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3GPP/GSMA technologies for LPWAN in the Licensed Spectrum


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3GPP/GSMA technologies for LPWAN in the Licensed Spectrum by Avijit Ghosh, Assistant Vice President at Aricent

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3GPP/GSMA technologies for LPWAN in the Licensed Spectrum

  1. 1. 1 3GPP/GSMA technologies for LPWAN in the the Licensed Spectrum NB-IoT, LTE-M & EC-GSM Avijit Ghosh, Aricent
  2. 2. 2 The LPWAN Playing Field Data Rate Latency 1. Traffic pattern that is not downlink dominated (and may even be uplink dominated) 2. Traffic in very short bursts (may be as short as a single message or a pair of messages) 3. Terminals that don’t move much (nomadic) or don’t move at all (static) 4. Terminals that talk to very few peers – may be just to a single ‘server’ 1. Repetition 2. Repetition 3. Repetition 1. Eliminating unnecessary signalling: C/P & U/P Optimization 2. Support of High Latency models: (e-)DRX & PSM 1. Low system bandwidth 2. Half-duplex communication Low Device Cost = Circuit Simplicity Long Battery Life = Low Power Consumption Extended Coverage = Long Range or Coverage in Difficult Radio Situations Compromise To Achieve
  3. 3. 3 Evolution of IoT Connectivity in 3GPP/GSMA 5 MHz200 kHz 1.4 MHz 5/10/15/20 MHz Other influences GSM LTE Cat-1+ Delay Tolerant Access Cat-0 Cat-M1 Cat-NB1EC-GSM UMTS  GSM is the original wide-area M2M wireless connectivity technology. EC-GSM enhances it to keep it competitive.  UMTS did not see any significant push towards a low-power variant.  LTE-M (Cat-M1) is a concession to the low-power/low-throughput device within mainstream LTE.  NB-IoT (Cat-NB1), a new RAN technology, is the official LPWAN contestant from the 3GPP/GSMA stable
  4. 4. 4 Spectrum & Co-existence Cat-1+ (LTE) & Cat-0 Cat-NB1 Cat-NB1 Cat-NB1 Cat-M1 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz or 20 MHz: Operational LTE Carrier 1.4 MHz180 kHz Guard Band 250 kHz, 500 kHz, 750 kHz or 1 MHz 1 2 3 EC-GSM 200 kHz: Operational GSM Carrier shared with regular GSM service 200 kHz: Re-farmed GSM Carrier or Fresh/Independent Allocation
  5. 5. 5 Frequency Bands Band 5/26 8 2 3 1 66 12/17 13 28 18+19 20 Other LTE Bands U/L (MHz) 814-849 880-915 1850-1910 1710-1785 1920-1980 1710-1780 699-716 777-787 703-748 815-845 832-862 FDD & TDD D/L (MHz) 859-894 925-960 1930-1990 1805-1880 2110-2170 2110-2180 729-746 746-756 758-803 860-890 791-821 EC-GSM Y Y Y Y NB-IoT Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y LTE-M Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y All three 3GPP/GSMA radio technologies are designed to be used in the Licensed Spectrum only (the ‘fair sharing’ etiquettes required for the Unlicensed Spectrum aren’t addressed) None of them can be used for a Licensed Spectrum allocation of less than 200 kHz (and the allocation must come from one of the bands listed in the table above) This makes them unattractive for private/operator-less networks
  6. 6. 6 Conclusion: The Right Compromise? 1. Device Complexity: Much simpler than ‘full’ LTE – but much more complex when compared to LPWAN competitors on the license-exempt spectrum. Lots of options, too. 2. Simplified Radio Procedures: (In NB-IoT) No measurements, CQI reports & handovers, taking advantage of the fact that transactions are short. 3. Multiple Traffic Types: A. SMS Traffic, where traffic is addressed by E.164 number (a.k.a. phone number.) UE does not need to know its own address. B. Non-IP Traffic (not yet available for EC-GSM) which… I. Can be application-specific data with source/destination identified implicitly by subscription context (IMSI) taking advantage of the fact that an IoT device usually talks to only one endpoint. II. Alternatively, can be something like 6LoWPAN where the addressing is left to the payload layer. C. IP Traffic (with RoHC header compression support) where traffic is identified by IP (v4/v6) addresses. The address of the UE is assigned by the core network. 4. Still using SIM & IMSI: With a 15-digit IMSI, each operator (MCC+MNC) has a 1 billion IMSI pool even when the MNC is 3-digit. The SIM may be ‘embedded’ … or not. 5. Global Reach: Due to the roaming capabilities that come with the membership of the 3GPP/GSMA extended family.
  7. 7. 7 Backup Slides
  8. 8. 8 PSM & (e-)DRX: High Latency Communication Power Save Idle Receive Transmit Synchronize AccessGrant RandomAccess IPData L2Ack IPAck L2Ack System Information Monitoring (Paging, Measurements, etc.) Monitoring Time Power DRX PSM
  9. 9. 9 Signalling Reduction: C/P & U/P Optimization ENB C-SGN Connection Request UE RA AG Connection Setup Connection Setup Complete (+ Data Message) Initial Message (+ Data Message) CR ① ② ③ Connection Resume Request (+ resume-id) UE RA AG Connection Resume Connection Resume Complete Data (GTP-U)Data (DRB: PDCP/RLC/MAC) Connection Release (+ resume-id) Cache Context Retrieve Context CR Idle Suspend Request Suspend Response Resume Request Resume Response ENB C-SGN ① ② ③ ④ ENB EPC Connection Request UE RA AG Connection Setup Connection Setup Complete (+ Srv. Req.) Data (GTP-U)Data (DRB: PDCP/RLC/MAC) CR Initial Message (+ Srv. Req.) Security Mode Command Initial Context Setup Request Connection Reconfiguration Complete Initial Context Setup Response Security Mode Complete Connection Reconfiguration ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥
  10. 10. 10 Repetition: Coverage Enhancement The noise component is zero mean, so a sum over ‘M’ samples will approach zero. The signal component is the same for all repetitions. A sum over ‘M’ samples will simply be M times the signal … provided doesn’t change. If the device doesn’t move a lot, it can be expected that will not change too much.
  11. 11. 11 Network View Cat-M1 UE Cat-1+ UE Cat-0 UE NB-IoT ENB CIoT C-SGN Cat-NB1 UE SMS Non-IP via SCEF LTE/EUTRA ENB EPC (MME & SGW) IP (v4/v6) Tunneled Non-IP ← REROUTE ToApplication EC-GSM GERAN (BSC/BTS) SGSNEC-GSM UE