CHI - 2011 VAC Report


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CHI - 2011 VAC Report

  1. 1. data 2011Child Helpline International (CHI) is the global network of child Child Helpline International > Violence Against Children > data 2011help­lines in 136 countries (as of August 2012), which togetherreceive over 14 million contacts a year from children and youngpeople in need of care and protection. CHI supports the creationand strengthening of national toll-free child helplines worldwide,and uses child helpline data and knowledge to highlight gaps in childprotection systems and advocate for the rights of children. Against Children Child helpline data on abuse and violence
  2. 2. Disclaimers CHI’s work is firmly grounded in the principles and values enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC), especially children’s right to privacy and protection from harm. To this end, all identifying details and information about individual children cited in this report have been removed or altered to protect them and to ensure their privacy. This report is based on the analysis of information received from child helplines in the CHI network through CHI’s data questionnaire and the CHI VAC questionnaire. The conclusions and statements are based on this information and they do not capture the full scope of practices and policies of all countries and cases handled by child helplines and other child protection organisations at the national level. The percentages in the cells of tables and graphs in this publication have been rounded to a maximum of two significant figures and do not make use of decimal notation. As a result, the percentages of the individual (sub-) categories do not always add up to one hundred percent, although the total percentage will show this figure.The Global Network of Child Helplines: Membership as of August 2012 Full members* Associate members* 119 members in 100 countries 48 members in 42 countriesCountries with child helplines that fulfil the CHI membership criteria. Countries that CHI is working closely with to start child helplines, and that fulfil the CHI associate membership criteria.• Albania • France • Malaysia • Slovenia • Afghanistan • Libya• Algeria • Gambia • Maldives • South Africa • Antigua, Barbuda • Liechtenstein• Argentina (2) • Germany • Mauritius • Spain • Armenia • Madagascar• Aruba • Greece (2) • Mexico (2) • Sri Lanka (2) • Azerbaijan • Malta (2)• Australia • Guinee Conakry • Mongolia • St. Marten • Bahrain • Mauritania• Austria • Hong Kong, S.A.R. • Namibia • Suriname • Belarus (2) • Mongolia• Bangladesh • Hungary • Nepal • Swaziland • Benin (2) • Montenegro• Belgium • Iceland • Netherlands • Sweden • Bhutan • Mozambique• Bosnia Herzegovina • India • New Zealand (3) • Switzerland • Bolivia • Panama• Botswana • Indonesia • Nigeria • Taiwan, P.O.C. • Bulgaria • Sudan• Brazil (2) • Iran • Norway • Tajikistan • Cameroon • Tunisia• Brunei • Ireland • Pakistan • Thailand • Costa Rica • Turkey• Burkina Faso • Israel • Palestine • Togo • Cote d’Ivore • Ukraine• Cambodia • Italy • Paraguay • Trinidad, Tobago • emocratic D • nited Arab U• Canada • Japan • Peru • U.S.A. (7) Republic of Congo Emirates Abu• Chile • Jordan • Philippines • Uganda (DRC) Dhabi• China • Kazakhstan • Poland (2) • United Arab • Ecuador • U.S.A. (2)• Colombia • Kenya • Portugal Emirates Sharjah • El Salvador • Uzbekistan• Cote d’Ivoire • Korea, South (2) • Qatar • United Kingdom (4) • Ethiopia • Vanuatu• Croatia • Latvia (2) • Romania • Uruguay • Georgia • Zambia• Curaçao • Lesotho • Russia • Vietnam • Guatemala• Czech Republic • Lithuania • Saudi Arabia • Yemen • Haiti• Denmark • Luxemburg • Senegal • Zimbabwe • Iraq• Egypt • Macedonia • Serbia • Israel• Estonia • Madagascar • Singapore • Jamaica• Finland • Malawi • Slovakia • Lebanon (2)*For full details of individual members please visit
  3. 3. Table of Contents 2 Executive Summary 6 CHI Recommendations 6 UN Violence Against Children (unvac) Study Recommendations 8 Abuse Worldwide 10 Family violence 12 Corporal punishment 14 Peer violence 16 Teacher violence 18 violence by Care Workers 20 Colophon
