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Ct h2 dev_plan_041012

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Ct h2 dev_plan_041012

  1. 1. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20121CONNECTICUTHydrogen and Fuel Cell Development Plan – “Roadmap” CollaborativeParticipantsProject Management and Plan DevelopmentConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc.:Elliot Ginsberg – Chief Executive OfficerJoel M. Rinebold – Program DirectorPaul Aresta – Project ManagerAlexander C. Barton – Energy SpecialistAdam J. Brzozowski – Energy SpecialistThomas Wolak – Energy InternNathan Bruce – GIS Mapping InternAgenciesUnited States Department of EnergyUnited States Small Business AdministrationConnecticut Department of Economic and Community DevelopmentHartford skyline – “Hartford, CT, Octobwer 20, 2007”, http://www.flickr.com/photos/gatuzz/1803990134/in/faves-wnprimages/CT Transit Bus – “Hydrogen Fuel Cell bus at the CT Science Center on April 21, 2010”,http://www.cttransit.com/press/Display.asp?PressID={1446426A-4BBB-4742-9612-DD65A6A9ED03}Cabela’s – “Retail (Cabela’s, East Hartford CT), May 5, 2011”, http://www.utcpower.com/pressroom/gallery/retail-cabelas-east-hartford-ctSunhydro – “Hydrogen Powered Cars, October 12, 2011”, http://www.sunhydro.com/
  2. 2. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20122CONNECTICUTEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThere is the potential to generate approximately 938,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annuallyfrom hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the State of Connecticut, through thedevelopment of 119 – 158 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell generation capacity. The state and federalgovernment have incentives to facilitate the development and use of renewable energy. The decision onwhether or not to deploy hydrogen or fuel cell technology at a given location depends largely on theeconomic value, compared to other conventional or alternative/renewable technologies. Consequently,while many sites may be technically viable for the application of fuel cell technology, this plan providesfocus for fuel cell applications that are both technically and economically viable.Favorable locations for the development of renewable energy generation through fuel cell technologyinclude energy intensive commercial buildings (education, food sales, food services, inpatient healthcare,lodging, and public order and safety), energy intensive industries, wastewater treatment plants, landfills,wireless telecommunications sites, federal/state-owned buildings, and airport facilities with a substantialamount of air traffic.Currently, Connecticut has approximately 600 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuelcell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. Based on a recent study, these companies making upthe Connecticut hydrogen and fuel cell industry are estimated to have realized approximately $500million in revenue and investment, contributed more than $22 million in state and local tax revenue,and generated over $267 million in gross state product from their participation in this regional energycluster in 2010. Eight of these companies are original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) ofhydrogen and/or fuel cell systems, and were responsible for supplying 1,074 direct jobs and $254million in direct revenue and investment in 2010.Hydrogen and fuel cell projects are becoming increasingly popular throughout the Northeast region.These technologies are viable solutions that can meet the demand for renewable energy in Connecticut.In addition, the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology would reduce the dependence on oil,improve environmental performance, and increase the number of jobs within the state. This plan provideslinks to relevant information to help assess, plan, and initiate hydrogen or fuel cell projects to help meetthe energy, economic, and environmental goals of the State.Developing policies and incentives that support hydrogen and fuel cell technology will increasedeployment at sites that would benefit from on-site generation. Increased demand for hydrogen and fuelcell technology will increase production and create jobs throughout the supply chain. As deploymentincreases, manufacturing costs will decline and hydrogen and fuel cell technology will be in a position tothen compete in a global market without incentives. These policies and incentives can be coordinatedregionally to maintain the regional economic cluster as a global exporter for long-term growth andeconomic development.
  3. 3. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20123CONNECTICUTTABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................2INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................5DRIVERS............................................................................................................................................6ECONOMIC IMPACT ...........................................................................................................................8POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETS ...................................................................................................9Education ............................................................................................................................................11Food Sales...........................................................................................................................................12Food Service .......................................................................................................................................12Inpatient Healthcare............................................................................................................................13Lodging...............................................................................................................................................14Public Order and Safety......................................................................................................................14Energy Intensive Industries.....................................................................................................................15Government Owned Buildings................................................................................................................16Wireless Telecommunication Sites.........................................................................................................16Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) ................................................................................................16Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)........................................................................................17Airports...................................................................................................................................................17Military ...................................................................................................................................................19POTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETS .........................................................................................20Alternative Fueling Stations................................................................................................................21Bus Transit..........................................................................................................................................22Material Handling...............................................................................................................................22Ground Support Equipment ................................................................................................................23Ports ....................................................................................................................................................23CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................................24APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................26
  4. 4. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20124CONNECTICUTIndex of TablesTable 1 - Connecticut Economic Data 2011 .................................................................................................8Table 2 - Education Data Breakdown.........................................................................................................11Table 3 - Food Sales Data Breakdown........................................................................................................12Table 4 - Food Services Date Breakdown ..................................................................................................13Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data Breakdown.........................................................................................13Table 6 - Lodging Data Breakdown............................................................................................................14Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data Breakdown...................................................................................15Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector ..............................................................15Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data Breakdown................................................................................16Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data Breakdown........................................................................16Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data Breakdown ........................................................................16Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data Breakdown..........................................................................17Table 13 - Landfill Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................17Table 14 – Connecticut Top Airports Enplanement Count........................................................................18Table 15 - Airport Data Breakdown ...........................................................................................................18Table 16 - Military Data Breakdown ..........................................................................................................19Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge)...........................20Table 18 - Ports data Breakdown................................................................................................................23Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell Applications ...........................................................................24Index of FiguresFigure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector....................................................................................................9Figure 2 - Electric Power Generation by Primary Energy Source................................................................9Figure 3 - Connecticut Electrical Consumption per Sector ........................................................................11Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption ........................................................................................144
