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Ri h2 dev_plan_041012

  1. 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121RHODE ISLANDHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsClean Energy States AllianceAnne Margolis – Project DirectorValerie Stori – Assistant Project DirectorProject Management and Plan DevelopmentNortheast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster:Joel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationProvidence Skyline – “Providence Skyline and Canal in the Morning Light”, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/47373320,October, 2011Brown University – “The Front Campus”, http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Photos/photos.html, October, 2011Shipyard – “Newport Shipyard: HAULING & RIGGING”, http://www.newportshipyard.com/hauling.asp, October, 2011Port – “Port of Davisville”, http://www.noradinc.com/transportation.php, October, 2011Healthcare – “CT Scan”, The Imaging Center, http://www.theimagingcenter.org/services.html , October, 2011Graph going up – “What do they do?”, http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/science-engineering-careers/Math_statistician_c001.shtml?From=testb, October 2011Manufacturing widget – “Manufacturing and Industrial Products”, http://www.riedc.com/industry-sectors/manufacturing-and-industrial-products, October, 2011
  2. 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122RHODE ISLANDEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 341,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annuallyfrom hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of Rhode Island, through thedevelopment of 40 – 54 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federalgovernment have incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision onwhether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on theeconomic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently,while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan providesfocus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, and airport facilities with a substantialamount of air traffic.Currently, Rhode Island has at least 15 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making upRhode Island’s hydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized approximately $5 million inrevenue and investment, contributed more than $264,000 in state and local tax revenue, and generatedover $6.9 million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energy cluster in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in Rhode Island.In addition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state. This plan provideslinks to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meetthe energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deploymentincreases, manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position tothen compete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
  3. 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123RHODE ISLANDTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................12Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................13Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................14Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................16Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................16Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................18Military ...................................................................................................................................................18POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................20Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................21Material Handling...............................................................................................................................22Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................23Ports ....................................................................................................................................................23CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................24APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................26
  4. 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124RHODE ISLANDIndex of TablesTable 1 - Rhode Island Economic Data 2011 ...............................................................................................8Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................12Table 3 - Foods Sales Data Breakdown......................................................................................................12Table 4 - Food Services Data Breakdown ..................................................................................................13Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data Breakdown.........................................................................................13Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................14Table 7 -Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown....................................................................................15Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................15Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown................................................................................16Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................16Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data Breakdown ........................................................................16Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data Breakdown..........................................................................17Table 13 - Landfill Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................17Table 14 – Rhode Island Top Airports Enplanement Count......................................................................18Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................18Table 16 - Military Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................19Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................20Table 18 - Ports Data Breakdown...............................................................................................................23Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................24Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Source.............................................................................9Figure 3 - Rhode Island Electrical Consumption per Sector.......................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ..........................................................................................14
  5. 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125RHODE ISLANDINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand application are identified in Appendix VI.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal energy and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, and can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. 2Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to convert the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S., including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy produced from a fuel cell can be considered renewable andwill reduce dependence on imported fuel. 3,4When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the onlyby-products are water and heat—no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2EIA,”Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2009”,http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_pr_com.html, August 20113Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.4U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/, August 2011