  4. 4. Executive Summary In 2011, child helplines around the world received nearly 13.8 million con- Abuse worldwide tacts (not including website visits)* from children and concerned adults. One in seven contacts received by child helplines worldwide in 2011 dealt with a case Children contact child helpline voluntarily and directly to speak about the of violence against children. This once again made abuse and violence one of the most issues they face. These can be small and big, incidental or structural. No common reasons worldwide for children to contact a child helpline. The five main matter a child’s background, socio­-economic status, ethnicity, religion, forms of abuse seen were: physical abuse (29%), bullying (26%), sexual abuse (20%), culture or location, child helplines listen, provide counselling and if needed neglect (14%) and emotional abuse (11%). referral to other child protection organisations. Where necessary, child helplines also provide additional services such as shelter, education, legal Of all of the contacts made to child helplines about abuse and violence against support, alternative care and rehabilitation. children, just under two thirds involved the abuse of girls and just over a third were about the abuse of boys. A large proportion of contacts on physical abuse was made As a result of their work, child helplines have access to unprecedented, unadulterated by children whose gender identity could not ascertained. In 58% of the reported information about the problems of the world’s children. Since its foundation in 2003, cases the perpetrator was indicated to be male, whereas in 42% of contacts female Child Helpline International (CHI) has collec­ted and collated this information - on the perpetrators were involved. The distribution of perpetrator gender varied according reasons why children contact child helplines - from its members worldwide. The Violence to the form of abuse. Half of the reported emotional abuses cases involved male Against Children Report deals with contacts received by child helplines on abuse and perpetrators and half female perpetrators. In contrast, more than three quarters violence suffered by children everywhere. CHI uses this and other such data reports of the reported sexual abuse cases involved a male perpetrator. to help highlight and make visible the problems children face. Family violence This is the sixth edition of CHI’s Violence Against Children Report. It is based on data Family members remain the most common perpetrator group of abuse and violence submitted by 101 child helplines for CHI’s annual data questionnaire and 71 child help­ against children. Overall, nearly two thirds of abuse cases recorded by child helplines lines for the dedicated CHI Violence Against Children questionnaire. This report outlines in 2011 involved a member of the child’s family. In seven out of ten cases of neglect the different forms of abuse suffered by children, trends across Human Development and physical abuse a family member was identified as being responsible. Members of Index (HDI) levels and regions, as well as information about the demographics of the a child’s immediate family (parents, siblings) were identified as the perpetrators of victims and perpetrators and the relationships between them. The analysis presented abuse of children in 40% of all of the abuse cases; extended family members (grand- brings the contacts that child help­lines receive to life, providing critical insight and parents, aunts and uncles, cousins, etc.) were indicated to be responsible for 29% of pivotal information for all those working toward better child protection. cases; and in a further 28% of cases a member of mixed family (step- or foster parents) were involved. * Including website visits, child helplines in the CHI network received 22.8 million contacts from children in need.2 3 Violence Against Children
  5. 5. In 2011, an average child helpline in the CHI network registered 12 contacts on abuse and violence per day. Corporal punishment Care facility workers Up to half of all physical abuse cases can be classified as corporal punishment Overall, one in twenty five contacts on abuse and violence against children involved (perpetrated by a parental or guardian figure). This indicates that corporal punish- a worker in a care facility. More than 90% of contacts on abuse involving care workers ment remains a severe problem to be addressed. There is no difference in the pro- were made with child helplines in low HDI level countries. Physical abuse and sexual portion of cases of physical abuse by guardians in countries with a ban or without a abuse were the most common forms of abuse involving care facility workers. ban on corporal punishment. Even in very