Trabalho realizado por Tiago Dias 9º BAno lectivo 2010/2011Professora Manuela Quelhas, Disciplina deinglês
“let us place there, carved high, as close to heaven as wecan, the works of our leaders, their faces, to show posteritywhat manner of men they were. Then breathe a prayer thatthese records will endure until the wind and the rain alone shallwear them away" The black hills
Mount Rushmore national memoiral is a sculpture of theheads of some USA presidents with 18 meters occupyingan area of 5.17Km² .It’s a national and universal icon of the USA which was builtduring the American supremacy after WW I. (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln “America will march along that skyline”
• Mount Rushmore national memoiral is carved in mount rushmore (granite), in the black hills(near keystone, south Dakota, USA.
• The sacred territory of mount rushmore belonged to the lakota tribes and had been granted to them in the treaty of fort laremy from 1866 but it was conquered between 1876-1877 during the great sioux war (Manifest destiny – the American westward expansionist idea and resources) Manifest Destiny - An Allegorical Painting by John Gast 1872
Map Legend:Yellow - Lakota Nation:Reserved by the 1868Treatyorange - 1876: Lakotareservation after the USocupationRed - Lakotareservations after 100years of court actions Later, sioux build a monument
1885 – Charles Rushmore, abusinessman and lawyer goesin an expedition to themountains previously known bythe Lakota Sioux as “Sixgrandfathers” to see the mineEtta (gold) in which he wasinvesting Charles rushmore• During a trip he asked the name of the mountain to his friend, Mr.Challis who was a guide. Challis answered: "Never had any but it has now - well call the thing Rushmore."
• In 1923, after reading about stone mountain, South Dakota historian Doane robinson was the first having the idea of carving notable Sioux such as Red Cloud" and other Western figures into the needles (mountain in black hills)in order to promote tourism in the region Left- the needles Right – Doane Robinson
• In 1924, Gutzon Borglum, who was descrived as stubborn, insistent, temperame ntal, perfectionist and proud, was invited by Robinson. (Artist and painting)
• This memoiral was mainly financialy supported by the klu- klux-klan.• A tension between him and the officials of stone mountain grew and he smashed the plaster models Civil war confederation• None of his work remains, as it heroes:Thomas Jefferson, was all cleared General Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” jackson it isn’t clear if he was associated to kkk just because some of his chiefs at stone mountain were too. (bootlicker)
• August 1925 - Borglum realizes that the needles weren’t the suitable place to carve.• He chooses the mount rushmore, a bigger mountain which faces southeast and has maximum exposition to Mt. Rushmore before carving the sunBorglum also decided that the monument should have anational theme and chose four important presidents"America will march along that skyline.”
• George Washington was selected for Mount Rushmore because he was the father of USA and represents the struggle for independence, constitution and liberty
• Thomas Jefferson was to be honored on Mt. Rushmore as the author of the Declaration of Independence and for the expansion of USA through the Louisiana Purchase.
Theodore Roosevelt, thethird bust on MountRushmore was selectedbecause he acquiredPanama Canal linking theoceans and opening theconnecting waters of theEast and the West.
Lincoln was chosen forpreserving the Unionthrough one of Americasdarkest hours and for theideals of freedom andequality for all. (civil war)
• 1927 President Coolidge spends the summer in the black hills• August 1927 – Borglum invites Coolidge to write the entablature• 4 October 1927 – Carving starts Calvin Coolidge
• the entablature - explanatory inscription • “You can’t “send that carved mountain in to the future without identification. • In his imagination, the inscription would be written in English, Latin, and Sanskrit (wife had studied) – like roseta stoneFirst, he asked Coolidge to write it: (1927)"Mr. Coolidge! As the first president who has taken part in this greatundertaking, please write the inscription to be carved on that mountain!We want your connection with it shown in some other way than just byyour presence! I want the name of Coolidge on that mountain!"
