TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION Through education into the world of work‘ Uno Cygnaeus By Silvia Sowa
EDUCATIONAL PATTERNSMODERNWORLD REAL EARLY DAYS REFORM METHODS ARTSMOVEMENT SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Early days• Imitation and Apprenticeship needed to supply profits.• First teachers.• Egyptian, Babylonians, Oriental• Informal to formal.• Basic premises of apprenticeship.• Politics of apprenticeship.• The goal of an apprentice was to become an individual that was valued, to gain a label or title.
The Code of Hammurabi The first written evidence of the apprenticeship system.Fathers taught their sons a specific craft and standards requiredspecialization in order to achieve proficiency in a given craft. The use of papyrus to record ideas introduced more academic forms of education reserved for a very limited few.
BABYLONIANS WOMEN TASKS IN ANDTRAINING CONSCERAMIC CHARGE OF THIS TRUC PROCESS TION
Oriental• Parental guidance in the learning process• Parent as teacher the child through the task as well as how to learn. (cognitive apprenticeship)
Social Stratification: The first Rift To "do" lost status and to "think" gained status as a direct result of slavery.
TRAINING THE MIND DEVELOPING ACADEMIC THINKERS AND HAND SHOULD BE SEPARATEDPHYSICALSKILLS EDUCATIONAND ABILITIES FOR THE NOBLESAFO:FEMALE EDUCATORFIGURE DANCING EXCELLENCE AND GAMES VIRTUE
PREPARATION EMPHASIS FOR ON WAR ATHLETICS SKILLED LABOR SCHOOL LEVELS
John Amos Commenius (1592-1670) • Educational reformer and religious leader. • Believed that students had a natural tendency to learn, they should be involved in extracurricular activities and that education was for everyone. • Criticized the conditions in education and called for a reorganization of schooling. • A students lack of progress was due in part to the inefficiency of teachers.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Born in Zurich. He established an orphanage. He directed a school in Switzerland (1805) He developed teachers training.Curriculum innovations. Group work. Emphasis in individual skills.Established grade levels.
John Locke (1632-1704) "young children should be allowed to give vent to theirfeelings and should be restrained rarely."
The future adult within that child. He also insisted that character comes first before learning and that the educators aim is to instill virtue and wisdom into the learner. He believed that a pupil could be improved by a good education, and corrupted by a bad one.
Froebel Bacon Religious backgroundsFreedoms linked to educationTeachers needed to be taught Schooling for everyone. Practical experiences / activities. The learners curiosity is important Blending of experiences Discipline/Education should follow the nature for the child Engaging the senses is valuable.
Theadore Weld• American Beginnings: The manual training movement• Developing from the Russian system of education.• Completion of specific exercises.• Skill development was emphasized.• Attentive to learning styles and different ways of learning.• Task orientation.• The first MT (Medieval Times) curriculum• Started the society for the promotion of manual labor• "engaging in activity" combined with academics.
He traveled 1500 miles by horsebackand 145 miles on foot spreading the word and promoting his ideas. He created a program of ‘exercises’Only if they were meaningful for students. Used content analysis to arrange the Sequence course. "Instruction before construction." Directed Polytechnical. (Technical School of Moscow) Institute in Russia.
There were more than 30,000 displays and at least a quarter of them belonged to the United States. These exhibits covered many different concepts, such as art, manufacturing,electrical, products of soil and mine, and education. From these exhibits many Americans gained an unprecedented view of their countries material and intellectual progress.
VICTOR DE LA VOS CALVIN WOODWARD JHON DEWEY MANUAL ARTS JHON DANIEL MOVEMENTS RUNKLE OTTOSALOMON JAMES HUFF UNO STOUT CYGNAEUS
Victor Della Vos Developed a system of education based on graded exercises on a pedagogical sequence.The exercise was not necessarily a useful article Construction based on a laboratory method of teaching manual skills. Used detailed content analysis to arrange sequence.
