MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 3 AbstractThe class was to create a curriculum outline that highlighted the four conditions of Ginsberg &Wlodkowski’s motivational framework, as explained in Diversity and Motivation: CulturallyResponsive Teaching in College (2009). This framework explains in detail how instructors andteachers can become more culturally responsive in the teaching practices. Instructors are giveninstruction in creating safe and effective learning environments, designing engaging curricula,and promoting learner achievement. This framework, if followed, will enable the instructor todemonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that they are looking for in their learners.
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 4 Introduction A curriculum is “a set of courses constituting an area of specialization” (Merriam-Webster, 2011). In many colleges and universities, a curriculum comprises required and electivecoursework in which learners may receive credit toward a degree, a diploma, or a certification.The curriculum is taught by qualified instructors who are certified or authorized to deliver thecourse content. Instructors facilitate instruction and ensure that learners meet or exceed learningobjectives for the course. In addition to that, instructors must meet the challenges of designingand implementing instruction for learners who are from different backgrounds from themselves.Developing a culturally responsive teaching style, that includes all learners, is a must in today’seducational environment. Being culturally responsive means “responding proactively and empathetically toappeals, efforts, and influences” (Ford, 2010). Culturally responsive teaching is intentional andplanned for rather than haphazard and random in its design. It “occurs when there is respect forthe backgrounds and circumstances of students regardless of individual status or power, andwhen there is a design for learning that embraces the range of needs, interests, and orientationsin a classroom” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). There is a sense of care and urgency put intothe endeavor. In a culturally responsive environment, each learner is made to feel important andacknowledged, motivating him or her to learn more effectively. Donna Ford (2010) put it bestwhen she said “teachers open doors for culturally different students to reach their potential”(p.50), When instructors develop the cultural sensitivity needed to engage culturally differentlearners, they increase their motivation and desire to learn.
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 5 According to Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007), motivation is both intrinsicand extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is derived from the learner himself or herself; extrinsicmotivation is derived from the environment or other external circumstances. Learners who areintrinsically motivated learn best when their experiences and values are placed at the center ofinstruction. In order to build such motivation in students, Ginsberg and Wlodkowski (2009)created the motivational framework. This framework is “a way to plan for and reflect onteaching that is respectful of different cultures” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). Themotivational framework comprises four conditions: establishing inclusion, developing attitude,enhancing meaning, and engendering competence. Each condition builds on the other to bringlearning to a full circle-from a learner who feels welcome and accepted to one who feelsconfident and proficient. Establishing Inclusion Adult learners re-enter the classroom environment with some fear and apprehensionabout learning. What will it be like? Will the class be boring? Will the teacher hate me?Usually, these stem from unresolved issues from their last classroom experiences. Theirconfidence level is low; they feel alone and left out; and they do not feel that they will receivethe help they need to be successful. As far-fetched as those scenarios may seem, adult learnershave them, and adult educators must be prepared to meet the needs of these learners, whateverthey may be and wherever they are in the learning process. Establishing inclusion is the first of four principles of the motivational framework.Establishing inclusion is the act of creating connection among members of a learningenvironment. To ease the tension of re-entering a classroom environment, the adult educatormust make the environment as inviting as possible to the learner. This environment must be one
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 6where norms and expectations “contribute to the developing as a community of learners who feelrespected and connected to one another and the teacher” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009) andone in which learners can learn and be engaged. To facilitate the establishment of inclusion, the instructor should greet each classmember as he or she arrives with a “hello” and, if the instructor feels so inclined, a handshakeand a “welcome.” As each class member arrives, they should begin the first assignment that isplaced on their desks. This, of course, would be the first icebreaker. The icebreaker would askfor name, major, why the person is taking the class, and what the person expects from the class.The second icebreaker would follow the first, in that each person would introduce himself orherself and tell the class one fact about themselves. During the introductions, it would beappropriate for the instructor to ask the student what name he or she prefers to be called in orderto acknowledge that student and make him or her feel comfortable. The instructor should havehis or her name on the board for others to see, so that they know who is teaching them-andshould tell the class how the name is pronounced, in the event that the spelling of the name andthe sound do not quite go together. Additionally, the educator should tell something abouthimself or herself in order to engage the class and establish oneself as the leader of the class. Finally, the instructor would deliver a course overview, distribute a course syllabus, andcommunicate classroom rules and expectations. To confirm understanding of the overview, thesyllabus, and classroom rules and expectations, the instructor would require the learners to sign acontract which would be attached to the syllabus and submit for a grade. All of the above seemslike activities that go on in an elementary or secondary school classroom, but establishinginclusion is good practice in any classroom-regardless of the age and grade of the learners.Establishing inclusion in a classroom environment should happen immediately; otherwise, the
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 7instructor runs the risk of losing control of the classroom and the learning process. Establishinginclusion paves the way to developing attitude, the second condition in the framework. Developing Attitude Developing attitude is “creating a favorable disposition of the learning process”(Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). This favorable disposition occurs when the learner discoversthat the environment is conducive to learning. As was stated before, instructors mustacknowledge that leaners come to the classroom with previous experiences, positive andnegative, of the learning process. It is imperative that the learning environment is made asstimulating and as relevant to the learner as possible. A stimulating environment offers numerous opportunities for the learner to developknowledge and skills that will enable him or her to be successful in the environment. ForWriting 101, an instructor must offer plenty of chances for the student to experience success andto make sense of his or her environment and capacity to learn. To that end, students will begiven chances to reflect on their experiences in a writing journal, participate in interactiveactivities like book chats and poetry slams, and learn about the practice of writing in order tobecome familiar with its conventions. One important thing that learners should know withwriting is that it takes time to cultivate a personal voice and a style. Through their ownreflections and development of various writing pieces, they develop a favorable attitude, likewhat they are doing is relevant. In an adult classroom, specifically, coursework that is relevant and has value-and isinteresting and fun-does a great deal to motivate a learner to succeed. For one, learners are ableto use their own experiences in the learning, and two, knowing what can be achieved through hisor her own effort develops in the learner a positive, enriching experience. The third condition,
