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PhD Defense
webarchiving.nl
Image: Google
Hugo Huurdeman, 18 April 2018
Thesis: timelessfuture.com/phd
Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
…as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives
Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
…as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives
For simple tasks…
“Where is the Agnietenkapel?”
Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
…as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives
For simple tasks…
“Where is the Agnietenkapel?”
…and very complex tasks
“Writing a research paper”
however, despite the complexity of tasks,
however, despite the complexity of tasks,
support by search engines is limited
however, despite the complexity of tasks,
support by search engines is limited
1 search box & 10 blue links
however, despite the complexity of tasks,
How to support the complex dynamics of
the information seeking process?
How to support the complex dynamics of
the information seeking process?
1. Web archives
How to support the complex dynamics of
the information seeking process?
1. Web archives
2. ‘Live’ web
§
Original image:A N P
Access: Wayback Machine
Access: Wayback Machine
How do search-based web archive access
tools facilitate research?
webarchiving.nl
How do search-based web archive access
tools facilitate research?
researchers
webarchiving.nl
How do search-based web archive access
tools facilitate research?
researchers
search

engine
webarchiving.nl
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
researcher
research
activities
corpus creation
analysis
dissemination
Search system
Data
Web crawler
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
Search system
Data
Web crawler
Would it be possible to recover 

parts of the unarchived Web?
• Harnessing additional
information contained in
web archive
Would it be possible to recover 

parts of the unarchived Web?
• Harnessing additional
information contained in
web archive
• Estimate of which pages
were missing
• “Aura” of the archive
Web Archive
Would it be possible to recover 

parts of the unarchived Web?
• Harnessing additional
information contained in
web archive
• Estimate of which pages
were missing
• “Aura” of the archive
• Reconstructing
representations of
unarchived pages
Web Archive
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
Search system
Data
Web crawler
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
researcher
research
activities
corpus creation
analysis
dissemination
Search system
Data
Web crawler
Findings
• Search: 

valuable addition to
researcher’s toolbox
• lacking transparency: 

hiding underlying
variables
• lacking process
support: phases in
process
researcher
research
activities
corpus creation
analysis
dissemination
Search system
Data
Web crawler
role of search?
• Models of information seeking describe
fundamentally different macro-level stages
Solution?
+uncertainty-
feelings
thoughts
actions
vague focused
seeking general
information (exploring)
seeking pertinent
information (documenting)
uncertainty optimism confusion clarity confidence (dis)satisfaction
doubt direction
FormulationInitiation Selection Exploration Collection Presentation
Prefocus Focus Postfocus
[Kuhlthau04,Vakkari01]
• Very valuable, but: difficult to translate to
concrete search system functionalitymoves & tactics
task progress
inform
pre-focus focus post-focus
Information seeking models
? ?
search engine functionality
a
a
Wealth of potential supportive features
a
Wealth of potential supportive features
but unknown role in process
a
Wealth of potential supportive features
but unknown role in process
(too many = overload)
• Valuable, but: difficult to translate to concrete
search systems functionality
Information seeking models
? ?
• We need a more accurate understanding 

