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  1. 1. Management What is Management?  Management is getting things done.  Management is getting thing done through people.  Management is efficient use of resources.  Management is getting people to work harmoniously together and to make efficient use of resources to achieve objectives.  Management is to make decision
  2. 2. Management  Management is a set of functions that help the organization to work cohesively and achieve its objectives.  Management is about getting results.  It is an organized process that guides the utilization of various resources such as human, financial and material in order to meet a desired organizational goal taking into consideration consumers’ demands (clients’ needs), and the political and economic situation (emphasis on goal)  Management is referred to the tasks and activities involved in directing an organization or one of its units
  3. 3. Management • Planning, organizing, leading and controlling: the art of getting things done by and through people Planningdefining organizational GOAL ControllingConsciously monitoring performance & take corrective actions Organizing- Process of creating a structure Leading-Getting others to perform the tasks necessary to achieve the organizational goal
  4. 4. The Organization and its environment • An organization exists to perform work. • This is achieved by activities which transform (process) inputs into outputs: • Environment-Internal/External ORGANIZATION O N B I O O I E J N U U M E E P PROCESS T T P D C U P C A S T T U O C I S T M T V S E E S S
  5. 5. TMOs are Managers TMOs are  leaders of township health teams  providing shared vision and direction  managerial responsibilities include  planning,  overseeing the budget and  ensuring that programme activities organized and implemented smoothly on a daily basis TMOs know  roles and responsibilities of BHS  optimize and consolidate the effective and efficient use of available resources  identify leadership and managerial roles.
  6. 6. Evolvement of Management Managers Administer-The managers and staff are seen more as machines Managers Manage-The manager has somewhat of a heroic role. He or she is expected to know the answers to questions, to find the solution to problems, and to take decisions, especially the important ones Managers Lead- The manager's role shifts from the independent, heroic, 'knowing' and problem solving, to the interdependent facilitator of problem solving and decision making processes.
  7. 7. 11 Management functions • • • • • Planning Organizing Recording and reporting Staffing Supervising
  8. 8. Managerial functions • • • • • • Coordination Guiding Monitoring Ordering and storing Budgeting Evaluation
  9. 9. Te chn Ma olo nag gy em ent Kn M ow an le ag dg em e en t Branches of Management Hu Ma man ility ment nag Beh Fac age em avi an ora ent M l Lo n gis ma ce Ma tics Hu ur nag He so ement em Re ag alt ent Inf an h M orm al ent i M ati nc em an a g on ag in n a F a em en M t
  10. 10. Branches of Management applied to daily life Facility Behavioral Mgt Fin a Ma ncia na l ge me nt tion rma Mgt , er ist eg l ,r ta rra Da refe Info n ma urce Hu so Re t Mg Management Log istic s Mg t Sa Fu lary nd , in , /ou t Kn ow M le an ag dge em en t y log nt no e ch em Te nag Ma Human & Ul n io EC tras at G ou r ic , C nd pl ve T, , Ap ry o , ar l Lab c Hospital, clinic Interpersona communication ambulance of f Medicin staf es, lth Hea y r others tego ca all
  11. 11. Knowledge Management • Is about creating an exciting environment within the organization that will promote the creation and transfer of knowledge (Kermally 2002) It involves changing the organizational culture to one of sharing Requires… visionary leadership motivated staff process and practices that will facilitate this sharing
  12. 12. Knowledge Management Knowledge could be better optimised if we could capture information not normally captured. Some knowledge related to experience, wisdom and empathy of one’s own .... usually are not documented. Knowledge management is therefore about how to capture that information related to how individuals reason and make their expertise available conferencing, e-mails, networks
  13. 13. Four stages of knowledge conversion • Socialization – by sharing experience & on-thejob learning: at meetings to discuss work related projects and problems (tacit knowledge) • Externalization – describing this knowledge in the forms of metaphors/analogies • Combination – taking theoretical or explicit knowledge & integrating with metaphors or analogies •Internalization– information is taken & followed to gain further knowledge and understanding. This information is modified as people learn by doing- refined
  14. 14. Continue Learning of PEOPLE Sk ills o) ge ed hy t wl ,w Competent (how n o t to t o) K a wh ( Desire (want to) Individual learning Team Learning Organization Learning
  15. 15. Managerial Skills 1. Communication skills -these include leading meetings, facilitation, negotiation, conflict resolution public speaking, effective writing, crosscultural communication... 2. Organising skills-which may cover planning, monitoring, problem-solving, evaluation, co-ordination, programme management, decision making, time management... 3. Supervising skills-such as delegation, motivation, performance management, coaching and developing staff...
