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Modelling Information Sharing Process in Military Coalitions Tim Grant  & Gijs van den Heuvel Netherlands Defence Academy ...
Outline <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To show that information sharing in military coalitions is more complex than s...
Motivation (1) <ul><li>Military operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly involve coalitions (eg ISAF): </li></ul></u...
Motivation (2) <ul><li>Means of sharing information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Me...
Motivation (3) <ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in context; endowed with meaning & purpose </li></ul></ul><...
Motivation (4) <ul><li>Information sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Process of making information available to other indiv...
Motivation (5) <ul><li>Barriers to information sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICT c...
Motivation (6) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Tarin Kowt, Afghanistan Oct...
Case study <ul><li>Network Enabled C2 Systems (NECS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NECS-G3 project: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Findings (1) <ul><li>Information sharing in military coalitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles an information market: </...
Findings (2) <ul><li>Information sharing in military coalitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security regulations express cultur...
Findings (3) <ul><li>Information sharing in NEC era: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information market: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Related literature (1) <ul><li>Reviewed literature on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Related literature (2) <ul><li>Found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information & knowle...
Related literature (3) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 9. Evaluate 1. Gene...
Related literature (4) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Postma, 2010
Conclusions <ul><li>Information sharing more complex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Sender & Recipient can take initiative: <...
Further work <ul><li>Limitations of study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military coalitions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does ...
Any questions? Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
What we are doing now (1) Network Source Recipient Recipient’s context Source’s context push pull task transfer Grant, 201...
What we are doing now (2) 4 May 10 Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions Agent network: N...
What we are doing now (3) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Root class Simul...
What we are doing now (4) Habitat Herman Benny Brenda Anne Albert Rover-1 Rover-2 Team A decentralised Rest centralised (3...
Any (more) questions? Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
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Iscram 2010 Id236 Grant Vd Heuvel Modelling Information Sharing Process 100429 Final

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Work in progress paper on Modelling the information sharing process in military coalitions, presented in Seattle, 4 May 2010

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Iscram 2010 Id236 Grant Vd Heuvel Modelling Information Sharing Process 100429 Final

