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3 scources of marxism

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3 scources of marxism

  1. 1. ADtdkifvDeifrmhufpf0g.a&aomuf_rpf (3) oG,fESifhyg0if&mtydkif; (3) &yfum;vfrmhufpfoifjum;csuf.ordkif;qdkif&muHjurRm
  2. 2. TpmtkyfrSm1951 ckESpf EdkifiHjcm;bmom xkwfa0a&;Xme/ armfpudkòr@rSt*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom V.I. LENIN << MARX -ENGELS - MARXISM>> pwkwˆKyHkESdyfjcif;rS “THE THREESOURCES AND THREE COMPONENT PARTS OFMARXISM” ESifh “THE HISTORICAL DESTINY OF THEDOCTRINE OF KARL MARX” wdk@udk Armbmomodk@ jyefqdkxkwfa0jcif; jzpfygonf?yxrt}udrfyHkESdyfjcif;? ? 1980 - pufwifbm?kwd,t}udrfyHkESdyfjcif;? ? 2007 - Zefe0g&D?A[dkbmomjyefXmeArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
  3. 3. rmhufpf0g. a&aomufjrpf (3)oG,fESifhyg0if&m tydkif; (3) &yfrmhufpf. oif=um;csufrsm;onf ,Ofaus;aom urBmw0Srf;vHk;wGif rmhufpf0gudk “tvGeftEW&m,f }uD;aom*dk%f;” wrsKd;tjzpf,lqxm;aom"e&Sif0dZ…mynm&yf(w&m;0ifESifhvpfb&,f)tm;vHk;.tvGeftrif;&efrljcif;ESifh rkef;wD;jcif;wdk@udk cHcJh&onf? ‚rSwyg; tjcm;aom oabmxm;udk ar#mfvifhI rjzpfEdkifacs? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomfvlwef;pm;wdkufyGJtay: wnfaqmufxm;aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;wGif “bufrvdkuf” onfh vlr_0dZ…mynm r&SdEdkifaoma=umifhyifjzpf.?w&m;0ifESifhvpfb&,f0dZ…mynm&yf tm;vHk;onfvkyfcpm;u|efpepfudkwenf;enf;jzifh tumtuG,fay;aeonf? rmhufpf0gurl Tvkyfcpm;u|efpepftay: t=uifemuif;pGm ppfa=unmcJhonf? vkyfcpm;u|efpepf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; 0dZ…mynmudk bufrvdkuf&ef ar#mfvifhjcif;onf t&if;tESD;. tjrwftpGef;udk av#mhcs+yD; tvkyform;rsm;.vkyfcudk wdk;ay;&efoifhroifh[laom jyemwGif tvkyf±Hkydkif&Sifrsm;ubufrvdkuf&efar#mfvifhjcif;uJhodk@yifrdkufrJI&,fbG,f&maumif;avpG?odk@aomf Tr#ESifhr+yD;ao;ay? tbd"rRmordkif;ESifh vlr_0dZ…mynmordkif;wdk@u jynfhpHkxif&Sm;pGm jyocJhonfrSm rmhufpf0gwGif “*dk%f;1
  4. 4. *%0g”qefaomt&m[lItv#if;ryg&SdbJ‚onfurBmh,Ofaus;r_jzpfay:wdk;yGm;&m vrf;r}uD;ESifhuif;uGm+yD; ay:aygufvmaom txD;usefjzpfI toufrJhaom oif=um;csuf r[kwfay? qef@usifpGmyifrmhufpf. ^m%fxufjrufr_um; vlom;wdk@. a&S@wef;a&mufaomawG;ac:r_u wifjycJhonfh jyemrsm;udk ajz=um;onfhtcsufwGifwnfonf?ol.oif=um;csufrsm;onftbd"rRmq&m}uD;rsm;/EdkifiHa&;abm*aAESifh qdk&S,fvpf0gudk udk,fpm;ðyonfh t}uD;jrwfqHk;yk*~dKvfrsm;. oif=um;csufrsm;. wdkuf±dkuf qufvufr_tjzpf ay:xGufvmjcif; jzpfonf?rmhufpf. oif=um;csufonf teEWwefcdk;ESifh jynfhpHkonf?tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf ‚onf rSefuefaoma=umifhjzpf.? ‚onfuHkvHkjynfhpHkI nD!Gwfonf? rnfonfht,loD;r_/ azmufjyefr_ESifhjzpfap/"e&SifzdESdyfr_udk rnfonfhtumtuG,fay;r_ESifhjzpfap rajy+idrf;Edkifonfh+yD;jynfhpHkaom urBmhtjrifw&yfudk vlom;wdk@xH ay;tyfcJhayonf?rmhufpf0gonf19&mpkESpftwGif;vlom;wdk@taumif;qHk;zefwD;cJhaomtoGifjzpfonfh *smreftbd"rRm/ t*FvdyfEdkifiHa&;abm*aAESifh jyifopfqdk&S,fvpf0grsm;.w&m;enf;vrf;usaomtarGqufcHoljzpfayonf?,ck rmhufpf0g. a&aomufjrpf (3) oG,fESifh ‚. yg0if&mtydkif; (3) &yfudk u|efawmfwdk@ tusOf;csKyftm;jzifh azmfjyrnfjzpf.?(1)rmhufpf0g. tbd"rRmonf ±kyf0gjzpf.? Oa&my.acwfopf ordkif;wavsmufvHk;wGif txl;ojzifh 18 &mpkESpftukefjyifopfjynfY tv,facwf tr_dufo±dkufrSefor#udkvnf;aumif;/2
