Pay equity and the gender pay gap
by Toronto Training and HR
October 2013
CONTENTS
5-6 Definitions
7-8 Explanations for the gender pay gap
9-11 How bad is it here?
12-13 And elsewhere?
14-18 Inter...
Page 3
Introduction
Page 4
Introduction to Toronto Training
and HR
Toronto Training and HR is a specialist training and
human resources consul...
Page 5
Definitions
Definitions
• Pay Equity Act
• Wage structure
• Gender equality
• Gender mainstreaming
Page 6
Page 7
Explanations for the
gender pay gap
Explanations for the gender pay
gap
• Human capital
• Sex segregation
Page 8
Page 9
How bad is it here?
How bad is it here? 1 of 2
• In Ontario women earn 71 cents
for every dollar earned by men
• Canada is ranked 17th out of ...
How bad is it here? 2 of 2
G20
• Strong policies against violence
and exploitation
• Good access to education and
healthca...
Page 12
And elsewhere?
And elsewhere?
Page 13
Page 14
International comparisons
International comparisons 1 of 4
• Gender gaps in labour force
participation
• Percentage of men and women
in part-time em...
International comparisons 2 of 4
• Gender gap by age
• Gender pay gap and childcare
• Gender pay gap and parental
leave
• ...
International comparisons 3 of 4
• Percentage of women in total
employment and in public sector
employment
• Percentage of...
International comparisons 4 of 4
• Difference between male and
female employment rates
• Difference between male and
femal...
Page 19
Occupational differences
Occupational differences
Page 20
Page 21
Industry differences
Industry differences
Page 22
Page 23
Barriers to a female rise
into leadership
Barriers to a female rise into
leadership 1 of 3
• General norms and cultural
practices
• Masculine/patriarchal culture
• ...
Barriers to a female rise into
leadership 2 of 3
• Lack of networks and mentoring
• Lack of organizational leadership
comm...
Barriers to a female rise into
leadership 3 of 3
• Lack of childcare facilities
• Lack of monitoring of
participation of w...
Page 27
Contribution to the wage
differential
Contribution to the wage
differential
• Educational attainment
• Industry category
• Labour force experience
• Occupationa...
Page 29
Differences in observed
characteristics
Differences in observed
characteristics
• Contextual variables
• Institutional variables
• Job, company and workplace
char...
Page 31
Comparing and valuing
jobs
Comparing and valuing jobs
• Assess the gender of each job
class
• Assess the job description of
each job
• Establish the ...
Page 33
Maintenance obligations
Maintenance obligations
• Changes to the workplace
• Changes to job classes
• Changes to compensation
• Changes to employe...
Page 35
Criteria to consider
Criteria to consider
• Skill
• Effort
• Responsibility
• Working conditions
Page 36
Page 37
Addressing the leaky
pipeline
Addressing the leaky pipeline
• Changes in HR practices
• Encouraging work-life balance
practices
• Fostering coaching and...
Page 39
Collective bargaining and
pay equity
Collective bargaining and pay
equity
• Creation of pay equity gaps
• The pre-bargaining checklist
• Bargaining
Page 40
Page 41
Initiatives in Europe
Initiatives in Europe 1 of 3
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
• Measures directly related to pay
• Initiatives addressing women’s
la...
Initiatives in Europe 2 of 3
SOCIAL PARTNER INITIATIVES
• Trade union initiatives
• Employer organizations and the
gender ...
Initiatives in Europe 3 of 3
GOOD PRACTICE INITIATIVES
• Awards and dissemination
initiatives
• Best practice organization...
Page 45
Recent cases in Ontario
Recent cases in Ontario
• Brant Haldimand Norfolk Catholic
DSB and OSSTF
• Windsor Star and CEP
• Lakeridge Health Corpora...
Page 47
Recent Federal cases
Recent Federal cases
• Air Canada
• Bell Canada
• Canada Post
Page 48
Page 50
Conclusion and questions
Page 51
Conclusion and questions
Pay Equity Commission; Compliance self-assessment
Summary
Videos
Questions
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Pay equity and the gender pay gap October 2013

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Half day open training event held in Toronto, Ontario

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Pay equity and the gender pay gap October 2013