  6. 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126RHODE ISLANDDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofnearly $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. Rhode Island benefits from secondary impacts ofindirect and induced employment and revenue.5Furthermore, Rhode Island has a definitive and attractiveeconomic development opportunity to greatly increase its economic participation in the hydrogen and fuelcell industry within the Northeast region and worldwide. An economic “SWOT” assessment for RhodeIsland is provided in Appendix VII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in Rhode Island, are facing increased pressure to reduce costs,fuel consumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently, Rhode Island’sbusinesses pay $0.12 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the twelfth highest cost of electricity inthe U.S.6Rhode Island’s relative proximity to major load centers, the high cost of electricity, concernsover regional air quality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates in Rhode Island andneighboring states have resulted in renewed interest in the development of efficient renewable energy.Incentives designed to assist individuals and organizations in energy conservation and the development ofrenewable energy are currently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains an outline of RhodeIsland’s incentives and renewable energy programs. Some specific factors that are driving the market forhydrogen and fuel cell technology in Rhode Island include the following:Net Metering for systems owned by the customer of record and sited on the customer’s premises,up to five MW in capacity that are designed to generate up to 100 percent of the electricity that ahome or other facility uses. Systems that generate electricity using fuel cells are eligible. –promotes stationary power applications.7Renewable Energy Standard (RES) – Established in June 2004, the RES requires the states retailelectricity providers, including non-regulated power producers and distribution companies, tosupply 16 percent of their retail electricity sales from renewable resources by the end of 2019. In2020, and in each subsequent year, the minimum RES established in 2019 must be maintainedunless the Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission (PUC) determines that the standard is nolonger necessary. – promotes stationary power applications.8Rhode Island is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional GreenhouseGas Initiative (RGGI); the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.9– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.The Rhode Island Renewable Energy Funds (RIREF) renewable-energy component isadministered by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC), and the fundsdemand-side management (DSM) programs are administered by the states electric and gasdistribution companies, subject to review by the Rhode PUC. Rhode Islands public benefits fund(PBF) is supported by a surcharge on electric and gas customers bills. Initially, the surcharge was5There is now one OEMs in Rhode, however data within this plan reflects the zero OEMs originally used within the model. OneOEM will increase the impact of the cluster and will be used when the model is run for the next year.6EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html7DSIRE, “Rhode Island – Net Metering,”http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=RI01R&re=1&ee=1, August 20118DSIRE, “Renewable Energy Standards”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=RI08R&re=1&ee=1, August, 20119Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP, September 20, 2009
  7. 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127RHODE ISLANDset at $0.0023 per kilowatt-hour (2.3 mills per kWh) and applied only to electric utilities. Fuelcells using renewable fuels are eligible. – promotes stationary power applications.10HB 5986, signed in May 2009, directed the Rhode Island State Building Commission to update thestate building code to include the 2009 IECC and ASHRAE 90.1-2007, and to develop a plan toachieve compliance in 90 percent of new and renovated building space by February 2017. The newcodes went before the State Legislatures Legislative Oversight Committee for final approval in early2010. After a period for training of code officials and other stakeholders, the 2009 edition of the StateEnergy Conservation Code took effect July 1, 2010. – promotes stationary power applications.11Vehicles offered for sale or lease, imported, delivered, or registered in the state must meet Californiaexhaust and greenhouse gas emissions standards. (Reference Rhode Island Department ofEnvironmental Management Regulation No. 37). – promotes transportation applications.12Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFC) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Acquisition Requirements: Toreduce fuel consumption and pollution emissions, and purchase vehicles that provide the bestvalue on a lifecycle cost basis, the state must take the following actions:o At least 75 percent of state motor vehicle acquisitions must be AFVs, and the remaining25 percent must be HEVs to the greatest extent possible;o All new light-duty trucks in the state fleet must achieve a minimum city fuel economy of19 miles per gallon (mpg) and achieve at least a Low Emission Vehicle certification, andall new passenger vehicles in the state fleet must achieve a minimum city fuel economyof 23 mpg;o All state agencies must purchase the most economical, fuel-efficient, and lowestemissions vehicles appropriate to meet any needed requirements and discourage thepurchase of sport utility vehicles;o All state agencies must purchase low rolling resistance tires with superior tread life forstate vehicles when possible; ando All state vehicles must be maintained according to manufacturer specifications, includingspecified tire pressures and ratings. – promotes transportation applications.1310DSIRE, “Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF)”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=RI04R&re=1&ee=1, August, 201111DSIRE, “Rhode Island Building Energy Code”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=RI11R&re=1&ee=1, August, 201112EERE, “Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/RI/6107, August, 201113EERE, “Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFC) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Acquisition Requirements”,http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/RI/5970, August, 2011
  8. 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128RHODE ISLANDECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 14A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.Rhode Island is home to at least 15 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industrysupply chain in the Northeast region. Appendix V lists the hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chaincompanies in Rhode Island. Realizing over $4.9 million in revenue and investment from theirparticipation in this regional cluster in 2010, these companies include manufacturing, parts distributing,supplying of industrial gas, engineering based research and development (R&D), coating applications,and managing of venture capital funds. 15Furthermore, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is estimated tohave contributed approximately $264,000 in state and local tax revenue, and over $6.9 million in grossstate product. Table 1 shows Rhode Island’s impact in the Northeast region’s hydrogen and fuel cellindustry as of April 2011.Table 1 - Rhode Island Economic Data 2011Rhode Island Economic DataSupply Chain Members 15Indirect Rev ($M) 5.1Indirect Jobs 18Indirect Labor Income ($M) 1.3Induced Revenue ($M) 1.84Induced Jobs 13Induced Labor Income ($M) 0.623Total Revenue ($M) 6.91Total Jobs 32Total Labor Income ($M) 1.93In addition, there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 5,185 of these individuals and 136 ofthese companies are located in Rhode Island. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology wereto gain momentum within the transportation sector the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen andfuel cell industry could grow significantly in the region.1614Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.15Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August8, 201116NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  9. 