  5. 5. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20125CONNECTICUTINTRODUCTIONA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Development Plan was created for each state in the Northeast region(Connecticut, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York, and NewJersey), with support from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to increase awarenessand facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. The intent of this guidance documentis to make available information regarding the economic value and deployment opportunities forhydrogen and fuel cell technology.1A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich fuel such as natural gas) and oxygen tocreate an electric current. The amount of power produced by a fuel cell depends on several factors,including fuel cell type, stack size, operating temperature, and the pressure at which the gases aresupplied to the cell. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the type of electrolyte they employ, whichdetermines the type of chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the temperature range in which thecell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications forwhich these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently in use or underdevelopment, each with its own advantages, limitations, and potential applications. These technologiesand applications are identified in Appendix VII.Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) in vehicles and providepower for stationary and portable power applications. Fuel cells are in commercial service as distributedpower plants in stationary applications throughout the world, providing thermal energy and electricity topower homes and businesses. Fuel cells are also used in transportation applications, such as automobiles,trucks, buses, and other equipment. Fuel cells for portable applications, which are currently indevelopment, can provide power for laptop computers and cell phones.Fuel cells are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines and power plants;therefore, less energy is needed to provide the same amount of power. Typically, stationary fuel cellpower plants are fueled with natural gas or other hydrogen rich fuel. Natural gas is widely availablethroughout the northeast, is relatively inexpensive, and is primarily a domestic energy supply.Consequently, natural gas shows the greatest potential to serve as a transitional fuel for the near futurehydrogen economy. 2Stationary fuel cells use a fuel reformer to convert the natural gas to near purehydrogen for the fuel cell stack. Because hydrogen can be produced using a wide variety of resourcesfound here in the U.S., including natural gas, biomass material, and through electrolysis using electricityproduced from indigenous sources, energy produced from a fuel cell can be considered renewable andwill reduce dependence on imported fuel. 3,4When pure hydrogen is used to power a fuel cell, the onlyby-products are water and heat; no pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHG) are produced.1Key stakeholders are identified in Appendix III2EIA, “Commercial Sector Energy Price Estimates, 2009”,http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/sum_pr_com.html, September 20113Electrolysis is the process of using an electric current to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.4U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/, August 2011
  6. 6. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20126CONNECTICUTDRIVERSThe Northeast hydrogen and fuel cell industry, while still emerging, currently has an economic impact ofover $1 Billion of total revenue and investment. Connecticut has eight original equipment manufacturersof hydrogen/fuel cell systems, giving the state a significant direct economic impact, in addition tobenefiting from secondary impacts of indirect and induced employment and revenue. Furthermore,Connecticut has a definitive and attractive economic development opportunity to greatly increase itseconomic participation in the hydrogen and fuel cell industry within the Northeast region and worldwide.An economic “SWOT” assessment for Connecticut is provided in Appendix VIII.Industries in the Northeast, including those in Connecticut, are facing increased pressure to reduce costs,fuel consumption, and emissions that may be contributing to climate change. Currently, Connecticut’sbusinesses pay $0.154 per kWh for electricity on average; this is the second highest cost of electricity inthe U.S.5Connecticut’s relative proximity to major load centers, the high cost of electricity, concernsover regional air quality, available federal tax incentives, and legislative mandates in Connecticut andneighboring states have resulted in renewed interest in the development of efficient renewable energy.Incentives designed to assist individuals and organizations in energy conservation and the development ofrenewable energy are currently offered within the state. Appendix IV contains an outline ofConnecticut’s incentives and renewable energy programs. Some specific factors that are driving themarket for hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Connecticut include the following:The current Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) recognizes fuel cells that operate usingrenewable or non-renewable fuels, as a “Class I” renewable energy source and calls for anincrease in renewable energy used in the state from its current level of approximately eightpercent to approximately 20 percent by 2020. 6– promotes stationary power applications.Net Metering requires all electric utilities to provide, upon request, net metering to customers whogenerate electricity using renewable-energy systems with a maximum capacity of 2 MW, for“Class I” facilities.7– promotes stationary power applications.The Public Act No. 08-98, Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA), was adopted by the GeneralAssembly in 2008 and set forth the following greenhouse gas emission reduction requirements:by January 2020, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to ten percent below 1990 levels; and byJanuary 2050, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 2001 levels.8– promotesstationary power and transportation applications.Connecticut is one of the states in the ten-state region that is part of the Regional Greenhouse GasInitiative (RGGI); the nation’s first mandatory market-based program to reduce emissions ofcarbon dioxide (CO2). RGGIs goals are to stabilize and cap emissions at 188 million tonsannually from 2009-2014 and to reduce CO2-emissions by 2.5 percent per year from 2015-2018.9– promotes stationary power and transportation applications.5EIA, Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html, October 20116DSIRE, “Connecticut Renewable Portfolio Standards”,http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=CT04R&re=1&ee=1, September , 20117DSIRE, “Connecticut – Net Metering”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=CT01R&re=1&ee=1, September; 20118CT.gov, DEEP, “Climate Change”, http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2684&q=322070, October, 20119Seacoastonline.come, “RGGI: Quietly setting a standard”,http://www.seacoastonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090920/NEWS/909200341/-1/NEWSMAP, September 20, 2009
  7. 7. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20127CONNECTICUTThe Connecticut Hydrogen-Fuel Cell Coalition coordinates stakeholders to enhance economicgrowth through the development, manufacture, and deployment of fuel cell and hydrogentechnologies and associated fueling systems. Representatives from industry, government,academia, labor, and other stakeholders make up the Coalition.10– promotes coordinated andcooperative efforts to develop stationary power and transportation applications.10EERE, “Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Promotion”, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/law/CT/6071, September 2011
  8. 8. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20128CONNECTICUTECONOMIC IMPACTThe hydrogen and fuel cell industry has direct, indirect, and induced impacts on local and regionaleconomies. 11A new hydrogen and/or fuel cell project directly affects the area’s economy through thepurchase of goods and services, generation of land use revenue, taxes or payments in lieu of taxes, andemployment. Secondary effects include both indirect and induced economic effects resulting from thecirculation of the initial spending through the local economy, economic diversification, changes inproperty values, and the use of indigenous resources.Connecticut is home to approximately 600 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cellindustry supply chain in the Northeast region. Appendices V and VI list the hydrogen and fuel cellsupply chain companies and OEMs in Connecticut. Realizing approximately $500 million in revenue andinvestment from their participation in this regional cluster in 2010, these companies includemanufacturing, parts distributing, supplying of industrial gas, engineering based research anddevelopment (R&D), coating applications, and managing of venture capital funds. 12Furthermore, thehydrogen and fuel cell industry is estimated to have contributed more than $22 million in state and localtax revenue, and over $267 million in gross state product. Table 1 shows Connecticut’s impact in theNortheast region’s hydrogen and fuel cell industry as of April 2011.Table 1 - Connecticut Economic Data 2011Connecticut Economic DataSupply Chain Members 599Direct Rev ($M) 254.42Direct Jobs 1,074Direct Labor Income ($M) 105.79Indirect Rev ($M) 122.35Indirect Jobs 633Indirect Labor Income ($M) 47.58Induced Revenue ($M) 120.12Induced Jobs 822Induced Labor Income ($M) 43.04Total Revenue ($M) 496.89Total Jobs 2,529Total Labor Income ($M) 196.4In addition there are over 118,000 people employed across 3,500 companies within the Northeastregistered as part of the motor vehicle industry. Approximately 16,100 of these individuals and 300 ofthese companies are located in Connecticut. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology wereto gain momentum within the transportation sector, the estimated employment rate for the hydrogen andfuel cell industry could grow significantly in the region.1311Indirect impacts are the estimated output (i.e., revenue), employment and labor income in other business (i.e., not-OEMs) thatare associated with the purchases made by hydrogen and fuel cell OEMs, as well as other companies in the sector’s supply chain.Induced impacts are the estimated output, employment and labor income in other businesses (i.e., non-OEMs) that are associatedwith the purchases by workers related to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry.12Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database, http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1, April 8, 201113NAICS Codes: Motor Vehicle – 33611, Motor Vehicle Parts – 3363
  9. 9. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 20129CONNECTICUTResidential33%Commercial25%Industrial11%Transportation31%POTENTIAL STATIONARY TARGETSIn 2009, Connecticut consumed the equivalent of 231 MWh of energy from the transportation, residential,industrial, and commercial sectors.14Electricity consumption in Connecticut was approximately 29.7million MWh, and is forcasted to grow at a rate of 0.6 percent annually over the next decade..15Figure 1illustrates the percent of total energy consumed by each sector in Connecticut. A more detailed breakoutof energy used is provided in Appendix II.This demand represents approximately 25 percent of the population in New England and 25 percent of theregion’s total electricity consumption. The State relies on both in-state resources and imports of powerover the region’s transmission system to serve electricity to customers. Net electrical demand inConnecticut was 3,392 MW in 2009 and is projected to increase by approximately 120 MW by 2015.16The state’s overall electricity demand is forecasted to grow at a rate of 0.6 percent (0.9 percent peaksummer demand growth) annually over the next decade. Demand for new electric capacity as well as areplacement of older less efficient base-load generation facilities is expected. With approximately 8,200MW in total capacity of generation plants, Connecticut represents 25 percent of the total capacity in NewEngland.17As shown in Figure 2, natural gas was the second most used energy source for electricityconsumed in New Jersey for 2009.1814U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), “State Energy Data System”,“http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/html/rank_use.html”, August 201115EIA, “Electric Power Annual 2009 – State Data Tables”, www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html; January, 201116EIA, “1990 - 2010 Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)”,http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html, January 4, 201117ISO New England, “Connecticut 2011 State Profile”, www.iso-ne.com/nwsiss/grid_mkts/key_facts/ct_01-2011_profile.pdf,January, 201118EIA, “Connecticut Electricity Profile”, http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/connecticut.html, October, 2011Figure 1 - Energy Consumption by Sector Figure 2 – Electric Power Generation byPrimary Energy SourceCoal7.8%Petroleum1.2%Natural Gas35.2%Nuclear50.3%Hydroelectric1.2% OtherRenewables2.2%Other2.1%