  5. 5. v,fu|efpepf taqmuftOD;rsm;ESifh v,fu|efpepf awG;ac:r_rsm;udkvnf;aumif;qef@usifaom,wdjywfwdkufyGJwGif±kyf0gonfwckwnf;aom pGJ+rJcdkifrmonfh obm00dZ…mynmoif=um;csuf tm;vHk;tay:opPm&Sda=umif;/ t,loD;r_/ vdrfnmr_ ponfwdk@ESifh &efbufjzpfaomtbd"rRmjzpfa=umif; oufaoxlcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh Drdkua&pD. &efolrsm;u ±kyf0gudk “acsy” zsufqD;&ef/ tykyfcs&ef tpGrf;ukefóu;pm;cJh+yD;bmoma&;udkwenf;enf;jzifhumuG,fay;avh&Sdaomtbd"rRmqdkif&mpdwf0go¿mef trsKd;rsKd;udk axmufcHtm;ay;=uonf?rmhufpfESifh tdef*,fwdk@onf tbd"rRmqdkif&m ±kyf0gudk tvGefjywfom;pGm umuG,fcJh=uonf? xdk@jyif TtajccHrS aoGzDoGm;r_rSefor#.tvGeftrif;}uD;av;aomtrSm;udkt}udrf}udrf&Sif;jycJhonf?olwdk@. tjrifrsm;udk tdef*,fa&;om;xm;aom (vl0pfjzL;0g;bwf) ESifh(l;&if;qef@usifa&;) usrf;rsm;wGif t&Sif;vif;qHk; tjynfhpHkqHk; azmfjyxm;onf? Tusrf;ESpfapmifonf (uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;) uJhodk@yifvlwef;pm; tod&Sdonfh tvkyform;rSefor#twGuf vufpGJusrf;rsm;jzpfayonf?odk@aomf rmhufpfonf 18 &mpkESpf&Sd ±kyf0gwGif &yfwHhraebJtbd"rRmudka&S@odk@wGef;wifvdkufonf? olonf*smrefpHwiftbd"rRm.toD;tyGifhrsm;/ txl;ojzifh jzL;0g;bwf ±kyf0godk@ a&muf&SdoGm;aponfh[D*Jvfpepf. toD;tyGifhrsm;jzifh tbd"rRmtm; ºu,f0apcJhonf?‚wdk@teuf t"dutusqHk; toD;tyGifhrSm tEkkyËdavmr jzpfonf?‚rSm tjynfhpHkqHk; teuf±_dif;qHk; o¿mefaqmif+yD; wzufowfusr_uif;pifonfh jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_qdkif&m oif=um;csufjzpfonf? ‚rSmxm0pOf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;aeaom ±kyf0wˆKudk a&mifjyef[yfjyonfh vlom;wdk@. todynmonf E_dif;,SOfcsuft&om jzpfonf[k ,lqaom3
  6. 6. oif=um;csuf jzpfayonf? "e&Siftbd"rRmq&mrsm;. a[mif;EGrf;aqG;ajr@aom pdwf0godk@ “topfwzef” jyefvnfoGm;a&mufa&;qdkonfh oif=um;csufrsm; rnfr#yif&Sdapumrl obm0 0dZ…mynm.aemufqHk;&SmazG awG@&Sdcsufjzpfaom a&D,rf/ tDvufx&Gef/ "mwfpifrsm;ajymif;vJr_ ponfwdk@u rmhufpf. tEkyËdavmr±kyf0g rSefuefa=umif; xif&Sm;pGm oufaojyvdkufonf?rmhufpfonftbd"rRmqdkif&m±kyf0gudkeufeuf±_dif;±_dif;jzpfay:wdk;yGm;apvdkufonf? ‚udk obm0qdkif&m odjrifr_rS vlom;vl@tzGJ@pnf;qdkif&modjrifr_txdus,fjyef@apjcif;jzifhukefpifjynfhpHkapcJhonf?rmhufpf. ordkif;±kyf0gonf 0dZ…menf;us awG;ac:r_wGif t}uD;rm;qHk;aom atmifjrifr_ jzpfonf? ordkif;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tay: ,cifuv$rf;rdk;cJhaom tvGefy&rf;ywmjzpf+yD; xif&mqGJ,laom tjrifrsm;ae&mwGif xl;jcm;pGm jynfhpHknD!Gwfaom 0dZ…menf;us oabmw&m;utpm;xdk;vdkufonf?xdkoabmw&m;uxkwfvkyfa&;tiftm;pkjzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmjcif;a=umifh vlr_b0 tqmuftODw&yfrS tjcm;ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom taqmuftODw&yfodk@ jzpfay:wdk;yGm;vmjcif;/ Oyrm - v,fu|efpepftwGif;rS t&if;&Sifpepf }uD;xGm;vmjcif;udk !