high HDI level countries, where corporal When evaluating the effect of a ban on corporal punishment in care facilities, an punishment is illegal in most countries, the prevalence of this form of abuse is still apparent decrease in the proportion of physical cases involving care workers can high. A higher awareness and willingness to report corporal punishment could be a be discerned. More information would be needed to form definite conclusions about reason for the high proportion of contacts despite the existence of legislative bans. a correlation between legislation and the incidence of physical abuse by care workers. Peer violence In one third of all contacts on abuse a peer was the indicated perpetrator. A peer is a child or youth from a similar age group. Peer violence is not confined to bullying alone (for which peers were indicated to be the perpetrator in over half of the cases), but also sexual abuse (30% committed by peers), emotional abuse (31%), and neglect and physical abuse (both 19%). Teacher violence Teachers were implicated in contacts made with child helplines about all forms A note on HDI and geographic regions: of abuse. The legislative ban imposed by many countries on corporal punishment In this report CHI segments information according to the in schools seems to have had a positive impact. A decrease in the proportion of Human Development Index (HDI) and regions. In both cases reported physical abuse cases perpetrated by teachers is apparent when comparing the classifications used are recognised standards: countries with a legislative ban to those without one (36% vs. 41%). HDI Levels Geographic Regions The Human Development Index (HDI) For programmatic and thematic was developed by the United Nations purposes, CHI works in five geographic Development Porgramme as a way to region, based on the UNICEF guidelines. categorise countries beyond their GDP The five regions are: Africa, the (gross domestic product) per capita. Americas and Caribbean, Asia Countries are classified according to Pacific, Europe and the Middle East four standard HDI levels: low, medium, and Northern Africa (MENA). high or very high. For more information For more information, visit the please refer to the UNDP website - UNICEF website - 5 Violence Against Children
  6. 6. Recommendations Contributing Members CHI wishes to thank everyone who has completed CHI’s data questionnaire and CHI Recommendations VAC questionnaire, or has contributed in another way to make this report possible. Based on this and other CHI data-based publications, CHI makes the following • 110 for Families and Children • Childline Kenya, • NADEL (Serbia), three general recommen­dations for governments, policy-makers and all those (Jordan) • Childline Lesotho, • Natal * (Israel), involved in child protection: • 113 Protection Hotline (Taiwan P.R. • Childline Malaysia *, • National Child Abuse Hotline (USA), China) • Childline Montenegro, • National Family Safety Programme * A Governments and social service providers should recognise child helplines as vital • 116 111 (Latvia), • Childline Mozambique (Saudi Arabia), parts of healthy child protection systems and formalise their partnerships through • 116 111 Helpline for Children and • Childline Namibia * • National Runaway Switchboard (USA), clear and strong protocols and agreements. Youth * (Poland), • Childline Support Centre NPO (Japan), • Nummer gegen Kummer * (Germany), B Governments, policy-makers and those involved in child protection at all levels • 116 111 Kanner- Jugendtelefon • Childline Thailand *, • Positive Connection * (Sint Maarten), should recognise the essential information child helplines provide and use it to (Luxembourg), • Childline Trinidad Tobago *, • Pro Juventute Beratung (Switzerland), inform both policy and programmatic decisions. • 123Alô * (Brazil), • Childline Zimbabwe, • Qatar Foundation for Children and Women C Appropriate resources, in line with their vital role in holistic child protection • 147 Rat auf Draht (Austria), • Corpolatin (Colombia), Protection, systems, should be allocated to child helplines. • 199 Helpline (The Gambia), • Covenant House Nineline (USA), • Red Cross Helpline for Children and Youth • 2NDFLOOR Youth Helpline (USA), • CWIN Nepal * (Norway), • Acercatel (Mexico), • CYTP (Latvia), • Russian Association for child helplines * • Allo Fanantenana (Madagascar), • De Kindertelefoon (Netherlands), • S.O.S. 1056 Smile