  10. 10. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201210CONNECTICUTFuel cell systems have many advantages over other conventional technologies, including:High fuel-to-electricity efficiency (> 40 percent) utilizing hydrocarbon fuels;Overall system efficiency of 85 to 93 percent;Reduction of noise pollution;Reduction of air pollution;Often do not require new transmission;Siting is not controversial; andIf near point of use, waste heat can be captured and used. Combined heat and power (CHP)systems are more efficient and can reduce facility energy costs over applications that use separateheat and central station power systems.19Fuel cells can be deployed as a CHP technology that provides both power and thermal energy, and cannearly double energy efficiency at a customer site, typically from 35 to 50 percent. The value of CHPincludes reduced transmission and distribution costs, reduced fuel use and associated emissions.20Basedon the targets identified within this plan, there is the potential to develop at least approximately 119 MWsof stationary fuel cell generation capacity in Connecticut, which would provide the following benefits,annually:Production of approximately 938,000 MWh of electricityProduction of approximately 2.53 million MMBTUs of thermal energyReduction of CO2 emissions of approximately 277,000 tons (electric generation only)21For the purpose of this plan, potential applications have been explored with a focus on fuel cells that havea capacity between 300 kW to 400 kW. However, smaller fuel cells are potentially viable for specificapplications. Facilities that have electrical and thermal requirements that closely match the output of thefuel cells potentially provide the best opportunity for the application of a fuel cell. Facilities that may begood candidates for the application of a fuel cell include commercial buildings with potentially highelectricity consumption, selected government buildings, public works facilities, and energy intensiveindustries.Commercial building types with high electricity consumption have been identified as potential locationsfor on-site generation and CHP application based on data from the Energy Information Administration’s(EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). These selected building typesmaking up the CBECS subcategory within the commercial industry include:EducationFood SalesFood ServicesInpatient HealthcareLodgingPublic Order & Safety2219FuelCell2000, “Fuel Cell Basics”, www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html, July, 201120“Distributed Generation Market Potential 2004 Update Connecticut and Southwest Connecticut”, ISE, Joel M. Rinebold,ECSU, March 15, 200421Replacement of conventional fossil fuel generating capacity with methane fuel cells could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions by between approximately 100 and 600 lb/MWh: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), eGRID2010 Version1.1 Year 2007 GHG Annual Output Emission Rates, Annual non-baseload output emission rates (NPCC New England); FuelCellEnergy, DFC 300 Product sheet, http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/files/FCE%20300%20Product%20Sheet-lo-rez%20FINAL.pdf;UTC Power, PureCell Model 400 System Performance Characteristics, http://www.utcpower.com/products/purecell400
  11. 11. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201211CONNECTICUTThe commercial building types identified above represent top principal building activity classificationsthat reported the highest value for electricity consumption on a per building basis and have a potentiallyhigh load factor for the application of CHP. Appendix II further defines Connecticut’s estimatedelectrical consumption per each sector. As illustrated in Figure 3, these selected building types withinthe commercial sector is estimated to account for approximately 12 percent of Connecticut’s totalelectrical consumption. Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Figure 3 - Connecticut Electrical Consumption per SectorEducationThere are approximately 390 non-public schools and 1,270 public schools (248 of which are consideredhigh schools with 100 or more students enrolled) in Connecticut.23,24High schools operate for a longerperiod of time daily due to extracurricular after school activities, such as clubs and athletics.Furthermore, 22 of these schools have swimming pools which may make these sites especially attractivebecause it would increase the utilization of both the electrical and thermal output offered by a fuel cell.There are also 41 colleges and universities in Connecticut. Colleges and universities have facilities forstudents, faculty, administration, and maintenance crews that typically include dormitories, cafeterias,gyms, libraries, and athletic departments – some with swimming pools. Of these 289 locations (248 highschools and 41 colleges), 265 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 1:Education).Educational establishments in Connecticut have shown interest in fuel cell technology. Examples ofexisting or planned fuel cell applications within the state include high schools in South Windsor,Middletown, and Hamden, in addition to colleges such as Yale University, the University of Connecticut,and Central Connecticut State University.Table 2 - Education Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)1,701(9)265(12)63(9)18.9(9)149,327(9)267,551(9)41,722(10)23EIA, “Description of CBECS Building Types”, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html24Public schools are classified as magnets, charters, alternative schools and special facilities
  12. 12. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201212CONNECTICUTFood SalesThere are over 4,000 businesses in Connecticut known to be engaged in the retail sale of food. Food salesestablishments are potentially good candidates for fuel cells based on their electrical demand and thermalrequirements for heating and refrigeration. Approximately 108 of these sites are considered larger foodsales businesses with approximately 60 or more employees at their site. 25Of these 108 large food salesbusinesses, 104 are located in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales). 26The application of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at a small convenience store may not be economicallyviable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuel cell may beappropriate.Popular grocery chains such as Price Chopper, Supervalu, Whole foods, and Stop and Shop have showninterest in powering their stores with fuel cells in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York.27WholeFoods, located in Glastonbury, and Stop and Shop, located in Torrington, are two locations in Connecticutwhere a fuel cell power plant has been installed. In addition, grocery distribution centers, such as theWhole Foods Market Distribution Center in Cheshire, Connecticut are prime targets for the application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for both stationary power and material handling equipment.Table 3 - Food Sales Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)4,000(8)104(9)104(9)31.2(9)245,981(9)662,508(9)47,228(8)Food ServiceThere are over 5,000 businesses in Connecticut that can be classified as food service establishments usedfor the preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption.2816 of these sites are consideredlarger restaurant businesses with approximately 130 or more employees at their site and are located inConnecticut communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 3: Food Services).29Theapplication of a large fuel cell (>300 kW) at smaller restaurants with less than 130 workers may not beeconomically viable based on the electric demand and operational requirements; however, a smaller fuelcell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate to meet hot water and space heating requirements. A significant portion(18 percent) of the energy consumed in a commercial food service operation can be attributed to thedomestic hot water heating load.30In other parts of the U.S., popular chains, such as McDonalds, are25On average, food sale facilities consume 43,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. When compared to currentfuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh,calculations show food sales facilities employing more than 61 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the applicationof a larger fuel cell.26EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html27Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA), “Fuel Cells for Supermarkets – Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat andPower Systems”, Benny Smith, www.cleanenergystates.org/assets/Uploads/BlakeFuelCellsSupermarketsFB.pdf28EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html29On average, food service facilities consume 20,300 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel celltechnology (>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations showfood service facilities employing more than 130 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuelcell.30“Case Studies in Restaurant Water Heating”, Fisher, Donald, http://eec.ucdavis.edu/ACEEE/2008/data/papers/9_243.pdf, 2008
  13. 13. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201213CONNECTICUTbeginning to show an interest in the smaller sized fuel cell units for the provision of electricity andthermal energy, including domestic water heating at food service establishments.31Table 4 - Food Services Date BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)5,000(8)16(4)16(4)4.8(4)37,843(4)101,924(4)7,266(3)Inpatient HealthcareThere are over 372 inpatient healthcare facilities in Connecticut; 46 of which are classified as hospitals.32Of these 46 locations, 31 are located in communities serviced by natural gas and contain 100 or morebeds on-site (Appendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare). Hospitals represent an excellent opportunityfor the application of fuel cells because they require a high availability factor of electricity for lifesavingmedical devices and operate 24/7 with a relatively flat load curve. Furthermore, medical equipment,patient rooms, sterilized/operating rooms, data centers, and kitchen areas within these facilities are oftenrequired to be in operational conditions at all times which maximizes the use of electricity and thermalenergy from the fuel cell. Nationally, hospital energy costs have increased 56 percent from $3.89 persquare foot in 2003 to $6.07 per square foot for 2010; partially due to the increased cost of energy.33Examples of healthcare facilities with planned or operational fuel cells include St. Francis, Stamford, andWaterbury Hospitals in Connecticut, and North Central Bronx Hospital in New York.Table 5 - Inpatient Healthcare Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)372(9)31(7)31(7)9.3(7)73,321(7)197,478(7)14,078(6)31Sustainable business Oregon, “ClearEdge sustains brisk growth”,http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2010/01/clearedge_sustains_brisk_growth.html, May 8, 201132EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types; www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html33BetterBricks, “http://www.betterbricks.com/graphics/assets/documents/BB_Article_EthicalandBusinessCase.pdf”, Page 1,August 2011
