represent the </li></ul><ul><li>dead, being guided to &quot;heaven&quot; by the priest. </li></ul><ul><li>The son plays an important role in performing this required ritual. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Religious Service <ul><li>Confucius taught that male heirs could only perform the funeral rites: </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese consider it most unfilial not to produce sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of male heirs will mean the end of the whole of of ancestors worship, which will be disastrous. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, non-Christian parents adamantly opposed to their sons, especially their eldest sons, being baptized. </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism will mean the end of ancestral worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers are also chanted to appease any spirit that may seek to hinder the deceased on his journey. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Religious Service <ul><li>Incense must be lit to the bridge god at every bridge for permission to cross the bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Permission must be sought from the god of the earth for burial. </li></ul><ul><li>As Christians, we should stay out of anything that has to do with the monk leading the way. </li></ul><ul><li>This is no time to be emotional. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no agreement between the temple of God with idols (2 Cor 6:16). </li></ul>
  46. 46. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Food and Paper Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a Funeral Wake </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Allow for relatives and friends to visit the family and pay their last respects to the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>The wake may last from t3 to 7 days. During this period, many rituals are performed. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant rituals - people stand or kneel before the altar of the deceased and pay their respects. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people would bow 3 times with a lighted joss-stick before the altar or photo of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people bow without any joss-stick. This is a form of worship of the dead! </li></ul><ul><li>To bow to the dead is a form of worship, like bowing to ancestral tablets and family idols. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Relatives and friends to pay their last respects to the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>The wake may last from 3 to 7 days. During this period, many rituals are performed. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant rituals - people bow 3 times with a lighted joss-stick before the altar of the deceased and pay their respects. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people bow without any joss-stick. This is a form of worship of the dead! </li></ul><ul><li>To bow to the dead is a form of worship, like bowing to ancestral tablets and family idols. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Holding a Funeral Wake <ul><li>Worship is due only to God, and Christians must not bow to any persons. </li></ul><ul><li>If we want to show our respect, we can always stand for a minute before the altar. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need for us to bow before the altar or photo of the deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>We can say a short prayer for the deceased & their family. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Food and Paper Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a Funeral Wake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band in a Funeral Procession </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Band in a Funeral Procession <ul><li>The funeral procession is normally headed by a band of musicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The music is meant to frighten away malicious spirits lurking around the funeral site. </li></ul><ul><li>To announce the arrival of the deceased to the spirit world and to bid him into their midst. </li></ul><ul><li>Such bands should not be employed in Christian funerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians should not adopt non-Christian rituals. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Chinese Christian at the Chinese Funeral <ul><li>The Rituals and their Religious Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing and Clothing the Deceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Food and Paper Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding a Funeral Wake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band in a Funeral Procession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Related Superstitions (red threads, sweets, peanuts, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Some Related Superstitions <ul><li>Visitors at the wake as well as to the funeral are usually given a strand of red thread or small red packets containing two coins to ensure that they get rid of any bad luck. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweets are served to remove the bitterness (bitter taste in the mouth) of the loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundnuts and melon seeds (commonly used to signify fertility) is served so that the living might have more children to help &quot;replace&quot; the loss.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>For most people, these edibles are simply for consumption only. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Some Related Superstitions <ul><li>As Christians we do not need to take the red threads or red packets offered to us because we are not superstitious. </li></ul><ul><li>We can politely refuse these things. If they are left on the table, we need not take them. </li></ul><ul><li>What about the edible items? Should they be eaten? This should not pose a problem if they have not been offered to the idols. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat them, but do not forget to give thanks to God first (1 Tim 4:4-5). </li></ul>
  55. 55. Conclusion <ul><li>Chinese culture is steeped in filial piety which often involves idolatry. </li></ul><ul><li>If Chinese customs and culture infringe on biblical standards, we must, at all cost, seek to honour God (1 Sam 2:30), and to obey His Word. </li></ul><ul><li>We must also seek to explain to our loved ones the reasons for our actions so that they would not think that we are in any way unfilial. </li></ul>
  56. 56. 拜 祖先 ANCESTOR WORSHIP Presented by Timmy Tng 祖先

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