¸efjyvdkufonf?vlwdk@ESifh trSDcdkuif;pGm wnf&Sdaeaom obm0 (‚um; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;aeaom ±kyf0wˆK) udk vlwdk@. odjrifr_u a&mifjyef[yfonfhenf;wl vlwdk@. vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&modjrifr_ (‚rSm tbd"rRm/bmoma&;/ EdkifiHa&; ponfh vlwdk@.tjrifESifh oif=um;csuftrsKd;rsKd;)onfvnf; vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk a&mifjyef[yfxm;onf?EdkifiHa&;pepfrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tkwfjrpfay:&Sd txuftaqmuftODjzpfonf? Oyrm - acwfopfOa&myEdkifiHrsm;&Sd EkdifiHa&;pepfo¿meftrsKd;rsKd;wdk@onf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;tay: "e&Sifvlwef;pm;tkyfpdk;r_4
  7. 7. ckdifrma&;udktvkyftau|;ðyaea=umif;u|efawmfwdk@awG@jrif=u&onf?rmhufpftbd"rRmonf vlom;rsm;tm; txl;ojzifh tvkyform; vlwef;pm;udk pGrf;tm;}uD;rm;aom odjrifr_vufeufw&yf ay;tyfcJhonfh jynfhpHkaom tbd"rRmqdkif&m ±kyf0gjzpfonf?(2)pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf EdkifiHa&;txuftaqmuftODudk wnfaqmufxm;aom tkwfjrpfjzpfonf[k ,lqonfhtavsmuf rmhufpfonf TpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk txl;tm±Hkpdkuf+yD; avhvmcJhonf? rmhufpf.t"du a&;om;csufjzpfaom ¡t&if;usrf;¢ onf acwfopfvl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkvdkonfrSmt&if;&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;.pD;yGm;a&;pepfudktxl;avhvmxm;jcif; jzpfonf?rmhufpfrwdkifrD pHwifEdkifiHa&; abm*aAonf t&if;&SifpepftxGef;um;qHk;wdkif;jynfjzpfonfht*FvefjynfwGifjzpfwnfvmcJhonf?trfprpfESifh a;Apf&Dumdkwdk@onf pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk pl;prf;avhvmjcif;rStvkyfwefzdk;oabmw&m;. tajccHtkwfjrpfudk csrSwfcJhonf?olwdk@.vkyfief;udkrmhufpfuqufvufvkyfcJhonf?Toabmw&m;udkolonftcdkiftrmoufaoxl+yD;ukefpifjynfhpkHonftxdjzpfay:wdk;yGm;apcJhonf? rnfonfhukefpnf. wefzdk;rqdk tqdkygukefpnf xkwfvkyf&mYtoHk;ðyxm;aom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m vdktyfaom tvkyfcsdef ta&twGufu tqHk;tjzwfay;onf[k olu jyocJhonf?"e&Sif abm*aAynm&Sifrsm; jrifae=uaom t&m0wˆKrsm;t=um; qufqHa&; (ukefpnfcsif; zvS,fa&;) Y vlvlcsif;qufqHa&;udkrmhufpfu xkwfazmfvdkufonf? ukefpnfzvS,fa&;onf wOD;csif;xkwfvkyfolwdk@t=um;&Sd qufoG,fr_udk aps;uGufrSwqifh azmfjyjcif;5
  8. 8. jzpf.? tojymonf tqdkygqufoG,fr_ ydkIeD;uyfvma=umif;ESifhwOD;csif;xkwfvkyfolwdk@.pD;yGm;a&;b0wckvHk;wvHk;wpnf;wnf;tjzpfcGJr&atmifaygif;pnf;vma=umif;udkazmfjyvdkufonf?t&if;tESD;onftqdkygqufoG,fr_ qufvufwdk;yGm;a=umif;udk azmfjyonf? qdkvdkonfrSmvkyftm;onfukefpnfjzpfvmonf?tcpm;tvkyform;onfajr,m/ tvkyf±HkESifh tvkyfud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm; ydkifqdkifolxHodk@rdrd. vkyftm;udk a&mif;pm;&onf? tvkyform;rsm;onf rdrdESifh rdrdrdom;pk. b0wnfwHha&;pm;&dwf (vkyfc) udk axrdap&eftvdk@iSmtvkyfcsdef. wpdwfwydkif;udk toHk;ðy&if; tvkyfcsdef. usefwpdwfwydkif;udkrl tcrJh tvkyfvkyfay;&onf? Todk@tm;jzifh tjrwf. a&aomufjrpfvnf;jzpf t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm; OpPm"e. a&aomufjrpfvnf;jzpfaom tpGef;xGufwefzdk;udk t&if;&SiftwGuf zefwD;ay;vdkufay.?tpGef;xGufwefzdk; oif=um;csufonf rmhufpf pD;yGm;a&;oabmw&m;. tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfonf?tvkyform;. tvkyfu zefwD;vdkufaom t&if;tESD;onfvkyfief;ydkif&Sifuav;rsm;udkzsufqD;+yD;tvkyfvufrJhwyfrawmfudkzefwD;vdkufum tvkyform;rsm;udkyif zdESdyfcJhonf? pufr_vkyfief;twGif;wGift}uD;pm;xkwfvkyfa&;u atmifyGJcHaeonfudk txif;om; awG@jrifEdkifonf? xdk@tjyif v,f,mvkyfief; twGif;wGif tvm;wltjcif;t&mudkyifu|efawmfwdk@awG@jrif&onf?t}uD;pm;t&if;&Sifv,f,mvkyfief;tompD;&r_ wdk;yGm;vm+yD; pufud&d,moHk;pGJr_ wpwp wdk;rsm;vmonfESifhtr# v,form;pD;yGm;a&;onf tojymt&if;tESD;. óu;uGif;xJodk@usa&mufoGm;.? ‚onf acwfaemufusaom twwfynm. zdpD;r_atmufY usqif;ysufpD;oGm;.? v,f,mwGif tao;pm;xkwfvkyfa&;6