  14. 14. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201214CONNECTICUTOffice Equipment,4%Ventilation, 4%Refrigeration, 3%Lighting, 11%Cooling, 13%Space Heating ,33%Water Heating ,18%Cooking, 5%Other, 9%LodgingThere are over 302 establishments specializingin travel/lodging accommodations that includehotels, motels, or inns in Connecticut.Approximately 68 of these establishments have150 or more rooms onsite, and can be classifiedas “larger sized” lodging that may haveadditional attributes, such as heated pools,exercise facilities, and/or restaurants. 34Of these68 locations, 36 employ more than 94 workersand are located in communities serviced bynatural gas. 35As shown in Figure 4, more than60 percent of total energy use at a typicallodging facility is due to lighting, space heating,and water heating. 36The application of a largefuel cell (>300 kW) at hotel/resort facilities withless than 94 employees may not be economicallyviable based on the electrical demand andoperational requirement; however, a smaller fuelcell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate. Popular hotelchains such as the Hilton and Starwood Hotelshave shown interest in powering theirestablishments with fuel cells in New Jersey andNew York.Connecticut also has 241 facilities identified as convalescent homes, 40 of which have bed capacitiesgreater than or equal to 150 units, and are located in communities serviced by natural gas37(Appendix I –Figure 5: Lodging).Table 6 - Lodging Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)543(7)76(9)76(9)22.8(9)179,755(9)484,141(9)34,513(7)Public Order and SafetyThere are approximately 209 facilities in Connecticut that can be classified as public order and safety;these include 82 fire stations, 97 police stations, 14 state police stations, and 16 prisons. 38,3933 of these34EPA, “CHP in the Hotel and Casino Market Sector”, www.epa.gov/chp/documents/hotel_casino_analysis.pdf, December, 200535On average lodging facilities consume 28,000 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Current fuel cell technology(>300 kW) can satisfy annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 – 3,504,000 kWh. Calculations show lodgingfacilities employing more than 94 workers may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.36National Grid, “Managing Energy Costs in Full-Service Hotels”,www.nationalgridus.com/non_html/shared_energyeff_hotels.pdf, 200437Assisted-Living-List, “List of 249 Nursing Homes in Connecticut (CT)”, http://assisted-living-list.com/ct-nursing-homes// ,September, 201138EIA, Description of CBECS Building Types, www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html39USACOPS – The Nations Law Enforcement Site, www.usacops.com/me/Figure 4 - U.S. Lodging, Energy Consumption
  15. 15. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201215CONNECTICUTlocations employ more than 210 workers and are located in communities serviced by natural gas.40,41These applications may represent favorable opportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell (>300kW), which could provide heat and uninterrupted power. 42,43The sites identified (Appendix I – Figure 6:Public Order and Safety) will have special value to provide increased reliability to mission criticalfacilities associated with public safety and emergency response during grid outages. The application of alarge fuel cell (>300 kW) at facilities located in small towns may not be economically viable based on theelectrical demand and operational requirement; however, a smaller fuel cell ( 5 kW) may be appropriate.Central Park Police Station in New York City, New York is presently powered by a 200 kW fuel cellsystem.Table 7 - Public Order and Safety Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)209(6)33(11)33(11)9.9(10)78,052(10)210,219(10)14,986(8)Energy Intensive IndustriesAs shown in Table 2, energy intensive industries with high electricity consumption (which on average is4.8 percent of annual operating costs) have been identified as potential locations for the application of afuel cell.44In Connecticut, there are approximately 541 of these industrial facilities that are involved inthe manufacture of aluminum, cement, food, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, petroleum,coal products or iron and steel and employ 25 or more employees.45Of these 541 locations, 510 arelocated in communities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries).Table 8 - 2002 Data for the Energy Intensive Industry by Sector46NAICS Code Sector Energy Consumption per Dollar Value of Shipments (kWh)325 Chemical manufacturing 2.49322 Pulp and Paper 4.46324110 Petroleum Refining 4.72311 Food manufacturing 0.76331111 Iron and steel 8.15321 Wood Products 1.233313 Alumina and aluminum 3.58327310 Cement 16.4133611 Motor vehicle manufacturing 0.213315 Metal casting 1.64336811 Shipbuilding and ship repair 2.053363 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing 2.0540CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201141On average public order and safety facilities consume 12,400 kWh of electricity per worker on an annual basis. Whencompared to current fuel cell technology (>300 kW), which satisfies annual electricity consumption loads between 2,628,000 –3,504,000 kWh, calculations show public order and safety facilities employing more than 212 workers may represent favorableopportunities for the application of a larger fuel cell.422,628,000 / 12,400 = 211.9443CBECS,“Table C14”, http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set19/2003pdf/alltables.pdf,November, 201144EIA, “Electricity Generation Capability”, 1999 CBECS; www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/pba99/comparegener.html45Proprietary market data46EPA, “Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors”, www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/energy/ch2.pdf; March 2007
  16. 16. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201216CONNECTICUTCompanies such as Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, and Pepperidge Farms in Connecticut, New Jersey,and New York have installed fuel cells to help supply energy to their facilities.Table 9 - Energy Intensive Industry Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)541(11)51(12)51(12)15.3(12)120,625(12)324,884(12)23,160(11)Government Owned BuildingsBuildings operated by the federal government can be found at 88 locations in Connecticut; seven of theseproperties are actively owned, rather than leased, by the federal government and are located incommunities serviced by natural gas (Appendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings).There are also a number of buildings owned and operated by the State of Connecticut. The application offuel cell technology at government owned buildings would assist in balancing load requirements at thesesites and offer a unique value for active and passive public education associated with the high usage ofthese public buildings.Table 10 - Government Owned Building Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)88(7)7(8)7(8)2.1(8)16,556(8)44,592(8)3,179(6)Wireless Telecommunication SitesTelecommunications companies rely on electricity to run call centers, cell phone towers, and other vitalequipment. In Connecticut, there are approximately 301 telecommunications and/or wireless companytower sites (Appendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites). Any loss of power at these locations mayresult in a loss of service to customers; thus, having reliable power is critical. Each individual siterepresents an opportunity to provide back-up power for continuous operation through the application ofon-site back-up generation powered by hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It is an industry standard toinstall units capable of supplying 48-72 hours of backup power, which is typically accomplished withbatteries or conventional emergency generators.47The deployment of fuel cells at selectedtelecommunication sites will have special value to provide increased reliability to critical sites associatedwith emergency communications and homeland security. An example of a telecommunication site thatutilizes fuel cell technology to provide backup power is a T-Mobile facility located in Storrs, Connecticut.Table 11 - Wireless Telecommunication Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)301(8)30(8)N/A N/A N/A N/A N/AWastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs)There are 77 WWTPs in Connecticut that have design flows ranging from 1,500 gallons per day (GPD) to51 million gallons per day (MGD); thirty-four (34) of these facilities average between 3 – 51 MGD.47ReliOn, “Hydrogen Fuel Cell: Wireless Applications”, www.relion-inc.com/pdf/ReliOn_AppsWireless_2010.pdf, May 4, 2011
  17. 17. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201217CONNECTICUTWWTPs typically operate 24/7 and may be able to utilize the thermal energy from the fuel cell to processfats, oils, and grease.48WWTPs account for approximately three percent of the electric load in the UnitedState.49Digester gas produced at WWTP’s, which is usually 60 percent methane, can serve as a fuelsubstitute for natural gas to power fuel cells. Anaerobic digesters generally require a wastewater flowgreater than three MGD for an economy of scale to collect and use the methane.50Most facilities currentlyrepresent a lost opportunity to capture and use the digestion of methane emissions created from theiroperations (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites). 51,52A 200 kW fuel cell power plant was installed at the Water Pollution Control Authority’s WWTP in NewHaven, Connecticut, and produces 10 – 15 percent of the facility’s electricity, reducing energy costs byalmost $13,000 a year.53Table 12 - Wastewater Treatment Plant Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)77(13)4(25)4(25)1.2(25)9,461(25)25,481(25)1,816(22)Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP)There are 20 landfills in Connecticut identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) throughtheir LMOP program: three of which are operational, three are candidates, and 17 are considered potentialsites for the production and recovery of methane gas.54,55The amount of methane emissions released by agiven site is dependent upon the amount of material in the landfill and the amount of time the material hasbeen in place. Similar to WWTPs, methane emissions from landfills could be captured and used as a fuelto power a fuel cell system. In 2009, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were responsible forproducing approximately 17 percent of human-related methane emissions in the nation. These locationscould produce renewable energy and help manage the release of methane (Appendix I – Figure 10: Solidand Liquid Waste Sites).Table 13 - Landfill Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)23(11)2(8)2(8)0.6(14)4,730(14)12,741(14)908(12)AirportsDuring peak air travel times in the U.S., there are approximately 50,000 airplanes in the sky each day.Ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircrafts are the responsibility of air traffic48“Beyond Zero Net Energy: Case Studies of Wastewater Treatment for Energy and Resource Production”, Toffey, Bill,September 2010, http://www.awra-pmas.memberlodge.org/Resources/Documents/Beyond_NZE_WWT-Toffey-9-16-2010.pdf49EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, “Introduction”, July, 200650EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, July, 201151“GHG Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Management”, Beecher, Ned, November 20, 2009;www.des.state.nh.us/organization/divisions/water/wmb/rivers/watershed_conference/documents/2009_fri_climate_2.pdf52EPA, Wastewater Management Fact Sheet, www.p2pays.org/energy/WastePlant.pdf, May 4, 201153Conntact.com; “City to Install Fuel Cell”,http://www.conntact.com/archive_index/archive_pages/4472_Business_New_Haven.html; August 15, 200354Due to size, individual sites may have more than one potential, candidate, or operational project.55LMOP defines a candidate landfill as “one that is accepting waste or has been closed for five years or less, has at least onemillion tons of waste, and does not have an operational or, under-construction project ”EPA, “Landfill Methane OutreachProgram”, www.epa.gov/lmop/basic-info/index.html, April 7, 2011