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129RHODE ISLANDPOTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, Rhode Island consumed the equivalent of 64.23 million megawatt-hours of energy from thetransportation, residential, industrial, and commercial sectors.17Electricity consumption in Rhode Islandwas approximately 7.6 million MWh, and is forecasted to grow at a rate of .7 percent annually over thenext decade.18,19Figure 1 illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector in Rhode Island.A more detailed breakout of energy use is provided in Appendix II.Rhode Island represents approximately seven percent of the population in New England and six percentof the region’s total electricity consumption. The State relies on both in-state resources and imports ofpower over the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand inRhode Island was 870 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 40 MW by 2015. Thestate’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of .7 percent (1.3 percent peak summerdemand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as well as areplacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately 1,850MW in total capacity of generation plants, Rhode Island represents four percent of the total capacity inNew England.20As shown in Figure 2, natural gas was the primary energy source for electricityconsumed in Rhode Island for 2009. 2117U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201118EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2009 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January, 201119ISO New England, “Rhode Island 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/ri_01-2011_profile.pdf,January, 201120ISO New England, “Rhode Island 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/ri_01-2011_profile.pdf,January, 201121EIA, “1990 - 2010 Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)”,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January 4, 2011Residential32%Commercial26%Industrial13%Transportation29%Figure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector Figure 2 – Electric Power Generation by PrimaryEnergy SourcePetroleum0.2%Natural Gas98.0%OtherRenewables1.8%
  10. 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210RHODE ISLANDFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.22Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.23Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 40 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in Rhode Island, which would provide the following benefits,annually:Production of approximately 341,000 MWh of electricityProduction of approximately .872,000 MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 12,000 tons (electric generation only)24For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2522FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201123“Distributed Generation Market Potential: 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200424Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy, DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf;UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
  11. 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211RHODE ISLANDThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines Rhode Island’s estimatedelectrical consumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types within thecommercial sector are estimated to account for approximately 14 percent of Rhode Island’s total electricalconsumption. Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 – Rhode Island Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 183 non-public schools and 344 public schools (67 of which are considered highschools) in the Rhode Island.26,27High schools operate for a longer period of time daily due toextracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics. Furthermore, two of these schools haveswimming pools, which make the sites especially attractive because it would increase the utilization ofboth the electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell. There are also 18 colleges and universities inRhode Island, including eight public and ten private institutions. Colleges and universities have facilitiesfor students, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typically include dormitories, cafeterias,gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools. All 85 locations (67 high schoolsand 18 colleges) are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1: Education).Educational establishments in other states such as Connecticut and New York have shown interest in fuelcell technology. Examples of existing or planned fuel cell applications include South Windsor HighSchool (CT), Liverpool High School (NY), Rochester Institute of Technology, Yale University,University of Connecticut, and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science andForestry.25As defined by CBECS, Public Order & Safety facilities are buildings used for the preservation of law and order or publicsafety. Although these sites are usually described as government facilities they are referred to as commercial buildings becausetheir similarities in energy usage with the other building sites making up the CBECS data.26EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html27Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  12. 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212RHODE ISLANDTable 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)545(3)85(5)18(3)5.4(3)42,574(3)114,665(3)7,791(2)Food SalesThere are over 1,200 businesses in Rhode Island known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Foodsales establishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand andthermal requirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 31 of these sites are considered largerfood sales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site. 28All 31 large food salesbusinesses are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales). 29The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at a small convenience store may not be economicallyviable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell may beappropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Wholefoods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York.30(Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales)Table 3 - Foods Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)1,200(2)31(3)31(3)9.3(3)73,321(3)197,478(3)13,418(2)Food ServiceThere are over 1,500 businesses in Rhode Island that can be classified as food service establishments usedfor the preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.31Approximately 11 of these sites areconsidered larger restaurant businesses with approximately 130 or more employees at their site and arelocated in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 3: Food Services).32The applicationof a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than 130 workers may not be economicallyviable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW)may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heating requirements. A significant portion (18 percent)of the energy consumed in a commercial food service operation can be attributed to the domestic hot28On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. When compared to currentfuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh,calculations show food sales facilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell.29EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html30Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf31EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html32On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.