of what functionality is useful when
task progress
inform
pre-focus focus post-focus
search engine functionality
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
How can different search system features
support stages of the search process?
Control features
become less
useful over time
Findings
Control features
become less
useful over time
Informational features are
generally useful in every stage
Findings
Control features
become less
useful over time
Informational features are
generally useful in every stage
The usefulness of
personalisable
features increases
across stages
Findings
Conclusion
• Search features have different value over time
• provide active and passive support
Conclusion
• Search features have different value over time
• provide active and passive support
• Towards a helpful framework for complex task
performance
Conclusion
• Search features have different value over time
• provide active and passive support
• Towards a helpful framework for complex task
performance
high-level support
low-level support
strategems & strategies
moves & tactics
task progress
informational
features
relativeimportance
pre-focus focus post-focus
task progress
pre-focus focus post-focus
task progress
pre-focus focus post-focus
Extend search when it is needed
task progress
pre-focus focus post-focus
a
Extend search when it is needed
task progress
pre-focus focus post-focus
a
Extend search when it is needed
More dynamic support
Search in context libraries, museums, archives
Search via learning platforms
Search in commercial platforms
Example applications
Search in context libraries, museums, archives
Search via learning platforms
Search in commercial platforms
Example applications
onderzoeksdata Search
Results Timeline Aggregations Visualizations
347 archived results for onderzoeksdata, 33 unarchived results. Edit settings Help
occurring words:
aanvragen access afgelopen artikel belang beschikbaar bijdragen binnen buning burgers centraal cier cock creativiteit data december dient digital domein
duurzaam duurzame eerste eijsvogels europese for forum gericht groot ict ier informatie informatiemaatschappij infrastructuren innovatie intellectuele
jubileumcongres knowledge maatschappij media moeten mogelijk moment nationale nederlandse nieuwe noot novay nwo onder onderzoekonderzoeksdata
ontwikkeling open praktijkgericht private proces professor project publiek publieke read research ringnalda steeds stimuleren stond that toegang tweede verband
statistics:
websites
cebuco.nl
open
cier.nl
tue.nl
knaw.nl
access.nl
pabo.edu
ncdd.nl
kennisnet.nl
europa-nu.nl
artsennet.nl
unesco categories
Algemeen
Wetenschap
Geneeskunde
Onderwijs
Recht, Overheid
archived results
not in archive
in archive
temporal distribution:
2009 2010 2011 2012
Web archives
How to support the complex dynamics of
the information seeking process?
• By enhancing transparency
• By increasing process support
• more dynamic support for stages in the
information seeking process
Thanks & Acknowledgements
• WebART team: 

Jaap Kamps, Richard Rogers, 

Arjen de Vries, Anat Ben-David, Thaer
Samar, Sanna Kumpulainen
• National Library of the Netherlands
• All collaborators & study participants
• Max Wilson, University of Nottingham
• Project funding by Netherlands
Organization for Scientific Research.
Travel grants SIGIR.
• &: Everyone supporting during the
process
Thanks!
Image: Google
Download: timelessfuture.com/phd

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Supporting the Complex Dynamics of the Information Seeking Process (PhD Defense)