  18. 18. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201218CONNECTICUTcontrollers. Modern software, host computers, voice communication systems, and instituted full scaleglide path angle capabilities assist air traffic controllers in tracking and communicating with aircrafts;consequently, reliable electricity is extremely important and present an opportunity for a fuel cell powerapplication.56There are approximately 53 airports in Connecticut, including 22 that are open to the public and havescheduled services. Of those 22 airports, three (Table 3) have 2,500 or more passengers enplaned eachyear, and are located in communities serviced by natural gas. An example of an airport currently hostinga fuel cell power plant to provide backup power is Albany International Airport located in Albany, NewYork.Table 14 – Connecticut Top Airports Enplanement CountAirport57Total Enplanement in 2000Bradley International Airport 3,651,943Tweed-New Haven Airport 38,159Groton-New London Airport 12,111Three of Connecticut’s 53 airports are considered “Joint-Use” airports. Bradley International (BDL),Harford-Brainard (HFD) and Groton-New London (GON) airports are facilities where the militarydepartment authorizes use of the military runway for public airport services. Army Aviation SupportFacilities (AASF), located at Bradley, Hartford-Brainard, and Groton-New London, are used by the Armyto provide aircraft and equipment readiness, train and utilize military personnel, conduct flight trainingand operations, and perform field level maintenance. These locations represent favorable opportunitiesfor the application of uninterruptible power for necessary services associated with national defense andemergency response. Furthermore, all of these sites are located in communities serviced by natural gas(Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).Table 15 - Airport Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)53(6)3 (3)(6)3(6)0.9(6)7,096(6)19,111(6)1,362(6);56Howstuffworks.com, “How Air Traffic Control Works”, Craig, Freudenrich,http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/air-traffic-control5.htm, May 4, 201157Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Connecticut Transportation Profile”,www.bts.gov/publications/state_transportation_statistics/connecticut/pdf/entire.pdf, October, 2011
  19. 19. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201219CONNECTICUTMilitaryThe U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is the largest funding organization in terms of supporting fuelcell activities for military applications in the world. DOD is using fuel cells for:Stationary units for power supply in bases.Fuel cell units in transport applications.Portable units for equipping individual soldiers or group of soldiers.In a collaborative partnership with the DOE, the DOD plans to install and operate 18 fuel cell backuppower systems at eight of its military installations, two of which are located within the Northeast region(New York and New Jersey).58In addition, the Naval Submarine Base (NSB) in Groton, Connecticut,which consists of more than 200 major buildings, 2,100 Navy Housing Units, and 12 barracks, is also apotential site for the application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology.59Table 16 - Military Data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)1(7)176)1(7)0.3(7)2,365(7)6,370(7)454(7)58Fuel Cell Today, “US DoD to Install Fuel cell Backup Power Systems at Eight Military Installations”,http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/online/news/articles/2011-07/US-DOD-FC-Backup-Power-Systems, July 20, 201159Naval Submarine Base New London, “New London Acreage and Buildings”,http://www.cnic.navy.mil/NewLondon/About/AcreageandBuildings/index.htm; September 2011
  20. 20. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201220CONNECTICUTPOTENTIAL TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTransportation is responsible for one-fourth of the total global GHG emissions and consumes 75 percentof the world’s oil production. In 2010, the U.S. used 21 million barrels of non-renewable petroleum eachday. Roughly 32 percent of Connecticut’s energy consumption is due to demands of the transportationsector, including gasoline and on-highway diesel petroleum for automobiles, cars, trucks, and buses. Asmall percent of non-renewable petroleum is used for jet and ship fuel.60The current economy in the U.S. is dependent on hydrocarbon energy sources and any disruption orshortage of this energy supply will severely affect many energy related activities, includingtransportation. As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energyprices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are nowinvestigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels.Hydrogen-fueled fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) have many advantages over conventionaltechnology, including:Quiet operation;Near zero emissions of controlled pollutants such as nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide,hydrocarbon gases or particulates;Substantial (30 to 50 percent) reduction in GHG emissions on a well-to-wheel basis compared toconventional gasoline or gasoline-hybrid vehicles when the hydrogen is produced byconventional methods such as natural gas; and 100 percent when hydrogen is produced from aclean energy source;Ability to fuel vehicles with indigenous energy sources which reduces dependence on importedenergy and adds to energy security; andHigher efficiency than conventional vehicles (See Table 4).61,62Table 17 - Average Energy Efficiency of Conventional and Fuel Cell Vehicles (mpge63)Passenger Car Light Truck Transit BusHydrogen Gasoline Hybrid Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Fuel Cell Diesel52 50 29.3 49.2 21.5 5.4 3.9FCEVs can reduce price volatility, dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and providegreater efficiencies than conventional transportation technologies, as follows:Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.6460“US Oil Consumption to BP Spill”, http://applesfromoranges.com/2010/05/us-oil-consumption-to-bp-spill/, May31, 201061“Challenges for Sustainable Mobility and Development of Fuel Cell Vehicles”, Masatami Takimoto, Executive Vice President,Toyota Motor Corporation, January 26, 2006. Presentation at the 2ndInternational Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Expo TechnicalConference Tokyo, Japan62“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute, June 20, 200363Miles per Gallon Equivalent64Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008, Calculations based upon average annual mileage of 12,500miles for passenger car and 14,000 miles for light trucks (U.S. EPA) and 37,000 average miles/year per bus (U.S. DOT FTA,2007)
  21. 21. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201221CONNECTICUTReplacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles and light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390gallons of diesel (bus).Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transitbuses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passengervehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.65Automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, General Motors, Honda, Daimler AG, and Hyundai haveprojected that models of their FCEVs will begin to roll out in larger numbers by 2015. Longer term, theU.S. DOE has projected that between 15.1 million and 23.9 million light duty FCEVs may be sold eachyear by 2050 and between 144 million and 347 million light duty FCEVs may be in use by 2050 with atransition to a hydrogen economy. These estimates could be accelerated if political, economic, energysecurity or environmental polices prompt a rapid advancement in alternative fuels.66Strategic targets for the application of hydrogen for transportation include alternative fueling stations;Connecticut Department of Transportation (CDOT) refueling stations; bus transits operations;government, public, and privately owned fleets; and material handling and airport ground supportequipment (GSE). Graphical representation of potential targets analyzed are depicted in Appendix I.Alternative Fueling StationsThere are approximately 1,470 retail fueling stations in Connecticut;67however, only 59 public and/orprivate stations within the state provide alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, compressed natural gas(CNG), liquid propane gas (LPG), electricity, and/or hydrogen for alternative-fueled vehicles.68There arealso approximately 33 refueling stations owned and operated by CDOT that can be used by authoritiesoperating federal and state safety vehicles, state transit vehicles, and employees of universities thatoperate fleet vehicles on a regular basis.69Development of hydrogen fueling at alternative fuel stations atselected locations owned and operated by CDOT would help facilitate the deployment of FCEVs withinthe state. (See Appendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations)Connecticut currently has two hydrogen refueling stations; the SunHydro facility located at ProtonOnSite, in Wallingford, and UTC Power facility, located in South Windsor. A multi-fuel station, thatwould also include hydrogen, is currently being developed, and two other hydrogen fueling stations are inthe process of being installed; one for the Greater New Haven Transit District and the Town of Hamden,in Hamden, and another at the CTTransit maintenance facility in Hartford, Connecticut. There areapproximately 18 (including Connecticut locations) existing or planned transportation fueling stations inthe Northeast region where hydrogen is provided as an alternative fuel.70,71,7265U.S. EIA, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices: gasoline - $3.847 and diesel – 4.00;www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_a_epm0r_pte_dpgal_w.htm66Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States: Report to Congress,http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/congress_reports.html, August 201167“Public retail gasoline stations state year” www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/docs/gasoline_stations_state.xls, May 5, 201168Alternative Fuels Data Center, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/69EPA, “Government UST Noncompliance Report-2007”, www.epa.gov/oust/docs/CT%20Compliance%20Report.pdf70Alternative Fuels Data Center, http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/71Hyride, “About the fueling station”, http://www.hyride.org/html-about_hyride/About_Fueling.html72CTTransit, “Hartford Bus Facility Site Work (Phase 1)”,www.cttransit.com/Procurements/Display.asp?ProcurementID={8752CA67-AB1F-4D88-BCEC-4B82AC8A2542}, March, 2011