  9. 9. usqif;aer_rsm;onf o¿meftrsKd;rsKd; &Sdaomfvnf; Tusqif;r_onfum; jiif;uG,fI r&Edkifaom tcsufw&yfyifjzpf.?tao;pm; xkwfvkyfa&;udk zsufqD;vdkufjcif;jzifh t&if;tESD;onf tvkyf.xGufE_ef;udk wdk;rsm;ap+yD; t&if;&Sif}uD;rsm;. tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;twGuf vuf0g;}uD;tkyf tqifhae&mudk zefwD;cJhayonf?xkwfvkyfa&;onfyifv#ifydkIydkIvl@tzGJ@tpnf;vuQ%maqmifvm.?qdkvdkonfrSm oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom tvkyform;wdk@onf pepfusaompD;yGm;a&;taqmuftODwGif aygif;pnf;vm=uonf? odk@apumr_ pkaygif;tvkyf. txGufypPnf;udk vufwqkyfpm t&if;&Sifrsm;u tydkifpD;vdkuf=uonf? xkwfvkyfa&;rif;rJhr_ wdk;yGm;vmouJhodk@ usyfwnf;r_uyf/aps;uGuftwGuf tirf;r& vdkufvHr_ESifh jynfolvlxk. b0wnf&Sdr_udktmrcHcsuf ay;Edkifr_wdk@onfvnf; }uD;xGm;vmonf?t&if;tESD;ty: tvkyform;wdk@. rSDcdkr_udk wdk;rsm;vmaponfESifhwcsdefwnf;rSmyift&if;&Sifpepfonfyl;aygif;xm;aomtvkyf.}uD;rm;aom pGrf;tm;udkyg zefwD;EdkifcJhonf?rmhufpfonf t&if;&Sifpepf. jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_udk ukefpnfpD;yGm;a&;. ueOD;ta!‡mifhtwuf/ omrefzvS,fa&;wdk@rS tpcsDI‚. tjrifhqHk;o¿mefjzpfaom t}uD;pm;xkwfvkyfa&;txd pl;prf;avhvmcJhonf?t&if;&Sifwdkif;jynf topfESifhta[mif; tm;vHk;&Sd tawG@tñuHu Trmhufpfoif=um;csuf jynfhpHkrSefuefa=umif;udk wESpfxufwESpfta&twGufwdk;rsm;vmaeaomtvkyform;wdk@tm;&Sif;vif;pGmazmfjyaeayonf?t&if;&Sifpepfonf urBmhw0Srf;vHk;wGif atmifyGJcHcJhay+yD?odk@&mwGif ‚onf t&if;tESD;tay: tvkyfu&,lrnfh atmifyGJ.7
  10. 10. a&S@awmfajy;omv#if jzpfayonf?(3)v,fu|efpepfonf wGef;vSefòzzsufjcif;cH&+yD; rdk;atmufajrjyifwGif “vGwfvyfaom” t&if;&Sif vl@tzGJ@tpnf; ay:aygufvmonfESifhwòyifeufTvGwfvyfr_onfvkyfom;rsm;tay:zdESdyfaoG;pkyfr_pepfopfjzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;vm.? TzdESdyfr_udk a&mifjyef[yfjyI TzdESdyfr_udkyif qef@usifa=umif; azmfjyaom qdk&S,fvpfoif=um;csuf trsKd;rsKd;onf rqdkif;rwG ay:aygufvm=u.? odk@apumr_ ueOD;qdk&S,fvpf0gonfpdwful;,Of qdk&S,fvpf0gjzpf.?Tqdk&S,fvpf0gut&if;&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk a0zefcJhonf? jypfwif±_H@cscJhonf? usdefqJcJhonf?t&if;&Sif vl@tzGJ@tpnf; usqHk;ysufpD;a&;udk tdyfrufrufcJh=uonf?ydkrdkaumif;rGefaompepfw&yfay:aygufvma&;udkpdwful;,OfcJh=uonf?aoG;pkyfjcif;onf vl@usifh0wfESifh rudkufnDa=umif;udk vlcsrf;omwdk@tm;azsmif;zsajymqdkcJhonf?odk@aomf Tpdwful;,Of qdk&S,fvpf0gonf ppfrSefaomxGuf&yfvrf;udk r!¸efjyEdkifcJhacs? tqdkyg qdk&S,fvpf0gonf t&if;&Sifpepfatmuf&Sd tcpm;u|efpepf. tESpfom&udkvnf; &Sif;rjyEdkif/t&if;&Sifpepf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_ w&m;udkvnf; razmfxkwfEdkif vl@tzGJ@tpnf;opfudk zefwD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdaom vlr_tiftm;pkudkvnf; &SmrawG@EdkifcJh=uay?odk@&mwGif Oa&myae&mtESH@tjym; txl;ojzifh jyifopfjynfYyao&mZfpepf/ v,fu|efpepf ysufpD;,dk,Gif;aer_ESifhtwl ay:xGufvmaom awmfvSefa&;rkefwdkif;rsm;u vlwef;pm; wdkufyGJonf jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_w&yfvHk;. tkwfjrpfESifh wGef;tm;jzpfa=umif; ydkIydkI xif&Sm;pGm8