of the Child * (Greece), NONE • Don Bosco Lama Sarana (Sri Lanka), • Safernet (Brazil), UN Violence Against Children (UNVAC) Study Recommendations • ALO 116 * (Albania), • Fono Infancia (Chile), • Sawa Child Protection Helpline 121 • Aparajeyo (Bangladesh), • Fundacion Telefon pa Hubentud (Aruba), (Palestine), The 12 basic recommendations issued by the UNVAC Study in 2006 are listed below. • Arab Human Rights Foundation • Get Connected * (United Kingdom), • Sedaye Yara * (Iran), The recommen­dations are formulated for all stakeholders and states specifically (Yemen), • Halley Movement (Mauritius), • SOS Crianca (Portugal), • Bantay Bata 163 (Philippines), • HDI Child Helpline (Nigeria), • Social Service Department Sharjah (UAE), to take action to prevent and combat violence against children: • Bel123 (Suriname), • Helpline 141 (Brunei Darussalam), • SOS Enfant en Detresse (Côte d’Ivoire), • Borne telefonen * (Denmark), • Helpline Connection 116 111 (Greece), • SOS Helpline for Children and Youth 1 Strengthen national and local commitment and action • Boys Town National Hotline (USA), • * (Poland), (Macedonia), 2 Prohibit all violence against children • BRIS (Sweden), • Hotline Against Child Abuse (Hong Kong • SOS Telefon 1209 (Bosnia and 3 Prioritize prevention • California Youth Crisis Line * (USA), S.A.R), Herzegovina), 4 Promote non-violent values and awareness-raising • Centre Ginddi (Senegal), • Hrabri Telefon * (Croatia), • Stop It Now! (USA), 5 Enhance the capacity of all who work with and for children • Child Emergency Hotline (People’s • Jordan River Foundation • Telefòn pa Mucha i Hóben * (Curaçao), 6 Provide recovery and social reintegration services Republic China), • Kids Help Phone (Canada), • Teléfono ANAR Spain *, 7 Ensure participation of children • Child Helpline 1412 (Maldives), • Kids Helpline (Australia), • Teléfono ANAR Mexico *, 8 Create accessible and child-friendly reporting systems and service • Child Helpline 150 Union of Crisis • Kinder-en Jongerentelefoon * • Teléfono ANAR Peru, 9 Ensure accountability and end impunity Centres * (Kazakhstan), (Belgium), • Telefonul Copilului * (Romania), 10 Address the gender dimension of violence against children • Child Helpline 16000 (Egypt), • Lapsemure * (Estonia), • Téléphone vert AGUIAS * (Guineé- 11 Develop and implement systematic national data collection and research • Child Helpline Nepal, • Linea Azul (Uruguay), Conakry), 12 Strengthen international commitment • Child Helpline UCRNN (Ghana) **, • Linea 102, City of Buenos Aires • The Children and Youth Helpline (Finland), • Child Helpline UCRNN * (Uganda), (Argentina), • The Safety Line (Czech Republic), • Child Helpline Vietnam, • Linea 102, Province of Buenos Aires * • Tinkle Friend Helpline (Singapore), • Child Helpline Service Azerbaijan *, (Argentina), • Tithandizane Child Helpline (Malawi), • Childline Botswana *, • Madadagaar Help Line for Children and • Vaiku Linija * (Lithuania), • Childline Cambodia, Women Suffering from Violence and • What’s Up (New Zealand), • Childline India Foundation, Abuse (Pakistan), • Youthline (New Zealand) • Childline Ireland, • NADA (Algeria), * data questionnaire only ** VAC questionnaire only6 7 Violence Against Children
  7. 7. One in seven contacts to child helplineswas about abuse and violence.(1) Shows the forms of abuse suffered by boys and girls separately per Human Development Index category. (2) Shows the gender of the victim per form of abuse and gender of the perpetrator. Abuse Worldwide1 Form of abuse - Gender of victim and HDI levels 2 Gender of victim and gender of perpetrator boy victim girl victim per form of abuse Worldwide one in seven contacts in 2011 dealt with a case of violence against children. This means that once again abuse and violence was LOW HDI LEVEL Medium HDI Level High HDI Level Very High HDI Level the most common reason for children to contact a child helpline. 