  22. 22. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201222CONNECTICUTFleetsThere are over 3,500 fleet vehicles (excluding state and federal) classified as non-leasing or companyowned vehicles in Connecticut.73Fleet vehicles typically account for more than twice the amount ofmileage, and therefore twice the fuel consumption and emissions, compared to personal vehicles on a pervehicle basis. There is an additional 5,000 passenger automobiles and/or light duty trucks in Connecticut,owned by state and federal agencies (excluding state police) that traveled a combined 37,065,180 miles in2010, while releasing 3,248 metrics tons of CO2.74Conversion of fleet vehicles from conventional fossilfuels to FCEVs could significantly reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions. Fleet vehiclehubs may be good candidates for hydrogen refueling and conversion to FCEVs because they mostlyoperate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from a centralized station.Bus TransitThere are approximately 670 directly operated buses that provide public transportation services inConnecticut.75As discussed above, replacement of a conventional diesel transit bus with fuel cell transitbus would result in the reduction of CO2 emissions (estimated at approximately 183,000 pounds per year),and reduction of diesel fuel (estimated at approximately 4,390 gallons per year).76Although theefficiency of conventional diesel buses has increased, conventional diesel buses, which typically achievefuel economy performance levels of 3.9 miles per gallon, have the greatest potential for energy savings byusing high efficiency fuel cells. In addition to Connecticut, other states have also begun the transition offueling transit buses with alternative fuels to improve efficiency and environmental performance.Joining an earlier generation bus that began service in 2007, four next-generation fuel cell-poweredhybrid-electric buses were introduced in Connecticut on October 15, 2010, and a sixth bus is expected in2012. CDOT has constructed a separate hydrogen fuel cell bus garage at the CTTransit maintenancefacility in Hartford, to make room for the growing fleet.77Material HandlingMaterial handling equipment such as forklifts are used by a variety of industries, includingmanufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesale trade to move goodswithin a facility or to load goods for shipping to another site. Material handling equipment is usuallybattery, propane or diesel powered. Batteries that currently power material handling equipment are heavyand take up significant storage space while only providing up to 6 hours of run time. Fuel cells canensure constant power delivery and performance, eliminating the reduction in voltage output that occursas batteries discharge. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) and also eliminate the need for battery storage and charging rooms, leaving more space forproducts. In addition, fueling time only takes two to three minutes by the operator compared to least 20minutes or more for each battery replacement, which saves the operator valuable time and increaseswarehouse productivity.In addition, fuel cell powered material handling equipment has significant cost advantages, compared tobatteries, such as:73Fleet.com, “2009-My Registration”, www.automotive-fleet.com/Statistics/StatsViewer.aspx?file=http%3a%2f%2fwww.automotive-fleet.com%2ffc_resources%2fstats%2fAFFB10-16-top10-state.pdf&channel74State of Connecticut, “Energy Management Annual Report for State-Owned Buildings Fiscal Year 2010”,http://admin.state.ct.us/EnergyManagement/Documents/AnnualEnergyReport2010.pdf, November, 201075NTD Date, “TS2.2 - Service Data and Operating Expenses Time-Series by System”,http://www.ntdprogram.gov/ntdprogram/data.htm, December 201176Fuel Cell Economic Development Plan, Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development and theConnecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc, January 1, 2008.77CTTRANSIT, “hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Facility”, http://fuelcell.cttransit.com/index.php/ahead/fuel-cell-garage, May 19, 2011
  23. 23. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201223CONNECTICUT1.5 times lower maintenance cost;8 times lower refueling/recharging labor cost;2 times lower net present value of total operations and management (O&M) system cost;63 percent less emissions of GHG (Appendix XI provides a comparison of PEM fuel cell andbattery-powered material handling equipment).Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distributioncenters, and manufacturing plants in North America.78Large corporations that are currently using orplanning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, CentralGrocers, and Wal-Mart (Refer to Appendix X for a partial list of companies in North America that usefuel cell powered forklifts).79There are approximately 12 distribution centers/warehouse sites that havebeen identified in Connecticut that may benefit from the use of fuel cell powered material handlingequipment (Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses).Ground Support EquipmentGround support equipment (GSE) such as catering trucks, deicers, and airport tugs can be batteryoperated or more commonly run on diesel or gasoline. As an alternative, hydrogen-powered tugs arebeing developed for both military and commercial applications. While their performance is similar to thatof other battery-powered equipment, a fuel cell-powered GSE remains fully charged (provided there ishydrogen fuel available) and do not experience performance lag at the end of a shift like battery-poweredGSEs.80Potential large end-users of GSE that serve Connecticut’s largest airports include Air Canada,Air France, British Airways, Continental, Southwest Airlines, JetBlue United, and US Airways(Appendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports).81PortsPorts in New London, New Haven, and Bridgeport Connecticut, which service large vessels, such ascontainer ships, tankers, bulk carriers, and cruise ships, may be candidates for improved energymanagement. In one year, a single large container ship can emit pollutants equivalent to that of 50million cars. The low grade bunker fuel used by the worlds 90,000 cargo ships contains up to 2,000 timesthe amount of sulfur compared to diesel fuel used in automobiles.82While docked, vessels shut off theirmain engines but use auxiliary diesel and steam engines to power refrigeration, lights, pumps, and otherfunctions. An estimated one-third of ship emissions occur while they are idling at berth. Replacingauxiliary engines with on-shore electric power could significantly reduce emissions, a process dubbed“cold-ironing”. The applications of fuel cell technology at ports may also provide electrical and thermalenergy for improving energy management at warehouses, and equipment operated between terminals(Appendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports).83Table 18 - Ports data BreakdownStateTotalSitesPotentialSitesFC Units(300 Kw)MWsMWhrs(per year)Thermal Output(MMBTU)CO2 emissions(ton per year)CT(% of Region)13(11)3(16)3(16)0.9(16)7,096(16)19,111(16)1,362(13)78DOE EERE, “Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment”,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/pdfs/early_markets_forklifts.pdf, February 201179Plug Power, “Plug Power Celebrates Successful year for Company’s Manufacturing and Sales Activity”, www.plugpower.com, January 4, 201180Battelle, “Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets”, April 2007,www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf81Bradley Airport, “Arrivals”, http://www.bradleyairport.com/Flights/track.aspx?view=Arrivals, October, 201182“Big polluters: one massive container ship equals 50 million cars”, Paul, Evans; http://www.gizmag.com/shipping-pollution/11526/, April 23,200983Savemayportvillage.net, “Cruise Ship Pollution”, http://www.savemayportvillage.net/id20.html, October, 2011
  24. 24. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201224CONNECTICUTCONCLUSIONHydrogen and fuel cell technology offers significant opportunities for improved energy reliability, energyefficiency, and emission reductions. Large fuel cell units (>300 kW) may be appropriate for applicationsthat serve large electric and thermal loads. Smaller fuel cell units (< 300 kW) may provide back-up powerfor telecommunication sites, restaurants/fast food outlets, and smaller sized public facilities at this time.Table 19 –Summary of Potential Fuel Cell ApplicationsCategory Total Sites PotentialSitesNumber of FuelCells< 300 kWNumber ofFuel Cells>300 kWCBECSDataEducation 1,701 26584202 63Food Sales 4,000+ 10485104Food Services 5,000+ 168616Inpatient Healthcare 372 318731Lodging 543 768876Public Order & Safety 209 338933Energy Intensive Industries 541 519051Government OperatedBuildings88 7917WirelessTelecommunicationTowers30192309330WWTPs 77 4944Landfills 23 2952Airports (w/ AASF) 53 3 (3) 963Military 1 1 1Ports 13 3 3Total 12,921 626 232 394As shown in Table 5, the analysis provided here estimates that there are approximately 626 potentiallocations, which may be favorable candidates for the application of a fuel cell to provide heat and power.Assuming the demand for electricity was uniform throughout the year, approximately 296 to 394 fuel cell84265 high schools and/or college and universities located in communities serviced by natural gas85104 food sale facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas86Ten percent of the 714 food service facilities located in communities serviced by natural gas8731 Hospitals located in communities serviced by natural gas and occupying 100 or more beds onsite8864 hotel facilities with 100+ rooms onsite and 40 convalescent homes with 150+ bed onsite located in communities serviced bynatural gas89County, state, and/or federal prisons/ correctional facilities and/or other public order and safety facilities with 212 or moreworkers.90Ten percent of the 510 energy intensive industry facilities located in communities with natural gas.91Seven actively owned federal government operated building located in communities serviced by natural gas92The Federal Communications Commission regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire,satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.93Ten percent of the 301 wireless telecommunication sites in Connecticut’s targeted for back-up PEM fuel cell deployment94Ten percent of Connecticut WWTP with average flows of 3.0+ MGD95Ten percent of the landfills targeted based on LMOP data96Airport facilities with 2,500+ annual Enplanement Counts and/or with AASF
  25. 25. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201225CONNECTICUTunits, with a capacity of 300 – 400 kW, could be deployed for a total fuel cell capacity of 119 to 158MWs.If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 300 kW, a minimum of 938,196MWh electric and 2.53 million MMBTUs (equivalent to 741,207 MWh) of thermal energy would beproduced, which could reduce CO2 emissions by at least 277,289 tons per year.97Connecticut can also benefit from the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation such aspassenger fleets, transit district fleets, municipal fleets and state department fleets. The application ofhydrogen and fuel cell technology for transportation would reduce the dependence on oil, improveenvironmental performance and provide greater efficiencies than conventional transportationtechnologies.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled passenger vehicle with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170 pounds, annual energy savings of 230gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $885.• Replacement of a gasoline-fueled light duty truck with FCEVs could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per light duty truck) of approximately 15,770 pounds, annual energy savingsof 485 gallons of gasoline, and annual fuel cost savings of $1866.• Replacement of a diesel-fueled transit bus with a fuel cell powered bus could result in annual CO2emission reductions (per bus) of approximately 182,984 pounds, annual energy savings of 4,390gallons of fuel, and annual fuel cost savings of $17,560.Hydrogen and fuel cell technology also provides significant opportunities for job creation and/oreconomic development. Realizing approximately $500 million in revenue and investment from theirparticipation in this regional cluster in 2010, the hydrogen and fuel cell industry in Connecticut isestimated to have contributed approximately $22 million in state and local tax revenue, and over $267million in gross state product. Currently, there are approximately 600 Connecticut companies that arepart of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the Northeast region. Eight of thesecompanies are defined as OEMs, and were responsible for supplying 1,074 direct jobs and $254 millionin direct revenue and investment in 2010. If newer/emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technology were togain momentum, the number of companies and employment for the industry could grow substantially.97If all suggested targets are satisfied by fuel cell(s) installations with 400 kW, a minimum of 1.31million MWh electric and 6.17million MMBTUs (equivalent to 1.81 million MWh) of thermal energy would be produced, which could reduce CO2 emissionsby at least 368,165 tons per year.