  1. 1. Modelling Information Sharing Process in Military Coalitions Tim Grant & Gijs van den Heuvel Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA) [email_address] Tel: +31 76 527 3261 Mob: +31 638 193 749
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To show that information sharing in military coalitions is more complex than simple, one-way, linear process (such as Shannon-Weaver) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions & further work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postscript: What we are doing now </li></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  3. 3. Motivation (1) <ul><li>Military operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly involve coalitions (eg ISAF): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple nations (“combined”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army, Air Force, Navy, special forces (“joint”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers, Ministries, UN, NGOs, media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each partner has own culture: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one group of people from another ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National, organizational , professional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key issue: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to organize coalition Command & Control (C2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires partners to share information </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  4. 4. Motivation (2) <ul><li>Means of sharing information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings (formal or informal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Briefings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediated by technology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esp. Information & Communication Technology (ICT): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone (fixed, mobile / cell, conferencing) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio (terrestrial, satellite) + optical wireless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email & chat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Webpage, forum, blog </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C2 system: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical Information System (GIS) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Database / repository (distributed) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  5. 5. Motivation (3) <ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data in context; endowed with meaning & purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Explicit data objects acquired, generated, identified, protected, stored, retrieved, processed, and/or exchanged by coalition partners ” </li></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Information domain (machine) Cognitive domain (mind) Shareable by ICT
  6. 6. Motivation (4) <ul><li>Information sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Process of making information available to other individuals, teams, or organizations in the coalition ” </li></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 (Extension of ideas from) Szulanski, 1996; 2000 Detect need Search Negotiate Transfer Information seeking Information sharing Encoder Decoder Noise Source Recipient Shannon-Weaver model:
  7. 7. Motivation (5) <ul><li>Barriers to information sharing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICT can be used to bridge geographical gaps: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. telephone, radio, email, chat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICT can be used to bridge temporal gaps: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. voicemail, email, blog, webpage, database </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can ICT be used to bridge cultural gaps? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. translators (but imperfect ...) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Out of sight, out of mind What happens if you order: “ Sergeant, secure that building!” С глаз долой из сердца вон Invisible idiot
  8. 8. Motivation (6) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Tarin Kowt, Afghanistan October 2009 (Photo Gijs van den Heuvel)
  9. 9. Case study <ul><li>Network Enabled C2 Systems (NECS): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NECS-G3 project: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cultural influences on C2 systems ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd author is answering 1 st of 3 questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish whether cultures have influence on C2 processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the impacts on information-age C2 systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement & test mitigation measures for undesirable impacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This paper looks ahead to 2 nd question: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In context of agent-based simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture specifics outside scope </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  10. 10. Findings (1) <ul><li>Information sharing in military coalitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles an information market: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ So information has a value. And if I give information, I want to get something back. Because I paid, I invested a lot of money to get the information” (R12). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We trade information, information sharing is a trade. I give you something, if you give me something. ... Technology is a very powerful solution if you don’t want to share information” (R34). </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Van den Heuvel, 2010
  11. 11. Findings (2) <ul><li>Information sharing in military coalitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security regulations express cultural gaps: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ And if we are willing to share that information, do we have the opportunity or do we have the possibility to share? Not from the technical side but … do policies allow us to do it. So even if there is willingness to share information, there may be cases where it is not possible to share because policies don’t allow us to do so” (R24). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Trust is paramount because trust will get you over the policy and politics hurdles. Personal trust is essential” (R23). </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Van den Heuvel, 2010
  12. 12. Findings (3) <ul><li>Information sharing in NEC era: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information market: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both Source & Recipient take initiative: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information push & smart pull </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network as repository (as well as channel) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From “need to know” to “need to share”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security regulations give information scarcity value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to migrate to information-as-public-good </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  13. 13. Related literature (1) <ul><li>Reviewed literature on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library & information science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sought papers on communication models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process, not influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team, not task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching NEC requirements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push & smart pull; humans/artefacts; F2F/mediated </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  14. 14. Related literature (2) <ul><li>Found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information & knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information contribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information seeking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information foraging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information snacking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information & knowledge markets : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism for distributing information resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People barter for information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People use information as instrument of power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simard’s (2006) 9-stage cyclic process model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 McGee & Prusak, 1993 Stewart, 1996
  15. 15. Related literature (3) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 9. Evaluate 1. Generate 2. Transform 3. Enable 4. Use internally 5. Transfer 6. Add value 7. Use professionally 8. Use personally Simard, 2006 Organization (Performance / Supply)  (Market / Demand)  Forestry Metals & Minerals Energy Earth Sciences Natural Resources
  16. 16. Related literature (4) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Postma, 2010
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Information sharing more complex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Sender & Recipient can take initiative: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Push & smart pull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander’s Critical Information Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security rules give information scarcity value: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEC requires information-as-public-good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust enables security barriers to be waived: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person- & situation-dependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bartering information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paying for information in terms of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of information market </li></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  18. 18. Further work <ul><li>Limitations of study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military coalitions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does this extend to civil & civil-military coalitions? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interview method: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical incident technique? Longitudinal observation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agent-based simulation ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research directions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speculation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two phase transitions in trust yield speed-up: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown -> acquaintance -> friend </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better process model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simard? Postma? Sharing+seeking hybrid ? </li></ul></ul></ul>Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  19. 19. Any questions? Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10
  20. 20. What we are doing now (1) Network Source Recipient Recipient’s context Source’s context push pull task transfer Grant, 2010 (forthcoming) Complete model: 4 May 10 Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions Encoding message Encoding query Decoding result Decoding instruction Observations Feed Forward Decision (Hypothesis) Action (Test) Feed Forward Cultural Traditions Genetic Heritage New Information Previous Experience Feed Forward Unfolding Interaction With Environment Unfolding Interaction With Environment Observations Feed Forward Decision (Hypothesis) Action (Test) Feed Forward Cultural Traditions Genetic Heritage New Information Previous Experience Feed Forward Unfolding Interaction With Environment Unfolding Interaction With Environment Observations Feed Forward Decision (Hypothesis) Action (Test) Feed Forward Cultural Traditions Genetic Heritage New Information Previous Experience Feed Forward Unfolding Interaction With Environment Unfolding Interaction With Environment
  21. 21. What we are doing now (2) 4 May 10 Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions Agent network: Network Source Recipient Encoding message Encoding query Decoding result Recipient’s context Source’s context Decoding instruction Grant, 2010 (forthcoming) Agent Set Filter Prototypes Actuators Sensors Observing Acting Sensemaking Expected Situation Situation not recognised Retrieve alternative COA Expectations Actions Plans Observation Environment Selected Plan Signal Assessors Planners Decisionmakers Sensemakers New/modified Prototype Control of planning Prototypes Observed prototypes Control of Sensemaking Goals Deciding Unexpected situation Orienting Planning Grant & Kooter, 2005
  22. 22. What we are doing now (3) Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10 Root class Simulation layer Agent class ... ... its OODA-RR components (processes) ... & their data-structures (information network) Teams whose norms agents adopt by membership (social network) (Technical) networks thru which agents share information
  23. 23. What we are doing now (4) Habitat Herman Benny Brenda Anne Albert Rover-1 Rover-2 Team A decentralised Rest centralised (3) create plan (4) allocate tasks Benny dies ! 4 May 10 Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions (1) spacesuit fails (2) notify of failure (5) bring Benny (6) I don’t take orders from you!
  24. 24. Any (more) questions? Grant & vd Heuvel: Modelling information sharing process in coalitions 4 May 10

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