June 1929 -In the last days of his presidency, Coolidgeestablished The Mount Rushmore National MemorialCommission and John Boland is named president of itThe bill also provided a quarter million dollars for theproject.• (official and financial support)1930 Borglum releases the entablature text written bycoolidge with some “edits” which provoked some polemics“perhaps Coolidge should edit Borglums designs forRushmore? “
1931 Thomas jefferson would be atwashington’s right, but the rock wasfound to be unsuitable and the initialwork demolished with dynamiteWith this change of place, theentablature couldn’t be included onthe front side and borglum insistedcarving it on mountain’sbackside, facing the hall ofrecords.???1933 stone at washington’s left isremoved to carve there ThomasJefferson
• 1934 One year after Coolidge death (legal problems),Borglum announces in Hearst newspapers that the text for the Entablature will be written by the winner of a national contest;• the challenge is to write a history of the U.S. in five hundred words. (polemics) An judjing comittee with VIP’s like Roosevelt is constituted and the contest gets extremely popular, (nathional news and 100.000 entries). Winners in several age groups) As it happened, Borglum read the winning essays, and rejected them all. He had no desire to carve any of them on his monument, and would write another text himself. 4 July 1934 –washington face is dedicated
• 1935 Lincoln is carved where the entablature was meant to be• 1936 –thomas Jefferson face is dedicated• 1936, engineer julian spotts joined the team to improve infrastructure and access to the monument.• 1937 request for financial help for the face of Susan Anthony but the Susan Brownell congress denies it, demanding Anthony was a that the money must only be prominent women spent on the figures already rights leader started (wwII and depression) (suffrage)
When he was at Rushmore, Borglum wouldbe climbing all over the mountain and allover the hills, to determine the best anglefor each feature, and advisingthe carvers on how to create the nuanceddetails that might not even be visible frombelow."I must see, think, feel and draw in Thorsdimension”there were long periods in which Borglumwas lobying for money in washington Dcand around the world where he leaved hisassistents (including his son, lincoln) to
1939 - July 2: The Theodore Roosevelthead is dedicated.Work on the Hall of Records is stoppedbecause of the dangerous workingconditions.Korczak Ziolkowski is hired as anassistant, but works there only 19 days,and leaves after a brawl with LincolnBorglum. Ziolkowski will go on to carvea bigger memoiral for Crazy Horse onanother mountain in the Black Hills.
1939- The Sculptors studiodisplay of unique plastermodels and tools related tothe sculpting was built underthe direction of Borglum.“Borglum favoredmuscular, dynamic poses for hissubjects, and he also liked tomake art on a large scale.”
1941 - March 6: Gutzon Borglum dies from complications fromsurgery (anembolism).Lincoln Borglum is asked by the Park Service to finish the heads.The Memoiral should be from waist to head but financialcomplications don’t allow to do that.Borglum had also planned a massive panel commemoratingterritorial acquisitionsOctober 31: Last day of carving.
1959 – Mount Rushmore is (isn´t) thesite of a climactic chase in AlfredHitchcocks thriller, North by Northwest.
• 1973 The history of Wounded Knee (1970) would spur American Indian Movement (A.I.M.) activists to occupy the site in 1973. The FBI became involved and a tense standoff resulted in the death of two Native Americans and injury to others on both sides.• 1975 - A bronze plate with Burketts winning Entablature essay is erected in the sculptor’s studio.• (Burkett’s fame and death –monterey – california)• 1991 George Bush officialy dedicates mount rushmore
• Borglum literally had in mind to send the history of USA to future civilizations• 1998- August 9:• The Hall of Records is completed as a time-capsule containing a vault with sixteen porcelain enamel panels. The panels include the text of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, biographies of the four presidents and Borglum, and the history of the U.S• Access to the Hall of Records is closed to the public• (national treasure II)
• Sculptor Gutzon Borglum began drilling into the 1,74km mountain in 1927, at the age of 60.• Creation of the Shrine of Democracy took 14 years and cost a mere $1 million.• Rushmores granite faces are 1,68kmabove sea level.• The carvings on Mount Rushmore are scaled to men who would stand 141,73m tall.• Each head on Mt. Rushmore is as tall as a six-story building.• More that 362 873 896 kilograms of stone were removed from Mount Rushmore while carving the presidents.• Each presidents face is as tall as the entire Great Sphinx of Egypt, measuring 18 m from the chin to the top of the head.• The presidents noses are 6m long, each mouth 5.5m wide and the eyes are 3,4m feet across.• The workers had to climb 506 steps daily to get to the top of Mount Rushmore.• No workers died
• The Avenue of Flags leads from the Concession Building to the Grandview Terrace. The flags of the 56 states and territories line either side of the walkway Nowadays, Mounth Rushmore is the top tourist attraction and receives two million visits (2004)
• The Lincoln Borglum Museum is located in the Mount Rushmore National Memorial. It features two 125-seat theaters that show a 13-minute movie about Mount Rushmore. One of the best viewpoints is located at Grandview Terrace, above the Museum. The Presidential Trail, a walking trail and boardwalk, starts at Grandview Terrace and winds through thePonderosa pine forests to the Sculptors Studio, providing close-up views of the memorial
• The newly renovated Carvers Café, with seating for 300, offers visitors a delicious array of food selections, served with a commanding view of the presidential sculptures.
• I appreciated this work proposition about an icon because it enriches us culturally.• Mount Rushmore symbolizes America and her history and is a beautiful and mysterious monument which not everyone know about; This is why I chose Rushmore memoiral