  16. 16. Managerial Competencies 1. Self Management 2. Strategic Action 3. Global Awareness 4. Team Work 5. Planning and Administration 6. Communication Competency
  17. 17. Self Management • Self awareness • Self identification of strengths/weaknessdevelopmental needs ….in leadership ….in motivation ….in ethics ….in many other areas • Continued self assessment • Integrity and ethical conduct • Personal drive and resilience • Balancing work and life demands
  18. 18. Self Management We are measured • not by what we are, but by the perception of what we seem to be, • not by what we say, but how we are heard; and • not by what we do, but how we appear to do it.
  19. 19. Strategic Action Competency • Developing broad strategies that can be translated into clear goals and practical action plans • Proactive vs Reactive • Formulation of contingency plans to minimize risks • Understanding the organization • Taking strategic actions
  20. 20. Global Awareness Competency • Staying abreast of important global trends that have significant impact on the organization • Recognition of global trends organization's plans and growth on the • Being sensitive to key cultural differences and understanding the consequences of cultural differences for the organization
  21. 21. Teamwork Competency • Creating a supportive environment • Trust/ Productive management conflicts • Collaboration and constant information sharing • Problem solving/ decision making (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning) • Managing team dynamics • Ability to cultivate an active network of relationships and relate well to others
  22. 22. Planning & Administration Competency • Information gathering, analysis & problem solving • Setting clear and challenging goals • SWOT analysis • Adequate control & clear guidance & Swift decision making • Planning and organizing projects • Time management
  23. 23. Communication Competency • Informal communication • Formal communication • Negotiation (an agreement) • Free flow of information upward, downward and laterally (feedbacks) • Listening and informing others • Fostering open channels and negotiating with others
  24. 24. Feedbacks • Not an end it itself • Increases communication links • Gives information on site overall strengths and weaknesses • Gives insight on what we can do differently to increase effectiveness • Focus on skills and behavior, not on personality or style • Improve performance
  25. 25. LEADERSHIP
  26. 26. Leader Adviser Follower Peacemaker Entertainer
  27. 27. LEADERSHIP • Leadership is the key factor differentiating the “average” from the “excellent” • Leadership is action or a process, not position • The activity of leading a group of people or organization or the ability to do this • Leadership is creating a vision • Leadership is the process of influencing and activities of a group in efforts towards goal achievement in a given situation • the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all
  28. 28. When asked, “what is leadership”, people tended to answer in one of the four main categories. • Power: the ability to have people follow your agenda. • Persuasion: the means to motivate. • Vision: a leader provides the vision. • Empowerment: a leader enables and empowers others to do their request
  29. 29. Power The potential or ability of the leader to effect particular desired subordinate behaviours. (French and Raven, 1968)
  30. 30. Main Sources of Power • Reward Power – derived from the belief of individuals that compliance brings rewards: the ability to distribute rewards contributes considerably to the extent of a leader’s power. • Coercive Power – making it plain that non-compliance will bring punishment. • Expert Power – exercise by people who are popular or admired and with whom the less powerful can identify. • Legitimized Power – power conferred by the position in an organization held by the leader. • Charismatic Power – power is given to the leader because the user wants to be liked. • In some cases others are attracted to the leader by virtue of
  31. 31. Authority-empowers • Is legitimacy, as perceived by subordinates in which subordinates accept and obey the will of the leader because they perceive that he or she has the right to command and they have an obligation to obey. (Weber cited by Gerth and Mills, 1946)
  32. 32. Influence-Vision Is the act of controlling and effecting a particular subordinates behavior. (French and Raven, 1968)
  33. 33. LEADER Vision nd U ta n e rs ng di Purpose Character Action
  34. 34. er od hip Go ers it w e ad no e se Le ek w it. W en nd ce wh a n ie p ex
  35. 35. Critical success factors of effective leadership • • • • • • • Ability and commitment to motivate people Excellent interpersonal skills Ability to learn on the job Hard work and working smarter Linking strategic planning to implementation Facilitating teamwork Facilitating organizational development.