40% 60% 50% 50%Physical Physical Physical abuse was the most common Physical abuse is the most common Bullying and physical abuse are also abuse abuse form of abuse reported, accounting for form of abuse reported for cases suffered relatively more by boys than 29% of all abuse and violence contacts, where the gender of a child was not other forms (with 41% of contacts on followed by bullying (26%), sexual abuse recorded or a child did not want to both forms involving boys). (20%), neglect (13%) and emotional reveal her or his identity. For cases 29% 32% 42% 52% 46% 46% 18% 18% 41% 59% abuse (10%). There is no clear corre­ where the gender was known on the Most abuse cases reported to child lation between the Human Development other hand bullying was the most helplines involved a male perpetrator. Index (HDI) level of a country and the common form of abuse reported. Overall the proportion of reportedBullying Bullying 42% 58% 51% 49% form of abuse that is most commonly Sexual abuse follows a similar pattern: abuse committed by male perpetrators reported to child helplines. Physical for cases in which the gender of the is 58%. This partition is similar for all abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are as child was not known, one in four cases HDI levels. More than three quarters common in very high and high HDI level dealt with sexual abuse. For contacts of sexual abuse cases reported to child countries as in low HDI level countries. involving girls, one in five dealt with helplines were committed by a male Bullying on the other hand is more, and sexual abuse, while for contacts with perpetrator. In reported cases of 15% 17% 3% 3% 4% 12% 51% 61% 41% 59% emotional abuse is less, common in very boys, one in ten dealt with boys. Sexual neglect and emotional abuse the high HDI level countries compared to abuse contacts are twice as likely to majority of perpetrators were female 37% 14% other HDI levels. This demonstrates involve girls than boys. (50% and 53% respectively). Sexual Sexual 63% 86% abuse abuse The five main forms of abuse were physical, bullying, sexual, neglect and emotional. 28% 18% 19% 6% 8% 6% 15% 7% 27% 73% that abuse is not limited to developing Focusing on those contacts for which Female perpetrators mostly victimise countries. Violence against children gender of the child was known, the girls, except for sexual abuse. Girls cuts across all cultures, societies and overall ratio between girls and boys were bullied, physically abused,Emotional Emotional 43% 57% 56% 44% economic development levels. 1 contacting a child helpline about abuse neglected and emotional abused abuse abuse and violence was similar to previous mostly by female perpetrators (50%, As in previous years, bullying is the years: two thirds of contacts involved 51%, 54% and 56% respectively). The most common form of abuse reported girls, one third boys. Bullying and majority of perpetrators for cases to child helplines in Europe (34%) and physical abuse are the most common involving boys were male for all forms was reported relatively less in Africa forms of abuse suffered by girls, of abuse.2 15% 14% 22% 21% 21% 11% 10% 8% 34% 66% and MENA (5% and 4% respectively). followed by sexual abuse (33%, Physical abuse was the most common 25% and 19% of contacts on abuse On the regional level some variations abuse form reported in the MENA involving girls). Contrary to this, in perpetrator-victim gender relation­ 48% 52% 54% 46% region, accounting for over 40% of sexual abuse is the least common form ship occur. In some regions there areNeglect Neglect contacts. In Europe, Africa and Asia of abuse suffered by boys (11%). clear cross-gender relationships Pacific three in ten contacts were between the perpetrator and victim about physical abuse. Only in the while in other regions same gender Americas and Caribbean was physical relationships exist for parti­cu­lar abuse reported relatively less. Sexual forms of abuse. 13% 19% 14% 17% 21% 25% 5% 5% 44% 56% abuse was relatively more common in Africa than in other regions.8 9 Violence Against Children
  8. 8. Most abuse is perpetrated by someone the child knows, often quite well. (3) The gender relationship between perpetrator and victim segmented by the Family Violence family relationship between both. (4) The form of abuse committed by female and male perpetrators distributed (5) Shows the proportion of contacts on domestic violence and witnessing per family relationship status between victim and perpetrator. violence in relation to the five main forms of abuse. 