  11. 11. zGifhvSpfjyovsuf&Sd.?v,fu|efydkif&Sif vlwef;pm;tay: tEdkif&&SdcJhaom EdkifiHa&;vGwfvyfr_ atmifyGJwdkif;wGif taotvJ ckcHr_ESifh rawG@ñuH&aomatmifyGJ[lI r&SdcJhzl;acs? t&if;&Sifwdkif;jynfwdkif;wGif t&if;&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;. vlwef;pm;toD;oD;=um;Y aoa&;&Sifa&; wdkufyGJr&SdbJtenf;ESifhtrsm; vGwfvyf+yD; Drdkua&pDtajccHay:wGif wnfaqmufxm;aom wdkif;jynf[lI r&SdcJhzl;acs? rmhufpf. ^m%fxufjrufr_rSm olonf urBmhordkif;u !¸efjycJhaom ed*Hk;csKyfcsufudk tjcm;olrsm;xufapmpGm xkwfEkwfEdkifcJhjcif;ESifh Ted*Hk;csKyfcsufudk pGJ+rJpGmusifhoHk;EdkifcJhjcif;[lonfh tcsufay:wGif wnfonf? Ted*Hk;csKyfcsufonf vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJ oif=um;csufyif jzpfonf?vlwdk@onf usifh0wfw&m;/ bmoma&;/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh vlr_a&;toHk;tE_ef;rsm;/ a=unmcsufrsm;/ uwdcH0efcsufrsm;tm;vHk;. aemufuG,fwGif&Sdaeaom vlwef;pm;w&yf odk@r[kwf tjcm;vlwef;pm;w&yf&yf. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk razmfxkwfEdkifor#umvywfvHk; EdkifiHa&;wGif vdrfvnfjcif;wdk@. rdkufrJonfh om;aumif jzpf+rJjzpfaeayvdrfhrnf?rnfr#yif ±dkif;pdkif;=urf;ñuwfI ykyfodk;aqG;ajr@[ef&Sdonfh pepfa[mif;yifjzpfygap tcsKd@aom tkyfpdk;olvlwef;pm; w&yf&yf. tiftm;pkrsm;uxdef;odrf;xm;a=umif;udkoabmraygufor#umvywfvHk;ðyjyifa&;ESifhaumif;rGefvma&; bufawmfom;rsm;onf pepfa[mif;udk umuG,fae=uaom olrsm;. vdrfvnfvSnfhzsm;jcif;udk cH+rJcHae&vdrfhrnf? Tvlwef;pm;rsm;. ckcHr_udk wdkufzsufvdkygu enf;wenf;omv#if&Sdonf?‚rSm wdkufyGJqif&eftwGuf u|efawmfwdk@ywf0ef;usif&Sd vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;rS tiftm;pkw&yfudk &SmazG+yD; wdkufyGJ0ifa&;twGuf ynmay;pnf;±Hk;&rnfjzpf.? xdktiftm;pkonf rdrd. vlr_tqifhae&mt&9
  12. 12. pepfa[mif;udk okwfoif&Sif;vif;+yD; pepfopfudk zefwD;EdkifpGrf;&Sdonfhzefvnf;zefwD;&rnfh tiftm;pk jzpf&ayrnf?rmhufpf. tbd"rRmqdkif&m ±kyf0guomv#if ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; tzdESdyfcHvlwef;pm;tm;vHk; ,ae@wdkif pdwf"mwft& u|efðycH&jcif;rS xGwf&yfvrf;a=umif;udk !¸efjyonf? rmhufpf. pD;yGm;a&;oabmw&m;uomv#if t&if;&Sifpepfw&yfvHk; twGif;&Sd ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. tqifhae&mrSefudk &Sif;jyonf?ypPnf;rJhwdk@. trSDcdkuif;aom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf tar&duefrS*syef/qGDifrSawmiftmz&dutxdwurBmvHk;Yqxufxrf;ydk;wdk;rsm;aeonf? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;onf vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJudk qifE$Jjcif;tm;jzifh todynmyGifhvif;r_/ ynmay;r_&&SdcJh=u+yD; "e&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf; tpGJtvrf;rsm;rS tvGwf±kef;xGufae.? ‚onf rdrdwyfzGJ@udk wae@wjcm; odyfonf;pGm pk±Hk;+yD; rdrd. atmifjrifr_rsm;tm;rnfodk@rnfyHk tuJjzwf&rnfudk oif,laeonf? rdrd. tiftm;pkrsm;udkxkom;ayom; &&Sdap+yD; wm;qD;r&Edkifaom t&Sdeft[kefjzifh }uD;xGm;aeayownf;? ?1913 ck/ rwfv?10