Calvin Woodward (1837-1914) "Father of Manual Training."• Calvin Woodward saw Victor Della Vos at the Centennial exhibition and liked his approach to education.• Woodward was a physics teacher and his students had a hard time thinking in three dimensions.• He decided to start the Manual Training School of Washington University in St. Louis (1880)• First secondary school in U.S. to provide 3 year curriculum that was equally divided between mental and manual work.
John Daniel Runkle (1822-1902) prepared the"Objects and Plan of an Institute Mathematical of Technology“ Journal MIT Associated with the Holistic Nautical Almanac Education computation project Second president 1849 to 1884. of Massachusetts Institute of Technology
James Huff StoutFounded various educationalenterprises.Manual training and domesticscience.Kindergarten Training School(TRAINING TEACHERS)Physical training at schools.Wrote the manual for trainingteachers and domestic scienceteachers.
Uno Cygnaeus (1810-1888)• Education based on the use of materials to shaped and configured crafts and projects for customers.• Developed handicraft teaching internationally acknowledged.• Father of educative handicraft.• Teaching of handicraft as developer of technology education. )
PRACTICAL PROJECTS"SLOYD"MOVEMENT MANUAL NATURAL, TRAINING POLITICAL, SOCIAL ELEMENTS
John Dewey (1859-1952)Industrial Arts Movement Methodology "Doing“. Develop thinking-reflect. Tools and production of an object.. Role interest plays in learning. “Something to do" = interest. Go to the ‘next level’ Balance between intellectual and practical. psychology of occupation. Reflection in learning: ‘CONSTRUCTIVISM’
INDUSTRIAL ARTS MOVEMENTS William Inspired the Arts Art & design Art Novou Morris and Crafts merged with Style movement construction United Stares (paintings) Europe Fredrick "real life stuff“ Student of John Research Bonser Investigation Dewey Play Art Lois C. Use of technology First technology A change from a in co-education course for male-only area,Mossmann elementary because a female (1877-1944) schools. thought of it!Vocational Industry, Separate school Commission of agriculture, system (apart Industrial andEducation mechanic and from the public TechnicalMovement domestic arts for school system) Education for the(early 1900’s) boys-girls should be Commonwealth of created. Massachusetts.
Innovative Curriculum Projects of the 1960s• Education goes more to interpreting industry and applying scientific principles through research and development activities. 1957 Sputnik launch.• Tech Ed (Vocational Arts) was still building bird houses, & bread boards.• The major question of the day was: how is wood working getting kids ready for the space age?• In the 1960¹s 20 to 35 innovative curriculum programs were developed to address the concern that building breadboards was not preparing kids to compete with the Soviets.• Indusry based programs.
3 biggest Curriculum projects:• IACP: Industrial American Curriculum Project (7th and 8th grade)• Maryland Plan• American Industrial Project (UW-Stout)• Most have fizzled out for the following reasons. – Teachers had to work to hard – Very fast paced – Science based – Not as easy as handing out sand paper
Technology Education Movement• Technological Studies Involve:• Designing, developing, and utilizing technological systems.• Open-ended, problem-based design activities• Cognitive, manipulative, and affective learning strategies.• Applying technological knowledge and processes to real world experiences using up-to-date resources.• Working individually as well as in a team to solve problems.
The International Technology Education Association• Is the largest professional educational association, principal voice, and information clearinghouse devoted to enhancing technology education through experiences in our schools (K-12).• ITEAs mission is to advance technological capabilities for all people.
TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION• Jackson Mills (1979) • William Warner (1950’s)• The essence of the • Curriculum Reflect Technology in Education Technology based on: is a system based on: • Thinking process.• Inputs, Processes, • His proposal was a Outputs, Feedback. curriculum that was less• Preparing people for specific and emphasized industry, space programs, thinking more broadly. tech. innovation.
• Secondary school: curricula have been homogenized, diluted, and diffused.• Combined with extensive student choice, explains a great deal about where we find ourselves today.• TIC’s development: new system of education based on the incorporation of the latest technologies into the learning programs.
VIRTUAL EDUCATION • A new learning process and transmission of the knowledge through the modern nets of communications. • Involving certain curriculum basis, methods, procedures, strategies.