3 Family relationship to victim per form of abuse “Stranger danger” is a phrase that does not apply to the majority of child abuse immediate family extended family mixed family not family immediate family extended family mixed family not family physical abuse cases. Most abuse is perpetrated by a person known to the child, often well. Child bullying helpline data indicates that family members are the most common perpetrator sexual abuse Physical emotional abuse group of abuse and violence against children. abuse 42% 13% 20% 25% 37% 13% 22% 29% neglect Bullying In two-thirds of the contacts made to perpetrator (43%). For physical abuse Domestic Violence domestic violence 20% 17% 18% 45% 17% 17% 19% 47% child helplines a child’s family member this proportion was 50%, for neglect In addition to direct family involve- witness to violence was indicated to be the perpetrator it was 53% and for sexual abuse 40%. ment in the five main forms of abuse Sexual abuse 23% 29% 13% 34% 29% 17% 22% 32% Female of the abuse. Seven in ten cases of Extended family members were of children, child helplines have also perpetrator physical abuse involved a family involved in 29% of abuse cases. One received over 18,000 contacts on Emotional male member and in nearly eight out of ten third of reported emotional abuse violence taking place in the family abuse 24% 28% 27% 21% 22% 21% 22% 36% perpetrator reported cases of neglect a member of cases were committed by members setting. These are cases of domestic Neglect boy victim the child’s family was indicated to be of the extended family (38%), 32% of violence or children witnessing 50% 16% 15% 20% 41% 19% 15% 25% the cause. The exception is bullying for bullying and 30% of sexual abuse cases violence in the home (but which are girl victim which two thirds of the perpetrators reported to child helplines. In a not directed at them per say). Such were not related to the child. further 28% of contacts, members of violence still very much affects the 4 Gender of perpetrator by family relationship and gender of victim per form of abuse immediate family extended family mixed family not family In two thirds of contacts on abuse made to child helplines a member of a child’s family was involved. Physical 42% 58% 39% 61% 39% 61% 39% 61% For cases involving female perpetra- step or foster family, i.e. mixed family, children involved and often leaves abuse 57% 43% 51% 49% 47% 53% 45% 55% tors only, eight out of ten reported were indicated to be the perpetrator. long-lasting impressions and emotional cases of emotional abuse, physical This was the case in 34% of bullying traumas. These contacts are not Bullying 48% 52% 39% 61% 44% 56% 40% 60% abuse and neglect were committed cases involving family members, analysed in depth in this report as they 51% 49% 54% 46% 45% 55% 51% 49% by a member of the family; seven out 32% of emotional abuse cases, 29% are not registered under one of the of ten of sexual abuse cases involved of sexual abuse cases and 27% of five main forms of abuse. Sexual family; and over half of reported physical abuse cases. abuse 22% 78% 49% 51% 32% 68% 50% 50% 15% 85% 22% 78% 9% 91% 11% 89% bullying cases involved a female Girls were involved in 59% of contacts member of the family. Three fourths The proportion of female perpetrators on a child witnessing violence and 57% Emotional 53% 47% 50% 50% 57% 43% 25% 75% of reported cases of neglect, physical is higher amongst family members than of contacts on domestic violence. abuse 54% 46% 62% 38% 56% 44% 49% 51% abuse and sexual abuse (77%, 74% and non-related perpetrators (44% vs. Nearly all contacts on domestic 73% respectively) involving male 39%). The difference is especially violence were made in low and very Neglect 51% 49% 43% 57% 50% 50% 44% 56% perpetrators were committed by a significant for reported cases of high HDI level countries (45% and 40% 59% 41% 49% 51% 54% 46% 49% 51% member of the child’s family. emotional abuse and neglect. This respectively). Two thirds of contacts gender partition is similar for both on children witnessing violence were Family can be segmented into immedi- members of the child’s immediate made in very high HDI level countries 5 Distribution of victim gender for all forms of abuse ate family (parents and siblings); family and the extended family. Male (65%) and nearly one third were made extended family (grandparents, perpetrators account for 85% of in low HDI level countries. 5 5% 4% 5% 4% uncles, aunts, cousins and nieces and reported contacts on sexual abuse 9% 23% 11% 25% nephews); and mixed family (step and involving members from mixed family. foster family). 3 Focusing on contacts There are no distinct variations in the 12% 10% involving family members only, in four gender relationship between victim and out of ten contacts a child’s immediate perpetrator when comparing related 17% 30% 10% 33% family member was indicated as the and non-related perpetrators. 410 11 Violence Against Children