  13. 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213RHODE ISLANDwater heating load.33In other parts of the U.S., popular chains, such as McDonalds, are beginning to showan interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for the provision of electricity and thermal energy, includingdomestic water heating at food service establishments.34Table 4 - Food Services Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)1,500(2)11(3)11(3)3.3(3)26,017(3)70,073(3)4,761(2)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 99 inpatient healthcare facilities in Rhode Island; 16 of which are classified as hospitals.35Of these 16 locations, 12 are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100 or morebeds onsite. (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare) Hospitals represent an excellent opportunityfor the application of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity for lifesavingmedical devices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medical equipment,patient rooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within these facilities are oftenrequired to be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use of electricity and thermalenergy from a fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56 percent from $3.89 persquare foot in 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010, partially due to the increased cost of energy.36Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury Hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)99(2)12(3)12(3)3.6(3)28,382(3)76,443(3)5,194(2)33“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 200834Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201135EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html36BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
  14. 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214RHODE ISLANDOfficeEquipment, 4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5% Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 154 establishments specializing intravel/lodging accommodations that includehotels, motels, or inns in Rhode Island.Approximately 24 of these establishments have150 or more rooms onsite, and can be classified as“larger sized” lodging that may have additionalattributes, such as heated pools, exercise facilities,and/or restaurants. 37Of these 24 locations, 12employ more than 94 workers and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas. 38As shownin Figure 4, more than 60 percent of total energyuse at a typical lodging facility is due to lighting,space heating, and water heating. 39Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) athotel/resort facilities with less than 94 employeesmay not be economically viable based on theelectrical demand and operational requirement;however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may beappropriate. Popular hotel chains such as theHilton and Starwood Hotels have shown interestin powering their establishments with fuel cells inNew Jersey and New YorkRhode Island also has 95 facilities identified as convalescent homes, 21 of which have bed capacitiesgreater than, or equal to 150 units.40All 21 locations are located in communities serviced by natural gas(Appendix I – Figure 5: Lodging).Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)236(3)33(4)33(4)9.9(4)78,052(4)210,219(4)14,238(3)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 75 facilities in Rhode Island that can be classified as public order and safety;these include 28 fire stations, 41 police stations, and six state police stations..41,42Four of these locationsemploy more than 210 workers and are located in communities serviced by natural gas.43,44These37EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200538On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.39National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200440Assisted-Living-List, “List of 95 Nursing Homes in Rhode Island (RI)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/ri--nursing-homes/, May9, 201141EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html42USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/43CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 2011Figure 4 -U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  15. 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215RHODE ISLANDapplications may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell (>300 kW),which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 45,46The sites identified (Appendix I – Figure 6:Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increased reliability to mission criticalfacilities associated with public safety and emergency response during grid outages. The application of alarge fuel cell (>300 kW) at public order and safety facilities with less than 210 employees may not beeconomically viable based on the electrical demand and operational requirement; however, a smaller fuelcell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Central Park Police Station in New York City, New York is presentlypowered by a 200 kW fuel cell system.Table 7 -Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)75(2)4(1)4(1)1.2(1)9,461(1)25,481(1)1,731(1)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.47In Rhode Island, there are approximately 147 of these industrial facilities that are involved inthe manufacture of aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum, coal productsor steel and employ 25 or more employees.48All 147 locations are located in communities serviced bynatural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector49NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.0544On average public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Whencompared to current fuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 –3,504,000 kWh, calculations show public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorableopportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.452,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9446CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201147EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html48Proprietary market data49EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf, March 2007
  16. 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216RHODE ISLANDCompanies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)147(3)15(3)15(3)4.5(3)35,478(3)95,554(3)6,492(3)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 38 locations in Rhode Island; three of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of Rhode Island. The application offuel cell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements at thesesites and offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usage ofthese public buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)38(3)3(3)3(3)0.9(3)7,096(3)19,111(3)788(2)Wireless Telecommunication SitesTelecommunications companies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vitalequipment. In Rhode Island, there are more than 125 telecommunications and/or wireless company towersites (Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations may resultin a loss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual site represents anopportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application of on-site back-upgeneration powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard to install unitscapable of supplying 48-72 hours of back-up power, which is typically accomplished with batteries orconventional emergency generators.50The deployment of fuel cells at selected telecommunication siteswill have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associated with emergencycommunications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site that utilizes fuel celltechnology to provide back-up power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)125(3)13(3)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 19 WWTPs in Rhode Island that have design flows ranging from 23,000 gallons per day (GPD)to 42.6 million gallons per day (MGD); ten of these facilities average between 3 – 43 MGD. WWTPstypically operate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to process fats, oils,50ReliOn, Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 2011