  26. 26. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201226CONNECTICUTAPPENDICES
  27. 27. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201227CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 1: Education
  28. 28. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201228CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 2: Food Sales
  29. 29. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201229CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 3: Food Services
  30. 30. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201230CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 4: Inpatient Healthcare
  31. 31. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201231CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 5: Lodging
  32. 32. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201232CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 6: Public Order and Safety
  33. 33. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201233CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 7: Energy Intensive Industries
  34. 34. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201234CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 8: Federal Government Operated Buildings
  35. 35. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201235CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 9: Telecommunication Sites
  36. 36. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201236CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 10: Solid and Liquid Waste Sites
  37. 37. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201237CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 11: Commercial Airports
  38. 38. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201238CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 12: Alternative Fueling Stations
  39. 39. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201239CONNECTICUTAppendix I – Figure 13: Distribution Centers/Warehouses & Ports
  40. 40. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201240CONNECTICUTAppendix II – Connecticut Electrical Consumption per SectorCategory Total SiteElectric Consumption per Building(1000 kWh)98kWh Consumed per SectorNew EnglandEducation 2,788 161.844 451,221,072Food Sales 7,000 319.821 2,238,747,000Food Services 10,000 128 1,281,900,000Inpatient Healthcare 691 6,038.63 4,172,689,875Lodging 1,358 213.12 289,414,244Public Order & Safety 781 77.855 55,899,890Total 22,555 8,489,872,081Residential9920,539,000,000Industrial 9,870,000,000Commercial 26,415,000,000Other Commercial 8,489,872,08198EIA, Electricity consumption and expenditure intensities for Non-Mall Building 200399DOE EERE; “Electric Power and Renewable Energy in Connecticut”;http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/electricity.cfm/state=CT ; August, 2011
  41. 41. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201241CONNECTICUTAppendix III – Key StakeholdersOrganization Town State WebsiteDepartment ofEnergy andEnvironmentalProtection PublicUtilities RegulatoryAuthorityNewBritainCT http://www.ct.gov/dpuc/site/default.aspCT Dept. ofEmergency Mgmt. &Homeland SecurityHartford CT http://www.ct.gov/demhs/site/default.aspCT Office of Policy& ManagementHartford CT http://www.ct.gov/OPM/site/default.aspCT Siting CouncilNewBritainCT http://www.ct.gov/csc/site/default.aspConnecticutMunicipal ElectricEnergy CooperativeNorwich CT http://www.cmeec.com/CT Center forAdvancedTechnologyEastHartfordCT http://www.ccat.us/Connecticut CleanEnergy FundRockyHillCT http://www.ctcleanenergy.com/Capitol Clean Citiesof ConnecticutSouthWindsorCT http://www.ct-ccc.org/CT SouthwesternArea Clean CitiesFairfield CThttp://www.afdc.energy.gov/cleancities/coalition/southwest-connecticutGreater New HavenClean CitiesBethany CT http://www.nhcleancities.org/Norwich Clean Cities Norwich CT http://www.norwichcleancities.org/UtilitiesNortheast Utilities http://www.nu.com/Southern CT Gas http://www.soconngas.com/Yankee Gas Services Company https://www.yankeegas.com/Default.aspThe United Illuminating Company https://www.uinet.com/wps/portal/uinet/home/Connecticut Municipal Electric EnergyCooperativehttp://www.cmeec.com/
  42. 42. 42Appendix IV – Connecticut Fuel Cell Based Incentives and ProgramsFunding Source: Connecticut Clean Energy FundProgram Title: Operational Demo ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: Class I renewable energy, including fuel cells; wind, solar,wave, and tidal energy projects; ocean thermal energy; biomass; landfill gas; run-of-the-riverhydropower; and hydrogen generation and storage technologies.Summary: The Operational Demo Program offers up to $750,000 to qualified teams ofprofessionals, partners and contractors to demonstrate a new product or technology related torenewable energy. Applicants must demonstrate their product’s benefit to Connecticut ratepayers.Residential: Not applicableCommercial: Qualified teams of professionals, partners, and contractors may participate.Industrial: See Commercial bracket aboveMunicipal: Not applicableSources:http://www.ctcleanenergy.com/YourBusinessorInstitution/OperationalDemoProgram/tabid/98/Default.aspxSource: Connecticut Clean Energy Fund, “Showcasing You Clean Energy Project” June 16, 2009.http://www.ctcleanenergy.com/YourBusinessorInstitution/OperationalDemoProgram/tabid/98/Default.aspxFunding Source: Department of Energy and Environmental ProtectionProgram Title: Low-interest Loans for Customer-Side Distributed resourcesApplicable Energies/Technologies: Photovoltaics, Wind, Fuel Cells, CHP/Cogeneration, FuelCells using Renewable FuelsSummary: Long-term financing is available to retail end-use customers for the installation ofcustomer-side distributed resources.Maximum Incentive: VariesInstallment Requirements: Fixed interest rate, not greater than prime rate (actual rate will bedetermined at time of application)Sources:DEEP, “Customer-Side Distributed Generation”,http://www.ct.gov/dpuc/cwp/view.asp?a=3356&q=419794, October, 2011Disireusa.org, “DPUC – Low-Interest Loans for Customer-Side Distributed Resources”,http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=CT40F&re=1&ee=1, October,2011
  43. 43. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201243Funding Source: Clean Finance and Investment Authority (CEFIA)Program Title: On-Site Renewable Distributed Generation (OSDG) ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: Solar PV, Wind, Fuel Cell, Landfill gas, Waste heat recovery– power generation, Low emission advance biomass conversion, Hydropower meeting thestandard of the Low-Impact Hydropower InstituteSummary: CEFIA is currently offering OSDG grants through an RFP format. The OSDG Best ofClass, Public Buildings and Affordable Housing RFP will be offered to bridge the time until thelaunch of the Zero-Emission and Low-Emission Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) programsbecome available to the market and to prepare the market for the transition from a grant-basedprogram model to a REC-based program model.Restrictions: Solar PV- No maximum, but incentive is based on a maximum of 250 kW (AC)Timing: The competitive, solar photovoltaic (PV) only RFP will close at 5:00 p.m. EST on December30, 2011. The rolling submission, other technologies RFP will close at 5:00 pm. EST on March 30,2012.Maximum Size: N/ARequirements: Projects will be evaluated on four major criteria:PV Project EconomicsTechnology Appropriateness (“Deployment of the Technology”)Feasibility and Probability of CompletionSocietal Benefits (such as in-state job creation, dissemination efforts, project diversity)Rebate amount: Incentive amounts are calculated based on the project specifics, but the maximumincentive is $3.60/Watt (PTC) for systems 100 kW (AC) and smaller and $3.30/Watt (PTC) forsystems greater than 100 kW up to 250 kW.For further information, please visit: http://www.ctcleanenergy.comSource: CEFIA, “Supporting On-Site Generation Projects at Commercial and Government Facilities”,“http://www.ctcleanenergy.com/YourBusinessorInstitution/OnSiteRenewableDG/OSDGRequestforProposals/tabid/594/Default.aspx, December, 2011DSIRE. “CEFIA – On-Site Renewable DG Program”, December, 2011
  44. 44. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201244Funding Source: Connecticut Office of Policy Management (OPM)Program Title: New Energy Technologies ProgramApplicable Energies/Technologies: Passive solar space heat, solar water heat, solar space heat,solar thermal electric, solar thermal process heat, photovoltaics, landfill gas, wind, biomass,hydroelectric, geothermal electric, fuel cells, geothermal heat pumps, municipal solid waste,CHP/Cogeneration, solar pool heating, daylighting, anaerobic digestion, tidal energy, waveenergy, ocean thermalSummary: The New Energy Technologies Program awards grants of up to $10,000 to smallbusinesses who submit the most innovative energy-saving and renewable energy technologies so thatOPM can help get the product to market. The goal of the project is to save energy, improve air quality,to help invigorate Connecticut’s economy and expand employment opportunities.Residential: Not applicableCommercial: Small business firms (firms with 30 or fewer employees) may participate in this grant.Industrial: Not applicableMunicipal: Not applicableSources:Office of Policy and Management. “New Energy Technologies”. June 16, 2009http://www.ct.gov/opm/cwp/view.asp?a=2994&q=389832&opmNav_GID=1808Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency, “New Energy Technology Program” June16, 2009. http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=CT09F&re=1&ee=1