  • 1. PhD Defense webarchiving.nl Image: Google Hugo Huurdeman, 18 April 2018 Thesis: timelessfuture.com/phd
  • 2.
  • 3. Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
  • 4. Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web…
  • 5. Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web… …as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives
  • 6. Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web… …as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives For simple tasks… “Where is the Agnietenkapel?”
  • 7. Search has become the de-facto way to access the Web… …as well as collections of libraries, museums & archives For simple tasks… “Where is the Agnietenkapel?” …and very complex tasks “Writing a research paper”
  • 8.
  • 9. however, despite the complexity of tasks,
  • 10. however, despite the complexity of tasks,
  • 11. support by search engines is limited however, despite the complexity of tasks,
  • 12. support by search engines is limited 1 search box & 10 blue links however, despite the complexity of tasks,
  • 13. How to support the complex dynamics of the information seeking process?
  • 14. How to support the complex dynamics of the information seeking process? 1. Web archives
  • 15. How to support the complex dynamics of the information seeking process? 1. Web archives 2. ‘Live’ web
  • 16. §
  • 17.
  • 19.
  • 22. How do search-based web archive access tools facilitate research? webarchiving.nl
  • 23. How do search-based web archive access tools facilitate research? researchers webarchiving.nl
  • 24. How do search-based web archive access tools facilitate research? researchers search
 engine webarchiving.nl
  • 25.
  • 26. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process
  • 27. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process researcher research activities corpus creation analysis dissemination Search system Data Web crawler
  • 28. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process Search system Data Web crawler
  • 29. Would it be possible to recover 
 parts of the unarchived Web? • Harnessing additional information contained in web archive
  • 30. Would it be possible to recover 
 parts of the unarchived Web? • Harnessing additional information contained in web archive • Estimate of which pages were missing • “Aura” of the archive Web Archive
  • 31. Would it be possible to recover 
 parts of the unarchived Web? • Harnessing additional information contained in web archive • Estimate of which pages were missing • “Aura” of the archive • Reconstructing representations of unarchived pages Web Archive
  • 32. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process Search system Data Web crawler
  • 33. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process researcher research activities corpus creation analysis dissemination Search system Data Web crawler
  • 34. Findings • Search: 
 valuable addition to researcher’s toolbox • lacking transparency: 
 hiding underlying variables • lacking process support: phases in process researcher research activities corpus creation analysis dissemination Search system Data Web crawler role of search?
  • 35. • Models of information seeking describe fundamentally different macro-level stages Solution? +uncertainty- feelings thoughts actions vague focused seeking general information (exploring) seeking pertinent information (documenting) uncertainty optimism confusion clarity confidence (dis)satisfaction doubt direction FormulationInitiation Selection Exploration Collection Presentation Prefocus Focus Postfocus [Kuhlthau04,Vakkari01]
  • 36. • Very valuable, but: difficult to translate to concrete search system functionalitymoves & tactics task progress inform pre-focus focus post-focus Information seeking models ? ? search engine functionality
  • 37.
  • 38. a
  • 39. a Wealth of potential supportive features
  • 40. a Wealth of potential supportive features but unknown role in process
  • 41. a Wealth of potential supportive features but unknown role in process (too many = overload)
  • 42. • Valuable, but: difficult to translate to concrete search systems functionality Information seeking models ? ? • We need a more accurate understanding 
 of what functionality is useful when task progress inform pre-focus focus post-focus search engine functionality
  • 43. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 44. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 45. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 46. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 47. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 48. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 49. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 50. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 51. How can different search system features support stages of the search process?
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 58. Control features become less useful over time Informational features are generally useful in every stage Findings
  • 59. Control features become less useful over time Informational features are generally useful in every stage The usefulness of personalisable features increases across stages Findings
  • 60. Conclusion • Search features have different value over time • provide active and passive support
  • 61. Conclusion • Search features have different value over time • provide active and passive support • Towards a helpful framework for complex task performance
  • 62. Conclusion • Search features have different value over time • provide active and passive support • Towards a helpful framework for complex task performance high-level support low-level support strategems & strategies moves & tactics task progress informational features relativeimportance pre-focus focus post-focus
  • 64. task progress pre-focus focus post-focus Extend search when it is needed
  • 65. task progress pre-focus focus post-focus a Extend search when it is needed
  • 66. task progress pre-focus focus post-focus a Extend search when it is needed More dynamic support
  • 67. Search in context libraries, museums, archives Search via learning platforms Search in commercial platforms Example applications
  • 68. Search in context libraries, museums, archives Search via learning platforms Search in commercial platforms Example applications onderzoeksdata Search Results Timeline Aggregations Visualizations 347 archived results for onderzoeksdata, 33 unarchived results. Edit settings Help occurring words: aanvragen access afgelopen artikel belang beschikbaar bijdragen binnen buning burgers centraal cier cock creativiteit data december dient digital domein duurzaam duurzame eerste eijsvogels europese for forum gericht groot ict ier informatie informatiemaatschappij infrastructuren innovatie intellectuele jubileumcongres knowledge maatschappij media moeten mogelijk moment nationale nederlandse nieuwe noot novay nwo onder onderzoekonderzoeksdata ontwikkeling open praktijkgericht private proces professor project publiek publieke read research ringnalda steeds stimuleren stond that toegang tweede verband statistics: websites cebuco.nl open cier.nl tue.nl knaw.nl access.nl pabo.edu ncdd.nl kennisnet.nl europa-nu.nl artsennet.nl unesco categories Algemeen Wetenschap Geneeskunde Onderwijs Recht, Overheid archived results not in archive in archive temporal distribution: 2009 2010 2011 2012 Web archives
  • 69. How to support the complex dynamics of the information seeking process? • By enhancing transparency • By increasing process support • more dynamic support for stages in the information seeking process
  • 70. Thanks & Acknowledgements • WebART team: 
 Jaap Kamps, Richard Rogers, 
 Arjen de Vries, Anat Ben-David, Thaer Samar, Sanna Kumpulainen • National Library of the Netherlands • All collaborators & study participants • Max Wilson, University of Nottingham • Project funding by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Travel grants SIGIR. • &: Everyone supporting during the process