  13. 13. um;vf rmhufpf oif=um;csuf.ordkif;qdkif&m uH=urRm·rmhufpfoif=um;csuf. t"dut&mrSm qdk&S,fvpf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;udk wnfaqmufoltjzpf ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. ordkif;qdkif&mtcef;udk&Sif;vif;jyocsufyifjzpfayonf?Toif=um;csufudkrmhufpfu&Sif;vif;wifjy+yD;onfh aemufydkif;wGif urBmt&yf&yf&Sd jzpf&yfrsm;.wdk;wufr_uoufaojyvdkufygovm;?Toif=um;csufudk rmhufpfu 1844 ckESpfwGif yxrqHk; wifjycJhonf? 1848 ckESpfu xkwfa0cJhaom rmhufpf/ tdef*,fwdk@. ¡uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;¢ xJwGif Toif=um;csufudk jynfhpHkonfh/ pepfusonfh/,ae@xufwdkif taumif;qHk;tjzpf wnf&Sdaeonfh &Sif;vif;csufjzifhazmfjy+yD;av+yD? TtcsdefrSp+yD; urBmhordkif;onf t"du umv 3 cktjzpf &Sif;vif;pGm uGJjym;oGm;onf? (1) 1848 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;rSyg&pfbHktzGJ@ (1871 ckESpf) txd? (2) yg&pfbHktzGJ@rS ±k&Sm;awmfvSefa&;· Taqmif;yg;udk um;vfrmhufpf uG,fvGefonfh tESpf 30 ajrmufae@udktxdrf;trSwfðyI a&;om;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? 1913 ckESpf rwfv 1&ufae@xkwf“y&mAg;”owif;pmtrSwf50wGifxnfhoGif;azmfjyonf?11
  14. 14. (1905 ckESpf) txd? (3) ±k&Sm;awmfvSefa&;rS aemufydkif;wdk@ jzpfygonf?‚umvtoD;oD;&Sd rmhufpfoif=um;csuf. uH=urRmudkqef;ppf=unfh±_=uygpdk@?(1)yxrumv. tpydkif;Y rmhufpfoif=um;csufonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# v$rf;rdk;onfh tqifhae&modk@ ra&muf&Sdao;ay? ‚onftvGefrsm;jym;vSaomqdk&S,fvpf0g*dk%f;odk@r[kwfwdrf;!¸wfr_rsm;xJrSwcktjzpfom &Sdaeao;onf? v$rf;rdk;xm;onfum; u|efawmfwdk@qDrSea&mepf0gESifh tajccHtm;jzifh wlnDaom qdk&S,fvpf0go¿mefrsm;jzpfonf? ‚wdk@onf ordkif;v_yf&Sm;r_. ±kyf0gtajccHudk em;rvnf=uacs? t&if;&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;&Sd vlwef;pm;toD;oD;. tcef;ESifht"dy`m,fudk rcGJjcm;EdkifbJ “jynfol”/ “w&m;r#wr_”/ “tcGifhta&;”ponfh twkta,mif qdk&S,fvpfpum;vHk; trsKd;rsKd;ESifh Drdkua&pD ðyjyifa&;. "e&SiftESpfom&udk zHk;uG,fxm;=uonf?1848 ckESpf awmfvSefa&;u atmf}uD;[pfus,f vkyfaeaoma&mifpHk&Sdonfh rmhufpf rwdkifrD qdk&S,fvpf0go¿mefrsm;udk emvefrxlEdkifatmifxdk;ESufypfvdkufonf?awmfvSefa&;uwdkif;jynftm;vHk;rSvl@tzGJ@tpnf;&Sd vlwef;pm;toD;oD;udk ‚wdk@. ðyr_v_yf&Sm;csufjzifhZmwd±kyfrsm; yGifhusoGm;aponf? 1848 ckESpf ZGefv yg&pfta&;tcif;twGif; orRw*dk%f; "e&Sifvlwef;pm;u tvkyform;rsm;udk ypfowfcJhjcif;u ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; wckwnf;om qdk&S,fvpfvuQ%m&Sdonfqdkonfhtcsufudk aemufqHk; tcdkiftrm ðyvdkufonf? xdkvlwef;pm;.trSDcdkuif;r_udkvpfb&,f"e&Sifvlwef;pm;onfrnfonfhazmufjyefa&;rsKd;xufrqdk tqw&mydkI a=umuf&GH@=uonf? ol&Jabma=umifaom12