  17. 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217RHODE ISLANDand grease.51WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the U.S.52Digestergas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuel substitute for naturalgas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flow greater than three MGDfor an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.53Most facilities currently represent a lostopportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from their operations(Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites). 54,55A 200 kW fuel cell power plant in Yonkers, New York, was the world’s first commercial fuel cell to runon a waste gas created at a wastewater treatment plant. The fuel cell generates about 1,600 MWh ofelectricity a year, and reduces methane emissions released to the environment.56A 200 kW fuel cellpower plant was also installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in New Haven,Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs by almost$13,000 a year.57Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)19(3)1(6)1(6)0.3(6)2,365(6)6,370(6)263(3)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are five landfills in Rhode Island identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)through their LMOP program: two of which are operational and three of which are considered potentialsites for the production and recovery of methane gas.5859The amount of methane emissions released by agiven site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material hasbeen in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuelto power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible forproducing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locationscould produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solidand Liquid Waste Sites).Table 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)5(2)1(7)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)263(4)51“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf52EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200653EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 200654“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009,www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf55EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201156NYPA, “WHAT WE DO – Fuel Cells”, www.nypa.gov/services/fuelcells.htm, August 8, 201157Conntact.com, “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html, August 15, 200358Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.59LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has at least onemillion tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project.”EPA, “Landfill Methane OutreachProgram”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 2011
  18. 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218RHODE ISLANDAirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air trafficcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;60consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and presents an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication. 61There are approximately ten airports in Rhode Island, including seven that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those seven airports, three (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear, two of these three facilities are located in communities serviced by natural. An example of anairport currently hosting a fuel cell power plant to provide backup power is Albany International Airportlocated in Albany, New York.Table 14 – Rhode Island Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport62Total Enplanement in 2000Theodore Francis Green State Airport 2,684,204Block Island State Airport 10,313Westerly State Airport 10,152Quonset State Airport (OQU) is considered the only “Joint-Use” airport in Rhode Island. Joint-Usefacilities are establishments where the military department authorizes use of the military runway forpublic airport services. Army Aviation Support Facilities (AASF), located at this site are used by theArmy to provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train and utilize military personnel, conduct flighttraining and operations, and perform field level maintenance. Quonset State Airport represents a favorableopportunity for the application of uninterruptible power for necessary services associated with nationaldefense and emergency response and is located in a community serviced by natural gas. (Appendix I –Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)6(1)3 (1)(6)3(6)0.9(6)7,096(6)19,111(6)1,298(5)60Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201161Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201162Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Rhode Island Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/Rhode Island/pdf/entire.pdf, March 30, 2011
  19. 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219RHODE ISLANDMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).63In addition, Naval Station Newport in Newport, Rhode Island providesthe facilities and infrastructure essential to support the operations of tenant commands and visiting fleetunits and is also a potential site for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. 64Table 16 - Military Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)1(7)1(7)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)433(6)63Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 201164Naval Station Newport, “Tenant Command”, http://www.cnic.navy.mil/Newport/About/TenantCommands/index.htm, August,2011
  20. 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220RHODE ISLANDPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 29 percent of Rhode Island’s energy consumption is due to demands of the transportationsector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, cars, trucks, and buses. Asmall percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.65The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).66,67Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge68)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and provide greaterefficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6965“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201066“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan67“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200368Miles per Gallon Equivalent69Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)
  21. 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221RHODE ISLANDReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.70Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.71Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;Rhode Island Department of Transportation (RIDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations;government, public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground supportequipment (GSE). Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 375 retail fueling stations in Rhode Island;72however, only 13 public and/orprivate stations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas,propane, and/or electricity for alternative-fueled vehicles.73There are also at least three refueling stationsowned and operated by RIDOT that can be used by authorities operating federal and state safety vehicles,state transit vehicles, and employees of universities that operate fleet vehicles on a regular basis. 74Development of hydrogen fueling at alternative fuel stations and at selected locations owned and operatedby RIDOT would help facilitate the deployment of FCEVs within the state (Appendix I – Figure 12:Alternative Fueling Stations). Currently, there are approximately 18 existing or planned transportationfueling stations in the Northeast region where hydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.75,76,77FleetsThere are over 2,000 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal vehicles) classified as non-leasing orcompany owned vehicles in Rhode Island.78Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice theamount of mileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personalvehicles on a per vehicle basis. There is an additional 1,836 passenger automobiles and/or light duty70U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00,www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm71Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201172“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201173Alternative Fuels Data Center; www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/74EPA; “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”; www.epa.gov/oust/docs/RI%20Compliance%20Report.pdf; August8,200775Alternative Fuels Data Center; http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/76Hyride; “About the fueling station”; http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html77CTTransit; “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”;www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}; March, 201178Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, http://www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel
