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FRT Aug Training Part 1

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FRT Aug Training Part 1

  1. 1. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System 341st Medical Group UNCLASSIFIED FRT AUGUST TRAINING Maj Gacioch FRT Team Chief Part 1: Cold Weather Injuries
  2. 2. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Cold Weather Colddecreases your ability to think andweakens your will to do anything except to get warm. Coldis an insidious enemy; as it numbs the mind, it subdues the will to survive. Coldmakes it very easy to forget your ultimate goal – to survive. FM 21-76 (Survival), Pg 15-1 2
  3. 3. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Typical Victim of a Cold Weather Injury  Male  A1C or below  20 years old (approximately)  From a warm climate  Less than 18 months time in service  Uses tobacco, alcohol or medications  Neglects proper foot care 3
  4. 4. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED General Protection  Use multiple layers, loose enough to trap air  Cover your head (can lose 40-45% of body heat from head, and even more from neck, wrists and ankles  Outermost layer should be wind/water resistant  Consider higher protein/fat foods for calories  Consider portable heaters, glove warmers, etc  C- Keep clothing clean  O- Avoid overheating  L- Wear clothes loose and in layers  D- Keep clothing dry 4
  5. 5. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Factors Increasing Risks The body is better at losing heat than producing it  Taking certain drugs or medications such as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and medication that inhibit the body's response to the cold or impairs judgment  Having a cold or certain diseases, such as diabetes, heart, vascular, and thyroid problems (may make a person more susceptible to the winter elements)  Male sex (♂ have far greater mortality from cold than ♀, perhaps due to inherent risk-taking activities, body- fat composition or other physiological differences) 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Hypothermia  DEFINITION: lowering of body temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat  Initial symptom is shivering, sign is progressive pallor of skin in extremities  At 96 degees F – shivering progresses to the point of being uncontrollable. Patient can’t care for self  At 95-90 degees F – sluggish thinking, irrational reasoning, & false perception of warmth. Weak pulse  At 90 – 86 degees F or less symptoms include muscle rigidity, unconsciousness & barely detectable signs of life (inaudible heart beat & pulse, unreactive pupils, very slow respirations 7 Mild Moderate Severe
  8. 8. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Frostbite  DEFINITION: Freezing of tissues. Light frostbite produces areas of dull, whitish, pallor that are numb when cold and burn when rewarmed “chillblains”  Tend to occur on thin skin (face, feet & hands). Counter effect by covering, wiggling (making faces) and periodically exposing to heat. 8
  9. 9. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Severe Frostbite 9
  10. 10. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Trenchfoot  Exposure for many hours or days to wet/damp at near freezing temperatures  Presents as pins & needles sensation  tingling  numbness  pain  Skin appears wet, soggy, wet, white & shriveled. As damage occurs  red  bluish  black in color. Walking becomes difficult. Muscles & tendons  become damaged. If persists long enough  can progress to gangrene and possibly amputation.  Prevention is keeping feet warm and dry. Change socks frequently! 10
  11. 11. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Trench Foot (Mild to Severe) 11
  12. 12. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Trenchfoot Treatment  prevent further exposure  dry carefully  DO NOT break blisters, apply lotions, massage, expose to heat, or allow to walk on injury  rewarm by exposing to warm air  clean and wrap loosely  elevate feet to reduce swelling  evacuate for medical treatment 12
  13. 13. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Cold Weather Survival  DO  Periodically check self/buddy for frostbite.  Rewarm frostbite  Keep injured areas from refreezing  DON’T  Rub injuries with snow  drink Alcoholic beverages  Thaw out deep frostbite if away from definitive care (better to leave it frozen)  Smoke 13
  14. 14. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED More Advanced Care  If the person is conscious give hot, sweetened fluids (honey, dextrose or sugar)  To treat hypothermia rewarm the whole body, starting with the trunk only in warm water (100-110 degrees F) then slowly stimulating peripheral blood flow  Do not warm too rapidly – BEWARE “afterdrop”  If warm-water submersion is not available, use naked-buddy treatment in a sleeping bag – BEWARE: monitor buddy for hypothermia 14
  15. 15. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Other Cold Weather Risks  Dehydration – fluid loss to expiration & sweating  Cold Diuresis – cold increases urinary output so increase fluids 2L > normal amounts; Urine = Lt yellow  Constipation –add fruit/fiber to induce BMs regularly  Sunburn – skin is exposed to reflected rays from every direction. Aggravated at high altitude.  Snow Blindness – ultraviolet rays reflected from snow cause sunburn to the eyes  Eyes feel gritty  Pain that increases with eye movement  eyes become teary and reddened  headaches (often) Use sunglasses on bright days! 15
  16. 16. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  When oxygen in the body is replaced by carbon monoxide  colorless, odorless, tasteless gas resulting from incomplete combustion  Inadequate ventilation from engines, stoves, and/or heaters 16
  17. 17. Enable Nuclear Deterrence & Community Wellness through an Integrated Health Care System UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Symptoms  headache  dizziness  weakness  excessive yawning  ringing in ears  confusion  nausea 17  bright red lips, eyelids  grayish tint in dark- skinned people  drowsiness  unconsciousness  possibly death Treatment –move to fresh air immediately ––provide mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if victim is not breathing -Use supplemental oxygen, if available -Transport ASAP
  18. 18. 18 Valley Forge, December 1777

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