  15. 15. vpfb&,frsm;onf azmufjyefa&;. a&S@arSmufwGif c,0yfwGm;ae=uonf? v,form;rsm;onf yao&mZf tºuif;tusefrsm;udk zsufodrf;ypfjcif;tm; auseyfESpfodrfhum pepfwusjzpfa&;bufodk@ul;ajymif;oGm;=uonf? ‚wdk@onf tvkyform;Drdkua&pDESifh "e&Sifvpfb&,f0g t=um;wGif wcgw&H awGa0,drf;,dkifwwf=ujcif;om&Sdonf? vlwef;pm;ESifh rqdkifaom qdk&S,fvpf0gESifh vlwef;pm;ESifhrqdkifaom EdkifiHa&;qdkif&m oif=um;csufrSefor#rSm r[kwfr[wf ajymaejcif;omjzpfa=umif; oufaojyvdkufonf?yg&pfbHktzGJ@ (1871 ckESpf) u ‚"e&Sif ðyjyifa&; jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_udk +yD;qHk;apvdkufonf? orRwEdkifiH qdkvdkonfrSm vlwef;pm;qufqHa&;rsm;udk ajAmiftusqHk;o¿mefESifh azmfjyxm;onfhEdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHk o¿mef. awmifhwif;cdkifrmr_rSm ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. &J&ifhr_a=umifhom jzpfayonf?Oa&mywdkuf&Sd wjcm;wdkif;jynftm;vHk;rS ydkrdk±_yfaxG;aom/rjynfhpHkao;aom jzpfay:wdk;yGm;r_onfvnf; tvm;wlwduspGmzGJ@wnfvmonfh "e&Sifvl@tzGJ@tpnf;qDodk@ a&muf&SdoGm;aponf?rkefwdkif;rsm;ESifh awmfvSefa&;umvjzpfonfh yxrumv (1848 ckESpfrS1871 ckESpf txd) . tukefydkif;wGif rmhufpfrwdkifrD qdk&S,fvpf0grSmZmwfodrf;oGm;av+yD? trSDcdkuif;onfh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; ygwDrsm;jzpf=uaom yxrtifwmae&Sife,f (1864 ckESpfrS 1871 ckESpftxd)ESifh *smref qdk&S,fDrdku&ufwpf ygwDwdk@ aygufzGm;vm=uonf?(2)kwd,umvydkif; (1872 ckESpfrS 1904 ckESpftxd) ESifh yxrumvydkif;wdk@. jcm;em;csufrSm “+idrf;csrf;aom” vuQ%mESifh awmfvSef13
  16. 16. a&;rsm; rjzpfyGm;jcif;yif jzpfonf? taemufwdkif;. "e&SifawmfvSefa&;rsm;onf +yD;qHk;cJhav+yD? ta&S@wdkif;rSmrl TuJhodk@aom awmfvSefa&;rsm;&ifhrSnfhrvmao;ay?taemufwdkif;rSm tem*wftajymif;tvJ umvtwGuf“+idrf;csrf;pGm” jyifqifa&;tqifhodk@ 0ifa&mufvmonf? tajccHtm;jzifhypPnf;rJhjzpfaom qdk&S,fvpf0gygwDrsm; ae&mtESH@ay:xGufvmonf?‚wdk@onf"e&SifygvDrefpepfudktoHk;ðy&efaomfvnf;aumid;/rdrdwdk@.ae@pOfowif;pm/ynma&;Xme/tvkyform;or*~rsm;ESifhor0g,rrsm;wnfaxmif&efaomfvnf;aumif;oif,lvm=uonf?rmhufpfoif=um;csufonf vHk;0atmifjrifr_&um us,fjyef@pGm jyefESH@vmonf? ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; tiftm;pkrsm;udk a&G;cs,fpkpnf;r_ESifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;.aemifvmrnfhwdkufyGJjyifqifr_jzpfpOfonfjznf;!‡if;apumrla&S@odk@rSefrSefwufvSrf;aeonf?rmhufpf0g. oabmw&m;atmifyGJa=umifh ‚. &efolrsm;onf rmhufpf0gDtjzpf ta&ðcHvdkuf=u&awmhonf? Tonfum;ordkif;. tEkyËdavmryif jzpfonf? twGif;Y v_dufpm;aeaomvpfb&,f0gonf qdk&S,fvpf tacsmif0gtoGifESifh jyefvnftoufoGif;&ef óu;pm;=uonf? tacsmiform;rsm;onf }uD;jrwfaom wdkufyGJrsm;twGuf tiftm;pkaqmif;aeonfh umvudk ‚wdkufyGJrsm;tm;pGef@y,fjcif;tjzpf t"dy`m,f zGifhqdk=uonf? tcpm;u|efpepfudkqef@usifonfh wdkufyGJtwGuf aus;u|efrsm;. tajctaeaumif;rGefvmatmif vkyfjcif;tm; aus;u|efrsm;onf olwdk@. vGwfvyfcGifhudkydkufqH 5 jym;ESifh a&mif;pm;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf[k ajym=uonf? “vl@tzGJ@tpnf;+idrf;csrf;a&;”/ qdkvdkonfrSm aus;u|efydkif&SifpepfESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;/vlwef;pm;wdkufyGJpGef@v$wfa&;ponfwdk@udk‚wdk@ua=umufa=umuf&GH@&GH@14