  22. 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222RHODE ISLANDtrucks in Rhode Island, owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled acombined 14,185,453 miles in 2010, while releasing 1,148 metrics tons of CO2.79Conversion of fleetvehicles from conventional fossil fuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption andGHG emissions. Fleet vehicle hubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion toFCEVs because they mostly operate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from acentralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 230 buses that provide public transportation services in Rhode Island.80Asdiscussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with fuel cell transit bus would result inthe reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year), and reduction ofdiesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).81Although the efficiency of conventionaldiesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achieve fuel economy performancelevels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings by using high efficiency fuelcells. In addition to Rhode Island, other states have also begun the transition of fueling transit buses withalternative fuels to improve efficiency and environmental performance.Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement (assuming one is available), which saves the operatorvaluable time and increases warehouse productivity.In addition, fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared tobatteries, such as:1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost; and63 percent less emissions of GHG. Appendix X provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment.Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.82Large corporations that are currently using orplanning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart. (Refer to Appendix IX for a partial list of companies in North America that use79U.S. General Services Administration, “GSA 2010 Fleet Reports”, Table 4-2, http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/230525, September201180NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201181Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.82DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 2011
  23. 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223RHODE ISLANDfuel cell powered forklifts).83There are approximately seven distribution centers/warehouse sites thathave been identified in Rhode Island that may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses).Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSEs.84Potential large end-users of GSE that serve Rhode Island’s largest airports include Air Canada,Delta Airlines, Continental, Southwest, United, and US Airways (Appendix I – Figure 11: CommercialAirports).85PortsPorts in Narragansett Bay Rhode Island, which service large vessels, such as container ships, tankers,bulk carriers, and cruise ships, may be candidates for improved energy management. The majority ofshipping traffic into Narragansett Bay via the Ocean consists of vessels delivering coal and petroleumproducts. In 2007 approximately 4.3 million short tons of coal and 6.2 million short tons of petroleumproducts entered the Bay. Other products including a number of chemical products, stone, aluminum ore,other non-metal minerals, manufactured goods, and equipment are imported. Over the past two decadesthe total cargo tonnage processed by Narragansett Bay ports has remained relatively constant, between 11and 13 million short tons per year. In 2008, over 68,000 cruise ship passengers disembarked in Newport,contributing millions of dollars to the local economy.86In one year, a single large container ship can emit pollutants equivalent to that of 50 million cars. The lowgrade bunker fuel used by the worlds 90,000 cargo ships contains up to 2,000 times the amount of sulfurcompared to diesel fuel used in automobiles.83 Furthermore, diesel emissions from cruise ships while atport are a significant source of air pollution. While docked, vessels shut off their main engines but useauxiliary diesel and steam engines to power refrigeration, lights, pumps, and other functions, a processcalled “cold-ironing”. An estimated one-third of ship emissions occur while they are idling at berth.Replacing auxiliary engines with on-shore electric power could significantly reduce emissions. Theapplications of fuel cell technology at ports may also provide electric and thermal energy for improvingenergy management for warehouses and equipment operated between terminals (Appendix I – Figure 13:Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).87Table 18 - Ports Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)RI(% of Region)6(5)1(5)1(5)0.3(5)2,365(5)6,370(5)433(4)83Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”,www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201184Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”,April 2007, www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf85PVD, “Airlines”, http://www.pvdairport.com/main.aspx?guid=879AA2CC-8C87-4B00-AA4E-26C273208AA9 , August,201186Ocean Special Area Management Plan, “Chapter 7: Marine Transportation, Navigation, and Infrastructure”,http://www.crmc.ri.gov/samp_ocean/finalapproved/700_MarineTrans.pdf, August 24, 201087Savemayportvillage.net, “Cruise Ship Pollution”, http://www.savemayportvillage.net/id20.html, October, 2011
  24. 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224RHODE ISLANDCONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total Sites PotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 545 858867 18Food Sales 1,200+ 318931Food Services 1,500+ 119011Inpatient Healthcare 99 129112Lodging 236 339233Public Order & Safety 75 4934Energy Intensive Industries 147 159415Government OperatedBuildings38 3953WirelessTelecommunicationTowers12596139713WWTPs 19 1981Landfills 5 1991Airports (w/ AASF) 6 3 (1) 1003Military 1 1 1Ports 6 1 1Total 4,002 214 80 134As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 214 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity is uniform throughout the year, approximately 101 to 134 fuel cellunits, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 40 to 54 MWs.8885 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas8931 food sales facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas90Ten percent of the 129 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas9112 Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite9219 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and 21 convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities serviced bynatural gas93Correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 workers or more.94Ten percent of 147 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas.95Three actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas96The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.97Ten percent of the 125 wireless telecommunication sites in Rhode Island’s targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment98Rhode Island WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD99Ten percent of the Landfills targeted based on LMOP data100Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or with AASF
  25. 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225RHODE ISLANDIf all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations 300 kW units, a total of 341,202 MWhelectric and 872,727 MMBTUs (equivalent to 255,782MWh) of thermal energy would be produced,which could reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 12,488 tons per year.101Rhode Island can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation such aspassenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. The application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improveenvironmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing over $4.9 million in revenue and investment from their participation inthis regional cluster in 2010, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry in Rhode Island is estimated to havecontributed approximately $264,000 in state and local tax revenue, and over $6.9 million in gross stateproduct. Currently, there are at least 15 Rhode Island companies that are part of the growing hydrogenand fuel cell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel celltechnology were to gain momentum, the number of companies and employment for the industry couldgrow substantially.101If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW units, a total of 457,710 MWh electric and 2.15million MMBTUs (equivalent to 631,438 MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissions by atleast 16,752 tons per year