  9. 9. Children have the right to grow up in an environment without violent and harmful punishments. Corporal Punishment (6) Proportion of contacts on physical abuse involving guardians for boy and girl victims. (7) The proportion of contacts on physical abuse involving guardians for both boy and girl victims in countries with and without a legislative ban. 6 Gender of victims of physical abuse 6a - Guardian involvement in physical abuse world Guardian not Guardian Guardian not Guardian According to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, in its General Comment 8, 50% 50% 49% 51% corporal punishment is “… any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light. Most guardian perpetrator involves hitting (“smacking”, “slapping”, “spanking”) children, with the hand or51% 49% not guardian perpetrator with an implement - a whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc. But it can also involve, for example, kicking, shaking or throwing children, scratching, pinching, 6b - Family relationship to victim for physical abuse for cases involving guardian and non-guardians biting, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable immediate family extended family mixed family immediate family extended family mixed family positions, burning, scalding or forced ingestion (for example, washing children’s 60% 13% 27% 24% 49% 26% mouths out with soap or forcing them to swallow hot spices).” Guardian not Guardian In many countries, corporal punish- countries without a ban (29% vs. 28%). legislative ban. Simultaneously, the ment is a taboo topic as child rearing One third of all physical abuse cases proportion of male perpetrators 7 Proportion of physical abuse perpetrated by guardian in countries with and without a legislative ban on corporal punishment is regarded as a private matter for were reported to child helplines in amongst non-guardians increased LOW HDI LEVEL Medium HDI Level* High HDI Level Very High HDI Level parents. However, every child has the countries with a legislative ban on all in countries with a ban. 7 right to grow up in an environment forms of corporal punishment by no legislative no no legislative no legislative legislation ban legislation legislation ban legislation ban without violent punishment that leaves guardians and care givers. There is no There seems to be an inverse effect Guardian long lasting physical and emotional correlation between the HDI level of a from legislation on the incidence of scars. To this end a growing number country and the proportion of physical corporal punishment as reported to not Guardian of countries around the world have a abuse reported to child helplines. child helplines. At the same time the legislative ban on corporal punishment. There is no clear effect of legislative proportion of corporal punishment 40% 60% 83% 17% 79% 21% 70% 30% 43% 57% 94% 6% 58% 42% ban on the proportion of physical reported in high and very high HDI * There were no medium HDI level countries with a legislative ban in this set of reporting child helplines More than one third of contacts on abuse reported to child helplines. level countries with a legislative ban physical abuse overall and four in ten Overall, the proportion of reported declined, but not of physical abuse in cases of physical abuse of boys were physical abuse cases involving general. Whether these differences 7a Proportion of female and male prepetrator guardians in countries with and without a legislative ban committed by a parental figure, guardians is significantly higher in are due to a change in the incidence guardian or care giver of the child. countries with a legislative ban on of corporal punishment or due to LOW HDI LEVEL Medium HDI Level High HDI Level Very High HDI Level This points to high levels of corporal corporal punishment than in those changes in the reporting levels needs perpetrator no legislative no no legislative no legislative punishment taking place globally, countries without a ban (75% vs. 47%). more investigation. Guardian legislation ban legislation legislation ban legislation ban especially amongst boys. Six out of ten However, there is a correlation Female reported physical abuse cases involving between the HDI level of a country Corporal punishment perpetrated perpetrator guardians were committed by and the effect of a legislative ban on by teachers and care facility workers immediate family members (60%). For corporal punishment as reported to are dealt with in the respective male cases involving boys this proportion child helplines. The proportion of chapters on teacher and care facility perpetrator was two thirds (64%). One quarter of contacts on physical abuse committed worker violence. 