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 8enhancing meaning, further engages the learner in personally relevant activities and furtherreinforces his or her attitude toward learning. Enhancing Meaning Enhancing meaning involves “creating engaging learning experiences that includelearners’ perspectives and values” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). The first time some ofthese learners learned to write, the topic was selected for them without consideration as towhether they cared enough about the topic to write about it, or even knew enough to besuccessful at it. Perhaps this is why some learners do not feel connected to their writing voice.In Writing 101, the instructor will reconnect the learner to his or her voice through an openingexercise, in which they will describe their last writing assignment. What was the topic? Whochose the topic? Was the learner satisfied with the result? Why or why not? The purpose of thisassignment is to encourage students to open up about their writing experiences. Perhaps thelearner was exposed to certain topics and ideas that they did not choose. Instead of forcing thelearner to write about a certain topic, which is often restrictive in its interpretation and how it istreated, an instructor would do well “to better to understand and act in concert with the particularrealities of diverse adult learners” (Sheared & Sissel, 2001). Adult learners are indeed diverseand have their own viewpoints about their learning and personal experiences, and enhancingmeaning through writing helps learners “go beyond facts and encourage learners to learn fromdifferent points of view” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). Learners will also learn how to write a good paper, using the six writing traits. For thefirst few days, the focus will be on idea and content development. In order to keep “students’experiences, concerns, and interests in mind” (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009), the instructorwill pose a question to the students: what is the one thing that you do so well, that you feel that
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 9no one can do it like you, and others will pay you for doing it? For this assignment, learners willdevelop their ideas and content. They will use this for their writing portfolios, which will betalked about under the fourth and final condition, engendering competence. To finish the portion of curriculum dealing with enhancing meaning, learners will workfurther with the concept of idea and content development as they listen to and respond to a shortstory. They will determine if the ideas in the story were clear and easy to understand, andwhether the content was easy to follow. Afterward, they will reflect on books and stories theyhave read. They will recall a book they liked and explain why they did liked it and reflect on abook that they did not like and why they did not like it. Students will share their reflections andoffer possible book titles for reading by the entire class. It is suggested that the book titleschosen by the class reflect diverse perspectives so that all learners’ backgrounds can berepresented, and everyone will be able to participate in class with confidence. The fourth and final condition of the framework is engendering competence. It is a resultof including all learners in the learning experience, developing an attitude that is conducive tolearning, and offering an engaging environment for learning. When a student feels competent,he or she becomes an authority of sorts on what he or she has learned and is now a proficientlearner. Engendering Competence The final piece of the framework, engendering competence, has the learner become moreeffective at learning (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). Learners who are becoming effective atlearning feel confident and capable. They not only can learn, but they become more self-directed and independent in their learning. In short, they know how to learn. How do learnersget that way?
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 10 To engender competence in learners, instructors must have evaluated that student’slearning progress via assessments. Assessments measure what is learned, as well as how well itwas learned. For Writing 101, the assessments of choice are writing portfolios consisting of thelearners’ best work. They are given ample opportunity as they build this portfolio to correct theirerrors and submit an error-free copy for evaluation. The writing portfolio will be ademonstration of the learner’s competence as a writer. Additionally, learners will create poetrychapbooks with their best poetry work for display in an arts festival. As with the writingportfolio, the chapbook must contain the learner’s best work. Both the portfolio and thechapbook will be assessed through a grading rubric, which lists a set of criteria that the finalproject must meet in order to receive the highest possible score. Aside from portfolios and chapbooks, the class will also write literature essays andcomplete tests and quizzes. The literature essay, like the portfolio and chapbook, will beassessed by rubric. The tests and quizzes will not. These will be graded in the traditional way-points taken off for incorrect responses, with comments and feedback to assist the student inperforming better on future assessments. As instructive as assessments are for students, they are just as much so for instructors. Itinforms them of what students have mastered and what they have not. It informs them of whatneeds to be taught again. Finally it informs them of which students need more intensiveassistance from the instructor or from a classmate who is more proficient at the material.Assessments measure how well the learning outcomes were achieved and what needs to happennext. As learners are given positive feedback on their performance and continue to improve,their confidence improves. The result of this is learning proficiency.
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 11 Conclusion The motivational framework is an effective guideline for instructors in creating safe,caring, and diverse learning environments. Prior to this class, the extent of the learner’sknowledge about motivational frameworks was next to zero. In fact, the only exposure thislearner had to motivational frameworks was motivation theory. Motivation theory, although itattempts to explain student learning, does not offer a framework with which to measure and elicitproper learning outcomes from learners. Perhaps the lack of this tool in K-12 teaching circles isthe reason for poor classroom management skills? That is not known. What is abundantly clearis that the framework is easy to understand and is a big help to instructors who want to producepositive learning outcomes and positive learning relationships with their learners. Using themotivational framework enabled this learner to improve learning outcomes and stay focused andon-task with teaching objectives. This framework will be used again and again to plan forcurriculum and design effective lessons and units for learners of all backgrounds.
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK 12 ReferencesFord, D. Y. (2010). Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Affirming Culturally Different Gifted Students. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), 50-53. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Ginsberg, M. B. & Wlodkowski, R. J. (2009). Diversity and motivation: Culturally responsive teaching in college. (2nd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Merriam, S. B., Baumgartner, L. M., & Caffarella, R. S. (2007). Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Wiley.Sheared, V. & Sissel P.A. (Eds.). (2001). Making space: Merging theory and practice in adult education. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.