  17. 17. a[majym=uonf? ygvDrefxJrS qdk&S,fvpftrwfrsm;/ tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;&Sd tm%mydkiftrsKd;rsKd;ESifh “pmempdwf&Sdaom” ynmwwfrsm;t=um;wGif ‚wdk@tm; =unf!dkol trsm;tjym; &Sdayonf?(3)tacsmiform;rsm;u “vl@tzGJ@tpnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;” udkcsD;usL;cef;zGifhI “Drdkua&pD” atmufrSm rkefwdkif;qif&ef rvdkawmh[kajymr+yD;rDwGif urBmhrkefwdkif;}uD;. opfvGifaom tpðycsufonf tm&SwdkufY ay:xGufvmonf? ±k&Sm;awmfvSefa&;+yD;onfh aemufwGifwl&uDjynf/ yg&Sm;jynfESifh w±kwfjynfawmfvSefa&;rsm; jzpfvm=uonf?u|efawmfwdk@a&muf&SdaeonfrSm Todk@rkefwdkif;rsm;qifaeaomumvESifh ‚rkefwdkif;rsm;u Oa&mywdkufudk “wkH@jyef±dkufcwfaom” umvyifjzpfonf? “,Ofaus;aom” 0HykavGtrsKd;rsKd;u tHw}udwf}udwfjzpfaeaom }uD;jrwfonfh w±kwforRwEdkifiH. uH=urRmrnfodk@yif&SdapurBmay:&Sd rnfonfh tiftm;urS a[mif;EGrf;onfh v,fu|efpepfudktm&SwdkufwGif jyefvnfxlaxmif Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwf? tm&SESifh tm&Swydkif;wdkif;jynfrsm;rSjynfolvlxk.&J&ifhaomDrdkua&pDa&;udkokwfoif&Sif;vif;Edkifvdrfhrnfvnf; r[kwfay?vlxkwdkufyGJ jyifqifr_ESifh wdk;wufr_tajctaersm;udk owdrrlrd=uonfh vltcsKd@onf Oa&mywdkuf. t&if;&Sifpepf qef@usifaomtqHk;tjzwfwdkufyGJtcsdef&Snf=umaeonfudkawG@jrif+yD;pdwfysufjcif;ESifhrif;rJh0gbufodk@ a&mufukef=uonf? Trif;rJh0g. pdwfysufr_ rnfr#tjrifwdkI rnfr#ol&Jabma=umifonfqdkonfudk ,ck u|efawmfwdk@awG@jrifEdkifyg+yDd?Oa&my pdwful;pHESifhwlaom wdkufyGJxJodk@ tm&SwdkufrS oef;15
  18. 18. aygif; 800 &Sdaom jynfolrsm; yg0ifvm=uonfh jzpf&yfonf u|efawmfwdk@twGuf pdwfysufp&mr[kwf/ owWd&Sdvmp&mom jzpfonf?tm&Swdkuf awmfvSefa&;rsm;u vpfb&,f0g. aysmhnHhr_ESifhodrfzsif;r_udkvnf;aumif;/ Drdkua&pDvlxk. trSDcdkuif;pGm v_yf&Sm;r_.xl;jcm;aom ta&;ygr_udkvnf;aumif;/ ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;ESifh "e&Sifvlwef;pm;rsKd;pHk t=um;&Sd jywfom;aom pnf;a=umif;udkvnf;aumif;tvm;wlyif jyovdkufayonf? Oa&mywdkufESifh tm&Swdkuf tawG@tñuHrsm;udk &&Sd+yD;onfhaemufwGif vlwef;pm;ESifh rqdkifaom EdkifiHa&;/vlwef;pm;ESifh rqdkifaom qdk&S,fvpf0g ta=umif;ajymol rnfoludkrqdkavSmiftdrfxJYxnfhxm;I=opa=w;vsm;om;ydkufaumifESifhtwljyoxm;&efom&Sdawmhonf?Oa&mywdkufonf tm&Swdkuf. aemufrSm vl;vGef@v_yf&Sm;vmonf? odk@aomf tm&SyHkpHtwdkif; r[kwfay? 1872 ckESpfrS 1904ckESpftxd “+idrf;csrf;aom” umvonf jyefrvmpwrf; ukefvGefoGm;av+yD? aexdkifr_p&dwf }uD;jrifhr_ESifh x&yfpftzGJ@rsm;. zdESdyfr_a=umifhrñuHpzl;jyif;xefaompD;yGm;a&;wdkufyGJrsm;ay:xGufvmonf?vpfb&,f0g. v_dufpm;xm;jcif;udk trsm;qHk;cH&aom t*Fvdyftvkyform;rsm;onfyif TwdkufyGJxJodk@ yg0ifvm=uonf? “acgif;trm” qHk; "e&Sifvlwef;pm; ajr&Sifrsm;. wdkif;jynfjzpfaom *smr%DwGifyif EdkifiHa&;tusyftwnf; &ifhrSnfhvmaeonfudk u|efawmfwdk@ awG@jrifae&onf?aoG;±l;aoG;wef;vufeufwyfqifr_ESifhe,fcsJ@0gay:vpDwdk@uacwfopfOa&mywdkufudk ,rf;tdk;}uD;ESifh ydk+yD;wlaom “vl@tzGJ@tpnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;” qDodk@ ydk@aqmifay;vdkufonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif "e&SifygwDtm;vHk;. ysufpD;,dk,Gif;r_ESifh ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. &ifhusufvmr_wdk@onf rSefrSef}uD; wdk;yGm;vsuf&Sdonf?16
  19. 19. rmhufpf0g ay:xGufvm+yD;onfhaemuf urBmhordkif;. umv}uD;3ckpvHk;wGifrmhufpf0gonfoufaojycsufopfrsm;ESifhatmifjrifr_opfrsm; &&SdvmcJh+yD jzpfonf? r=umrDqdkufa&mufvmawmhrnfh ordkif;umvwGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;. oif=um;csufjzpfaom rmhufpf0gtm;ydkrdk}uD;rm;onfh atmifjrifr_rsm;u apmifhóuaeayonf? ?1913 ck/ rwfv 1 &uf?17

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