  26. 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226RHODE ISLANDAPPENDICES
  27. 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  28. 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  29. 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  30. 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  31. 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
  32. 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  33. 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  34. 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  35. 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  36. 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
  37. 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
  38. 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  39. 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239RHODE ISLANDAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers & Warehouses
  40. 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240RHODE ISLANDAppendix II – Rhode Island Estimated Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)102kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 527 161.844 85,291,788Food Sales 1,200 319.821 383,785,200Food Services 1,500 128 192,285,000Inpatient Healthcare 99 6,038.63 597,823,875Lodging 236 213.12 50,295,848Public Order & Safety 81 77.855 6,306,255Total 3,643 1,315,787,966Residential1033,171,000,000Industrial 1,249,000,000Commercial 3,628,000,000Other Commercial 1,315,787,966102EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 2003103DOE EERE, “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Rhode Island”,http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=RI, August 25, 2011
  41. 41. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201241RHODE ISLANDAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization City/Town State WebsiteState of RI Office of EnergyResourcesProvidenceRIhttp://www.energy.ri.gov/index.phpU.S Green BuildingCouncil, RI ChapterProvidenceRIhttp://www.usgbcri.org/University of RI EnergyCenter (Clean Cities)KingstonRIhttp://www.uri.edu/cels/ceoc/ec/osccc.htmlRhode Island EconomicDevelopment CorporationProvidenceRIhttp://www.riedc.com/Rhode Island Department ofTransportationProvidenceRIhttp://www.dot.state.ri.us/RI Public UtilitiesCommissionWarwickRIhttp://www.ripuc.org/Rhode Island EmergencyManagement AgencyCranstonRIhttp://www.riema.ri.gov/Utility CompaniesNational Grid http://www.nationalgridus.com/Pascoag Utility http://www.pud-ri.org/Block Island Power CO. (401) 466-5851
  42. 42. Appendix IV – Rhode Island Hydrogen/Fuel Cell Incentives and ProgramsFunding Source: Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC)Program Title: Renewable Energy FundApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar ThermalElectric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric,Anaerobic Digestion, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy, Ocean Thermal, Fuel Cells usingRenewable FuelsSummary: The Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC) offers financialincentives for renewable energy projects that "directly benefit the state of Rhode Island." Thesefinancial incentives, which include grants, recoverable grants and loans, are funded by the RhodeIsland Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF)Restrictions:Non-profit Affordable Housing Investment Program:$100,000 per award per yearMunicipal Renewable Energy Investment Program :$500,000 per award per yearPre-development Consultant and Technical Feasibility Program: $200,000 per yearRenewable Energy Development Program: $750,000 per award yearTiming: CurrentMaximum Size:$100,000 – $750,000 per yearRequirements:Fuel Cells using renewable fuels are eligiblehttp://www.riedc.com/business-services/renewable-energyRebate amount: ►VariesFor further information, please visit:http://www.riedc.com/business-services/renewable-energySource:RIEDC “Renewable Energy Fund”, September, 2011DSIRE “RIEDC – Renewable Energy Fund Grants”; September, 2011
  43. 43. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201243Funding Source: Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC)Program Title: Renewable Energy FundApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar ThermalElectric, Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal Electric,Anaerobic Digestion, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy, Ocean Thermal, Fuel Cells usingRenewable FuelsSummary: The Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC) offers financialincentives for renewable energy projects that "directly benefit the state of Rhode Island." Thesefinancial incentives, which include grants, recoverable grants and loans, are funded by the RhodeIsland Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF)Restrictions:Non-profit Affordable Housing Investment Program:$100,000 per award per yearMunicipal Renewable Energy Investment Program :$500,000 per award per yearPre-development Consultant and Technical Feasibility Program: $200,000 per yearRenewable Energy Development Program: $750,000 per award yearTiming: CurrentMaximum Size:$100,000 – $750,000 per yearRequirements:Fuel Cells using renewable fuels are eligiblehttp://www.riedc.com/business-services/renewable-energyRebate amount: ►VariesFor further information, please visit:http://www.riedc.com/business-services/renewable-energySource:RIEDC “Renewable Energy Fund”, September, 2011DSIRE “RIEDC – Renewable Energy Fund Loans”; September, 2011
  44. 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Appendix V – Partial List of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in Rhode Island104Organization Name Product or Service Category1 Network Piping Components2 RGN Sales Components3 Technic Inc. Materials4 Carousel Ind Other5 Chem Art Components6 D.L. Thurrott, Inc. Equipment7 Technical Materials, Inc. Materials8Romer Inc (aka HexagonMetrology)Equipment9 Duggan and Associates Consulting/Legal/Financial Services10 Nooney Controls Components11 CPI Controls Components12 Corp Brothers Inc. Fuel13 IGUS, INC. Components14 Dewal Industries Components15APC CorporateHeadquartersEquipment104Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, August 11, 2011
  45. 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix VI – Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies105Fuel CellTypeCommonElectrolyteOperatingTemperatureTypicalStackSizeEfficiency Applications Advantages DisadvantagesPolymerElectrolyteMembrane(PEM)Perfluoro sulfonicacid50-100°C122-212°typically80°C< 1 kW – 1MW106>kW 60%transportation35%stationary• Backup power• Portable power• Distributedgeneration• Transportation• Specialty vehicle• Solid electrolyte reducescorrosion & electrolytemanagement problems• Low temperature• Quick start-up• Expensive catalysts• Sensitive to fuelimpurities• Low temperature wasteheatAlkaline(AFC)Aqueous solutionof potassiumhydroxide soakedin a matrix90-100°C194-212°F10 – 100kW60%• Military• Space• Cathode reaction fasterin alkaline electrolyte,leads to high performance• Low cost components• Sensitive to CO2in fuel and air• Electrolyte managementPhosphoricAcid(PAFC)Phosphoric acidsoaked in a matrix150-200°C302-392°F400 kW100 kWmodule40%• Distributedgeneration• Higher temperature enablesCHP• Increased tolerance to fuelimpurities• Pt catalyst• Long start up time• Low current and powerMoltenCarbonate(MCFC)Solution of lithium,sodium and/orpotassiumcarbonates, soakedin a matrix600-700°C1112-1292°F300k W- 3 MW300 kWmodule45 – 50%• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Suitable for CHP• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• Long start up time• Low power densitySolid Oxide(SOFC)Yttria stabilizedzirconia700-1000°C1202-1832°F1 kW – 2MW60%• Auxiliary power• Electric utility• Distributedgeneration• High efficiency• Fuel flexibility• Can use a variety of catalysts• Solid electrolyte• Suitable f o r CHP & CHHP• Hybrid/GT cycle• High temperaturecorrosion and breakdownof cell components• High temperatureoperation requires longstart uptime and limitsPolymer Electrolyte is no longer a single category row. Data shown does not take into account High Temperature PEM which operates in the range of 160oC to 180oC. It solvesvirtually all of the disadvantages listed under PEM. It is not sensitive to impurities. It has usable heat. Stack efficiencies of 52% on the high side are realized. HTPEM is not aPAFC fuel cell and should not be confused with one.105U.S. Department of Energy, Fuel Cells Technology Program, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/pdfs/fc_comparison_chart.pdf, August 5, 2011106Ballard, “CLEARgen Multi-MY Systems”, http://www.ballard.com/fuel-cell-products/cleargen-multi-mw-systems.aspx, November, 2011