  36. 36. Leadership Styles 1. Autocratic leadership • • • • • All authority centering in the leader Leader has absolute power over their workers or team Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions Leader makes decisions and announces them to staff Communication seems to be one way from leader to follower Advantage Disadvantage • Fast speed with which decisions can Most people tend to resent being be made, for instance in case of treated this way, effects on emergency- Style saves time group morale • Decision is usually clear and final Other, better options may not be considered
  37. 37. Leadership Styles 2. Democratic leadership • Leader takes suggestions and wishes of all members • All members of the team are seen as important contributors to the final decision • Participation is required to encourage members’ commitment to the decision Advantage Disadvantage • Increased morale and support of the Slower decisions, diluted team members- Staff feel involved accountability for decisions and may not always be the best solution • It increases job satisfaction and also Participation takes time helps to develop people’s skills and can take more time to get final result
  38. 38. Leadership Styles 3. Laissez faire leadership • The French phrase means “leave it be" • Leader attempts to exercise very little control or influence over group members • Leader leaves team members to work on their own Advantage Disadvantage • Gives opportunity for individual Lack of group unity and development consistency towards achieving organizational goals • Can be effective when individual team members are well experienced and skilled self-starters
  39. 39. Leadership Styles 4. Bureaucratic leadership • Leader works “by the book” • Follows rules strictly • Leader ensures team members to follow procedures precisely Advantage Disadvantage • Appropriate for specified jobs involving Can become bored serious and safety risks Eg: where they have to work with machines in handling toxic substances or where large sum of money is involved-such as handling cash
  40. 40. Leadership Styles 5. Charismatic leadership • Charismatic leadership is when a person assumes or is given the role of leader based on his or her charisma or charm • Leader stimulates a lot of enthusiasm in his team and very energetic in driving others forward • Leader tends to believe more in himself than in his team • His influence derives mainly from his personality Advantage Disadvantage • Followers love him and look only The entire organization into his face might collapse if the leader leaves • People who follow that leader will ensure goals are achieved out of respect for the leader Can be subject to corruption as the leader knows that the people will likely follow no matter what
  41. 41. Leadership Styles 6.Task-Oriented leadership • Focus on getting the job done • Leader tends to be quite autocratic, actively defining the work and roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor • Leader does not think much about the well-being of his team Advantage • Finish job in time Disadvantage Less motivated staff More turnover of staff
  42. 42. Leadership Styles 7. Transactional leadership • Transaction is usually the organization paying the team members in return for their effort and fulfillment of job • Leader can punish team members if the work does not meet the predetermined standard • Team members agree to obey their leader totally in accepting the job Advantage • Good to practice for short term task Disadvantage This is more like a type of management than a true leadership style Limitations for knowledge based or creative work
  43. 43. Leadership Styles 8. Transformational leadership • Leader has integrity, sets clear goals & clearly communicates a vision • Transformational leadership was found to influence team performance and team potency. • Leader challenges each person to be all that they can be and more • Leader sets a good example and expects the best from the team, encouraging productivity and innovation • Leader encourages, supports and influences attitude of staff • Inspires and focus more on team’s interests and needs Advantage Disadvantage • Development of whole organization NONE • If the leader leaves it is likely a new one will step into place and the work will continue until completion.
  44. 44. Transactional and Transformational Leaders Transactional Leaders • Contingent reward – contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. • Management by exception (active) – watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. • Management by exception (passive) – intervenes only if standards are not met. • Laissez-faire – lacks responsibilities, avoids decision-making. Transformational Leaders • Charisma – provides vision and a sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. • Inspiration – communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. • Intellectual stimulation – promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving. • Individualized consideration – gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches and advises.