  45. 45. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201245Appendix V – Partial List of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Supply Chain Companies in Connecticut100Organization Name Product or Service Category1 DB Schenker Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies2 American Precision Mfg., LLC Manufacturing Services3 Pith Products Other4 Yeagle Technology Inc Lab or Test Equipment/Services5 Fischer Group International, Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services6 Flagman of America Other7 OFS Specialty Photonics Division Components8 William K Duff Co Equipment9 Industrial Flame Cutting Inc. Equipment10 Connecticut Light & Power Co. Other11 General Machine Company, Inc. Manufacturing Services12 M2 Technologies, Inc. Engineering/Design Services13 Rae Storage Battery Mfg. Co. Components14 Tomz Corporation- Plastics Div. Manufacturing Services15 Yankee Gas Fuel16 Grannis Tranportation Consulting Consulting/Legal/Financial Services17 Greater New Haven Clean Cities Coalition Other18 Apollo Solar LLC Equipment19 Adco Services Manufacturing Services20 Aerospace Alloys Inc. Manufacturing Services21 Aqua Blasting Corp. Manufacturing Services22 Becon Components23 Bvh Integrated Services, Inc. Engineering/Design Services24 Electro Flex Heat, LLC Components25 Leppert Nutmeg Other26 Leppert-Nutmeg, Inc. Components27 Managed Air Systems LLC Equipment28 Pearse-Bertram Controls LLC Equipment29 Plantations Inc Other30 Riley Lumber Co. Materials31 Romco Contractors Inc. Manufacturing Services32 Stephen M. Cooke Co Manufacturing Services33 Tradesmen of New England, LLC Equipment34 Barrels Boxes & More Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies35 West Reach Construction Other36 Ober-Read & Assoc, Inc. Equipment37 Seton Identification Products Manufacturing Services38 Advanced Office Systems Inc. Other39 Differential Pressure Plus, Inc Equipment40 Ramp Enterprises LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services41 DB Schenker Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies42 American Hydrogen Association Other43 Identification Products Corp. Manufacturing Services100Northeast Electrochemical Energy Storage Cluster Supply Chain Database Search; http://neesc.org/resources/?type=1,August 11, 2011
  46. 46. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201246Organization Name Product or Service Category44 J J Box Company Materials45 Modern Plastics, Inc. Materials46 PACE- Peoples Action for Clean Energy, Inc. Other47 Park City Fluid Power Inc. Components48 Park Distributors Components49 Peoples United Bank Consulting/Legal/Financial Services50 R.B. Birge Company Components51 Reliable Plating & Polishing Manufacturing Services52 Spec Plating Inc. Components53 The Chapin & Bangs Co. Materials54 Zeldes Needle & Cooper Pc Consulting/Legal/Financial Services55 Green & Gross P.C. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services56 Associated Spring Manufacturing Services57 Clean Harbors of Connecticut Inc. Other58 ENFLO Corportation Materials59 New England Physical Therapy Other60 Whitman Controls Components61 Imperial Electronic Assembly, Inc. Manufacturing Services62 Pem CO Equipment63 Salem Specialty Ball Co., Inc. Components64 Allied Electronics Equipment65 Business Electronics, Inc. Equipment66 Connecticut Print Service Other67 Creative Dimensions, Inc. Marketing Products/Services68 Fire Protection Testing, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services69 R.A. Novia & Associates, LLC Other70 Warner Specialty Products Equipment71 Eagle Crane & Conveyor Co. Equipment72 Argo Transdata Corporation Manufacturing Services73 GS Promo Source. LLC Marketing Products/Services74 New England Packaging & Supply Inc. Materials75 Eastern Rigging Equipment76 PC Tech Service, LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services77 The Lawn Professionals Other78 Altantic Ventillating & Equipment Company Manufacturing Services79 Engineered Handling Systems Equipment80 Pond Technical Sales, Inc. Equipment81 Connex International, Inc. Other82 FuelCell Energy Inc. Fuel Cell Stack or System OEM83 Joseph Merritt & Co Consulting/Legal/Financial Services84 Kohler Ronan Consulting Engineering, LLC Engineering/Design Services85 Miller Stephenson Chemical Materials86 Wisner Associates Manufacturing Services87 Ida International Inc. Manufacturing Services88 Kenneth Industrial Products Equipment89 Lincoln Service & Equipment Co. Other90 Proflow Inc. Equipment91 Respond First Aid Systems Other92 The Claremont Sales Corporation Materials
  47. 47. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201247Organization Name Product or Service Category93 Adisco, Inc. Manufacturing Services94 B&B Threaded Components Inc. Components95 Liberty Industries Components96 Miles Welding LLC Manufacturing Services97 Aaron / Andersen Advertising LLC Marketing Products/Services98 Quality Name Plate Inc. Components99 Turnkey Compliance Solutions LLC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services100 Connecticut Venture Group Consulting/Legal/Financial Services101 Advanced Fuel Research, Inc Research & Development102 Capital Studio Achitects Engineering/Design Services103 Concurrent Technologies Corporation Lab or Test Equipment/Services104 Connecticut Center for Advanced Technologies Other105 Connecticut Hydrogen-Fuel Cell Coalition Other106 Connecticut Metallurgical, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services107 Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation Fuel108 Connecticut Technology Council Other109 CT Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services110 Dzen Commercial Roofing LLC Other111 Event Resources Other112 Horst Engineering & Manufacturing Company Manufacturing Services113 Infotech Software Solutions Engineering/Design Services114 John Watts Associates Other115 Koehler Studio Other116 L. E. Whitford Company Inc. Other117 UTC- Pratt & Whitney Components118 Wesco Distribution Components119 Beebe Landscape Services, Inc. Other120 Blake Equipment Components121 Camm Metals, Inc. Manufacturing Services122 Collins Pipe & Supply Co. Inc. Components123 Connecticut Valley Rubber Materials124 Integrated Packaging Systems Equipment125 Jonathan Pascos Food Service-Restaurants/ Caterer126 Integrated Packaging Systems Equipment127 Jonathan Pascos Food Service-Restaurants/ Caterer128 Lomac Limited Other129 Mahony Fitting Inc. Components130 Northeast Lamp Recycling Other131 WB Mason Company Other132 Yankee Courier Services, LLC Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies133 Whitcraft Group LLC Manufacturing Services134 Arrow Diversified Tooling, Inc. Equipment135 Dymotek Corporation Manufacturing Services136 AAA Aircraft Components137 AKO Inc Lab or Test Equipment/Services138 Awards and More Other139 Esquire Gas Products Co. Materials140 Macala Tool Inc. Manufacturing Services141 MSC Filtration Technologies Equipment
  48. 48. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201248Organization Name Product or Service Category142 Oxford Performance Materials Materials143 RKS Security Other144 Roger Lesieur Engineering/Design Services145 Staples Other146 USA Hauling & Recycling, Inc. Other147 Willco Sales and Services Equipment148 Carrier Corp Equipment149 Carrier Sales Equipment150 ConnectiCare, Inc. Other151 EBM-PAPST Inc. Components152 Edmunds Gages Equipment153 Inframat Corp Other154 Itech Solutions, Inc. Other155 Moore Medical LLC Equipment156 Engineering Resource Recruiters Consulting/Legal/Financial Services157 Metal Finishing Technologies, Inc. Manufacturing Services158 Bell Food Services Other159 British Precision, Inc. Manufacturing Services160 Carr Company Equipment161 Connecticut Components, Inc. Components163 Habco Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services164 Keeney Rigging & Trucking Co. Other165 Maricle Consulting LLC Other166 Meegan Tool Sales Co. Equipment167 Restar Inc. Other168 Solomon & Associates Event Mgmt LLC Marketing Products/Services169 Sustainable Innovations Hydrogen System OEM170 Greenwich Management Consultants Group Inc Consulting/Legal/Financial Services171 United Rentals Equipment172 ABBA Corporation Materials173 ICDS LLC (Innovative Construction & Design Solutions) Engineering/Design Services174 T. Keefe and Son, LLC Manufacturing Services175 Burt Process Equipment Inc. Equipment176 Greater New Haven Transit Authority Other177 Kelly Services Consulting/Legal/Financial Services178 All Waste Inc. Other179 Associated Security Corp. Other180 Becon Inc Manufacturing Services181 Bradley, Foster & Sergent, Inc. Consulting/Legal/Financial Services182 Cantor Colburn LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services183 Capitol Cleaning Contractors, Inc. Other184 CBIA (Coonnecticut Business and Industry Association) Other185 Champlin - Packrite, Inc. Transportation/Packing Services & Supplies186 Connecticut Power and Energy Society Other187 CT Corporation System Consulting/Legal/Financial Services188 CT Department of Economic & Community Development Other189 CTTransit Other190 Day Pitney LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services
  49. 49. HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PLANFINAL – APRIL 10, 201249Organization Name Product or Service Category191 Department of Environmental Protection Other192 Ernst and Young LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services193 FW Webb Components194 Graybar Electric Components195 Hartford Stamp Works Equipment196 Macca Plumbing & Heating FC/H2 System Distr./Install/Maint Services197 Murtha Cullina LLP Consulting/Legal/Financial Services198 Northeast Utilities Fuel199 Ramco Environmental Inc. Other200 Reliable Electric Motor, Inc. Components201 Robert Half Finance & Accounting Consulting/Legal/Financial Services202 SecureTek Solutions Consulting/Legal/Financial Services203 Sentry Commercial Real Estate Svc., Inc. Other204 Shepard Steel Co. Inc. Manufacturing Services205 Sullivan & Leshane Public Relations Inc. Marketing Products/Services206 The Hartford Consulting/Legal/Financial Services207 The Hartford Financial Services Group Inc Consulting/Legal/Financial Services208 University of Hartford Other209 Updike, Kelly and Spellacy PC Consulting/Legal/Financial Services210 GrowJobs CT Other211International Association of Machinists and Aerospace WorkersDistrict 26Other212 Able Scale & Equipment Corp. Lab or Test Equipment/Services213 Adchem Inc Manufacturing Services214 Anixter Inc (IMS inc) Materials215 CorpCare Occupational Health Other216 Data Based Development Systems Consulting/Legal/Financial Services217 Donwell Co Manufacturing Services218 Fluid Dynamics LLC Components219 Fuss & ONeill Engineering/Design Services220 Marcus Communications & Electronics Inc. Components221 Phoenix Environmental Labs Lab or Test Equipment/Services222 Rainbow Graphics Inc. Marketing Products/Services223 Taylor Rental Other224 Transfer Enterprises Other225 US Nanocorp Research & Development226 Windham Automated Machines, Inc. Manufacturing Services227 Brand Nu Laboratories, Inc. Research & Development228 Brand-Nu Labortatories, Inc. Materials229 Dennis A. Ceneviva Consulting/Legal/Financial Services230 Form-All Plastics Corporation Manufacturing Services231 H2 Sonics LLC Hydrogen System OEM232 Haynes Hydrogen, LLC Fuel233 Jonal Laboratories, Inc. Manufacturing Services234 MagnaKleen Other236 Meriden Cooper Equipment237 Meriden Self Storage LLC Other238 Quali-Tech, Inc. Lab or Test Equipment/Services

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