  1. 1. Pay equity and the gender pay gap by Toronto Training and HR October 2013
  2. 2. CONTENTS 5-6 Definitions 7-8 Explanations for the gender pay gap 9-11 How bad is it here? 12-13 And elsewhere? 14-18 International comparisons 19-20 Occupational differences 21-22 Industry differences 23-26 Barriers to a female rise into leadership 27-28 Contribution to the wage differential 29-30 Differences in observed characteristics 31-32 Comparing and valuing jobs 33-34 Maintenance obligations 35-36 Criteria to consider 37-38 Addressing the leaky pipeline 39-40 Collective bargaining and pay equity 41-44 Initiatives in Europe 45-46 Recent cases in Ontario 47-48 Recent Federal cases 49-50 Conclusion and questions Page 2
  3. 3. Page 3 Introduction
  4. 4. Page 4 Introduction to Toronto Training and HR Toronto Training and HR is a specialist training and human resources consultancy headed by Timothy Holden 10 years in banking 10 years in training and human resources Freelance practitioner since 2006 The core services provided by Toronto Training and HR are: Training event design Training event delivery Reducing costs, saving time plus improving employee engagement and morale Services for job seekers
  5. 5. Page 5 Definitions
  6. 6. Definitions • Pay Equity Act • Wage structure • Gender equality • Gender mainstreaming Page 6
  7. 7. Page 7 Explanations for the gender pay gap
  8. 8. Explanations for the gender pay gap • Human capital • Sex segregation Page 8
  9. 9. Page 9 How bad is it here?
  10. 10. How bad is it here? 1 of 2 • In Ontario women earn 71 cents for every dollar earned by men • Canada is ranked 17th out of 22 OECD nations • Seven of every ten part-time workers are women • Women outnumber men in nine of the 10 lowest paying occupations Page 10
  11. 11. How bad is it here? 2 of 2 G20 • Strong policies against violence and exploitation • Good access to education and healthcare Page 11
  12. 12. Page 12 And elsewhere?
  13. 13. And elsewhere? Page 13
  14. 14. Page 14 International comparisons
  15. 15. International comparisons 1 of 4 • Gender gaps in labour force participation • Percentage of men and women in part-time employment • Employment/population ratio • Full-time equivalent employment rates • Women part-time employment and childcare cost • Gender pay gap for full-time employees Page 15
  16. 16. International comparisons 2 of 4 • Gender gap by age • Gender pay gap and childcare • Gender pay gap and parental leave • Gender pay gap and trade union coverage • Gender pay gap and wage inequality • Female share of the labour force and senior management • Share of women on boards Page 16
  17. 17. International comparisons 3 of 4 • Percentage of women in total employment and in public sector employment • Percentage of parliamentary seats occupied by women • Female less male total (paid and unpaid) working time in minutes • Unpaid work and women employment rate • Female employment and total fertility rates Page 17
  18. 18. International comparisons 4 of 4 • Difference between male and female employment rates • Difference between male and female unemployment rates • Total hours worked by men and women Page 18
  19. 19. Page 19 Occupational differences
  20. 20. Occupational differences Page 20
  21. 21. Page 21 Industry differences
  22. 22. Industry differences Page 22
  23. 23. Page 23 Barriers to a female rise into leadership
  24. 24. Barriers to a female rise into leadership 1 of 3 • General norms and cultural practices • Masculine/patriarchal culture • Lack of role models • Lack of flexible work solutions • Lack of opportunities for critical work experience and responsibility • Lack of adequate work-life balance policies Page 24
  25. 25. Barriers to a female rise into leadership 2 of 3 • Lack of networks and mentoring • Lack of organizational leadership commitment to diversity • Lack of target-setting for the participation of women • Lack of acceptance of the use of diversity policies • Lack of adequate re-entry opportunities Page 25
  26. 26. Barriers to a female rise into leadership 3 of 3 • Lack of childcare facilities • Lack of monitoring of participation of women • Lack of adequate information about existing diversity policies and practices • Lack of adequate parental leave and benefits • Inadequate labour laws and regulations Page 26
  27. 27. Page 27 Contribution to the wage differential
  28. 28. Contribution to the wage differential • Educational attainment • Industry category • Labour force experience • Occupational category • Race • Union status • Wage differential Page 28
  29. 29. Page 29 Differences in observed characteristics
  30. 30. Differences in observed characteristics • Contextual variables • Institutional variables • Job, company and workplace characteristics • Job history • Personal characteristics • Type of contract and working hours Page 30
  31. 31. Page 31 Comparing and valuing jobs
  32. 32. Comparing and valuing jobs • Assess the gender of each job class • Assess the job description of each job • Establish the measurement criteria • Weight the criteria in terms of their value to their organization • Rank each job Page 32
  33. 33. Page 33 Maintenance obligations
  34. 34. Maintenance obligations • Changes to the workplace • Changes to job classes • Changes to compensation • Changes to employees • What maintenance is not… • Why does it matter? Page 34
  35. 35. Page 35 Criteria to consider
  36. 36. Criteria to consider • Skill • Effort • Responsibility • Working conditions Page 36
  37. 37. Page 37 Addressing the leaky pipeline
  38. 38. Addressing the leaky pipeline • Changes in HR practices • Encouraging work-life balance practices • Fostering coaching and mentoring of women • Increasing the amount of networking for women • Setting targets and measuring performance Page 38
  39. 39. Page 39 Collective bargaining and pay equity
  40. 40. Collective bargaining and pay equity • Creation of pay equity gaps • The pre-bargaining checklist • Bargaining Page 40
  41. 41. Page 41 Initiatives in Europe
  42. 42. Initiatives in Europe 1 of 3 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES • Measures directly related to pay • Initiatives addressing women’s labour market segregation • Public sector initiatives Page 42
  43. 43. Initiatives in Europe 2 of 3 SOCIAL PARTNER INITIATIVES • Trade union initiatives • Employer organizations and the gender pay gap • Female entrepreneurship initiatives • Joint initiatives and collective bargaining on gender equality Page 43
  44. 44. Initiatives in Europe 3 of 3 GOOD PRACTICE INITIATIVES • Awards and dissemination initiatives • Best practice organizations Page 44
  45. 45. Page 45 Recent cases in Ontario
  46. 46. Recent cases in Ontario • Brant Haldimand Norfolk Catholic DSB and OSSTF • Windsor Star and CEP • Lakeridge Health Corporation and CUPE • A.G. Simpson Automotive Page 46
  47. 47. Page 47 Recent Federal cases
  48. 48. Recent Federal cases • Air Canada • Bell Canada • Canada Post Page 48
  49. 49. Page 50 Conclusion and questions
  50. 50. Page 51 Conclusion and questions Pay Equity Commission; Compliance self-assessment Summary Videos Questions

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