  46. 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Appendix VII –Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for Rhode IslandStrengthsStationary Power – Strong market drivers (elect cost,environmental factors, critical power)Transportation Power - Strong market drivers (appeal to market,environmental factors, high gasoline prices, long commutingdistance, lack of public transportation options)WeaknessesStationary Power – No fuel cell technology/industrial base at theOEM level, fuel cells only considered statutorily “renewable” ifpowered by renewable fuel, lack ofinstallations/familiarity/comfort level with technologyTransportation Power – No technology/industrial base at the OEMlevelEconomic Development Factors – limited state incentivesOpportunitiesStationary Power – More opportunity as a “early adopter market”,some supply chain buildup opportunities such as supermarketsand larger hotel chains around the deploymentTransportation Power – Same as stationary power.Economic Development Factors – Once the region determines itsfocus within the hydrogen/fuel cell space, a modest amount ofstate support is likely to show reasonable results, then replicate inthe next targeted sector(s).Implementation of RPS/modification of RPS to include fuel cellsin preferred resource tier (for stationary power); or modification ofRE definition to include FCs powered by natural gas and allowedresource for net metering.Strong regional emphasis on efficiency, FCs could play a roleInfrastructure exists in many location to capture methane fromlandfills – more knowledge of options to substitute FCs forgenerators could prove fruitfulThreatsStationary Power – The region’s favorable market characteristicsand needs will be met by other distributed and “truly” generationtechnologies, such as solar, wind, geothermalTransportation Power – The region’s favorable marketcharacteristics and needs will be met by electric vehicles,particularly in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure or,alternatively, customers remaining with efficient gas-poweredvehicles that can handle our unique clime/terrain/commutingdistance needEconomic Development Factors – competition from otherstates/regionsIf states provide incentives, smaller & less-consistent clean energyfunds may not provide market the support & assurance it needs
  47. 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247AppendixVIII – Partial Fuel Cell Deployment in the Northeast regionManufacturer Site Name Site LocationYearInstalledPlug Power T-Mobile cell tower Storrs CT 2008Plug Power Albany International Airport Albany NY 2004FuelCell Energy Pepperidge Farms Plant Bloomfield CT 2005FuelCell Energy Peabody Museum New Haven CT 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers Manhattan NY 2004FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Edison NJ 2003FuelCell Energy Sheraton Hotel Parsippany NJ 2003UTC Power Cabelas Sporting Goods East Hartford CT 2008UTC Power Whole Foods Market Glastonbury CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Science Center Hartford CT 2009UTC Power St. Francis Hospital Hartford CT 2003UTC Power Middletown High School Middletown CT 2008UTC Power Connecticut Juvenile Training School Middletown CT 2001UTC Power 360 State Street Apartment Building New Haven CT 2010UTC Power South Windsor High School South Windsor CT 2002UTC Power Mohegan Sun Casino Hotel Uncasville CT 2002UTC Power CTTransit: Fuel Cell Bus Hartford CT 2007UTC Power Whole Foods Market Dedham MA 2009UTC Power Bronx Zoo Bronx NY 2008UTC Power North Central Bronx Hospital Bronx NY 2000UTC Power Hunts Point Water Pollution Control Plant Bronx NY 2005UTC Power Price Chopper Supermarket Colonie NY 2010UTC Power East Rochester High School East Rochester NY 2007UTC Power Coca-Cola Refreshments Production Facility Elmsford NY 2010UTC Power Verizon Call Center and Communications Building Garden City NY 2005UTC Power State Office Building Hauppauge NY 2009UTC Power Liverpool High School Liverpool NY 2000UTC Power New York Hilton Hotel New York City NY 2007UTC Power Central Park Police Station New York City NY 1999UTC Power Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester NY 1993UTC Power NYPA office building White Plains NY 2010UTC Power Wastewater treatment plant Yonkers NY 1997UTC Power The Octagon Roosevelt Island NY 2011UTC Power Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters New Brunswick NJ 2003UTC Power CTTRANSIT (Fuel Cell Powered Buses) Hartford CT2007 -Present
  48. 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Appendix IX – Partial list of Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America107Company City/Town State SiteYearDeployedFuel CellManufacturer# offorkliftsCoca-ColaSan Leandro CABottling anddistribution center2011 Plug Power 37Charlotte NC Bottling facility 2011 Plug Power 40EARPDistributionKansas City KS Distribution center 2011 Oorja Protonics 24Golden StateFoodsLemont IL Distribution facility 2011 Oorja Protonics 20Kroger Co. Compton CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 161SyscoRiverside CA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 80Boston MA Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 160Long Island NY Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 42San Antonio TX Distribution center 2011 Plug Power 113Front Royal VARedistributionfacility2011 Plug Power 100Baldor SpecialtyFoodsBronx NY FacilityPlannedin 2012Oorja Protonics 50BMWManufacturingCo.Spartanburg SC Manufacturing plant 2010 Plug Power 86DefenseLogisticsAgency, U.S.Department ofDefenseSan Joaquin CA Distribution facility 2011 Plug Power 20Fort Lewis WA Distribution depot 2011 Plug Power 19WarnerRobinsGA Distribution depot 2010 Hydrogenics 20Susquehanna PA Distribution depot2010 Plug Power 152009 Nuvera 40Martin-Brower Stockton CAFood distributioncenter2010 Oorja Protonics 15United NaturalFoods Inc.(UNFI)Sarasota FL Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 65Wal-MartBalzacAl,CanadaRefrigerateddistribution center2010 Plug Power 80WashingtonCourt HouseOHFood distributioncenter2007 Plug Power 55Wegmans Pottsville PA Warehouse 2010 Plug Power 136Whole FoodsMarketLandover MD Distribution center 2010 Plug Power 61107FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell-Powered Forklifts in North America”, http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/forklifts.pdf, November, 2011
  49. 49. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Appendix X – Comparison of PEM Fuel Cell and Battery-Powered Material Handling Equipment3 kW PEM Fuel Cell-PoweredPallet Trucks3 kW Battery-powered(2 batteries per truck)Total Fuel Cycle Energy Use(total energy consumed/kWhdelivered to the wheels)-12,000 Btu/kWh 14,000 Btu/kWhFuel Cycle GHG Emissions(in g CO2 equivalent 820 g/kWh 1200 g/kWhEstimated Product Life 8-10 years 4-5 yearsNo Emissions at Point of Use  Quiet Operation  Wide Ambient OperatingTemperature range Constant Power Availableover ShiftRoutine Maintenance Costs($/YR)$1,250 - $1,500/year $2,000/yearTime for Refueling/ChangingBatteries 4 – 8 min./day45-60 min/day (for battery change-outs)8 hours (for battery recharging & cooling)Cost of Fuel/Electricity $6,000/year $1,300/yearLabor Cost ofrefueling/Recharging$1,100/year $8,750/yearNet Present Value of CapitalCost$12,600($18,000 w/o incentive)$14,000Net Present Value of O&Mcosts (including fuel)$52,000 $128,000

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