  45. 45. Managers v Leaders Change Leadership • Emphasis on growth & change/acceptable risk • Peacemaker, conflict risked as inevitable to growth • Emphasis on attitudes • Emphasis on skills • All can win through • Win-loose power orientation expansion • Administers • Innovates Traditional Management • Focus on stability, avoiding risk • Peacemaker, avoidance of conflict
  46. 46. Managers v Leaders Focus Traditional Management • Extrinsic motivation (stick or carrot) • Today • Short-term task • You serve me • Hierarchical • Low involvement Leadership • Intrinsic motivation (the extra mile) • Day after tomorrow • Longer-term process • I serve you • Partnership • Empathy
  47. 47. Managers v Leaders SELF Traditional Management • Externalizes responsibilities, tendency to “wait and see” • Them (tendency to blame, premise of incompetence in others) • Linear thinking, intellect dominates • Positional power emphasized Leadership • Assumes responsibility to change • Me and them (trust in innate desire to learn) • Systems thinking, balance between intellect and passion • Competence emphasized
  49. 49. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 1. Humility: be humble to people • Be genuinely interested in them and listening to them. • Then they will naturally be interested in you and listen to what you have to say. 2. SWOT Yourself: • useful key to gain access to self-knowledge, self remembering, and self-honoring • List all your Strengths- including accomplishments Weakness-including fear, anxieties & doubts Opportunities-available to you for using your strengths Threats-obstacles that are currently blocking you
  50. 50. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 3. Follow Your Bliss • Always take time to do what you love doing regardless of how busy you are, reading, jogging, painting, ----2-3 hr per wk. • If videotape yourself, will be shocked to see how much time goes to waste! 4. Dream big • Write down your One Biggest Dream the one that excites you the most. • Remember, don’t be small and realistic, but be bold and unrealistic! • Go for Gold, the Nobel, the Oscar, the highest you can possibly achieve in your field. • After you’ve written down your dream, list every single reason why you CAN achieve your dream instead of worrying about why you can’t.
  51. 51. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 5. Vision • Without a vision we perish • Visualize what it would be like accomplishing your dream. See it, smell it, taste it, hear it, feel it in your gut. 6. Perseverance • Victory belongs to those who want it the most and stay in it the longest. • Now that you have a dream, make sure you take consistent action every day. • I recommend doing at least 5 things every day that will move you closer to your dream.
  52. 52. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 7. Honor your word • Every time you break your word, you lose power. • Successful leaders keep their word and their promises. • You can accumulate all the toys and riches in the world, but you only have one reputation in life. • Your word is gold. Honor it.
  53. 53. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 8. Get a Mentor • Find yourself a mentor. • Preferably there is someone who has already achieved a high degree of success in your field. • Don’t be afraid to ask. You’ve got nothing to lose. • You can even find suitable mentor through a website by filling your profile.
  54. 54. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 9. Be Yourself • Use your relationships with mentors and great leaders as models but do not copy or imitate them like a parrot. • Everyone has vastly different leadership styles. • Be yourself, your best self, always competing against yourself and bettering yourself, and you will become a first rate YOU instead of a second rate of somebody else.
  55. 55. 10 Easy steps to develop Leadership skill 10. Give • Finally be a giver. Leaders are givers. • By giving, you activate a universal law as sound as gravity: “life gives to the giver, and takes from the taker.” • The more you give the more you get. • If you want more love, respect, support, and compassion give love, give respect, give support and give compassion. • As a leader, the only way to get what you want is by helping enough people get what they want first. • Sir Winston Churchill once said: “We make a living by what we get, we make a life by what we give.”
  56. 56. As a leader do you? • Articulate and share a vision with staff and invite them to share, comment upon, or critique this vision? • Reduce barriers, territoriality, and other obstacles to creative collaboration, coordination, and communication? ☛ Assess issues and factors that could make you a more effective leader.