49% 51% 55% 45% 49% 51% 55% 45% 0% 100% 45% 55% 54% 46% reported physical abuse cases involving by guardians received by child perpetrator no legislative no no legislative no legislative guardians were committed by mixed helplines in countries with a high not legislation ban legislation legislation ban legislation ban family (27%) and one in seven by and very high HDI level with a ban Guardian members of the extended family (13%). 6 decreased as compared to high and very high HDI level countries without The proportion of reported physical a ban. The proportion of male perpe- abuse in countries with a legislative trators of corporal punishment ban is comparable to the proportion decreases in countries with a ban 43% 57% 9% 91% 31% 69% 31% 69% 50% 50% 36% 64% 47% 53% of reported physical abuse cases in compared to countries without a12 13 Violence Against Children
  10. 10. Peers, including friends, siblings, cousins and nieces/nephews, can also be perpetrators of abuse and violence against children. (8) Proportion of the contacts on abuse committed by peers involving friends. (9) Shows the gender of the victim for both male and female perpetrators for both peers and non-peers. (10) Proportion of the contacts on abuse committed by peers involving related perpetrators. Peer Violence 8 Proportion of abuse perpetrated by peers 8a Proportion of abuse committed by friends 9 Gender of peer perpetrator as a share of abuse committed by peers and gender of victim Not all peer relationships are friendly or beneficial to a child. Friends and peers can also be the cause of abuse and violence. The Committee on the Rights of the not peer peer friend not friend 81% 19% 21% 79% female peer male peer Child, in its General Comment on article 19 of the Convention on the Rights of Physical abuse 34% 66% the Child, has defined peer violence as “physical, psychological and sexual violence, 49% 51% often by bullying, exerted by children against other children, frequently by groups not peer peer friend not friend of children, which not only harms a child’s physical and psychological integrity 45% 55% 20% 80% 40% 60% and well-being in the immediate term, but often has severe impact on his or her Bullying 54% 46% development, education and social integration in the medium and long term.” not peer peer friend not friend 70% 30% 26% 74% One third of abuse cases reported to contacts on bullying involved peers. On less clear; Similar to all perpetrator 44% 56% child helplines involved a peer of the the other hand, the proportion of groups, for both neglect and sexual Sexual abuse 16% 84% child as a perpetrator (31%). For sexual abuse cases involving peers, abuse, there is a cross-gender bullying cases this was more than half decreases with increasing HDI level. In relationship. For other forms of abuse, not peer peer friend not friend of reported cases (55%), for sexual low HDI level countries, four out of ten a same-gender relationship exists for 69% 31% 35% 65% abuse and emotional abuse cases one contacts on sexual abuse involved a cases involving non-friend peers. 9 Emotional 27% 73% third of contacts (30% and 31% respec- peer; in very high HDI level countries abuse 52% 48% tively) and for neglect and sexual abuse this was one out of ten. Peers can also be a member of a child’s one in five reported cases (both 19%). family, such as cousins, nephews and not peer peer friend not friend Bullying is committed relatively more siblings. Girls suffer the majority of 81% 19% 29% 71% Friends are an important peer group by peers not considered friends, than emotional abuse, physical abuse and 45% 55% Neglect for children, but even friends are by friends (39% vs. 31%). Physical neglect committed by peers from 58% 42% perpetrators of abuse. One in five abuse also is committed relatively those who are related to them. Six out cases of bullying involving peers were more by non-friends: 17% of cases are of ten contacts of physical abuse of committed by friends (11% of total), committed by friends, compared to boys committed by peers involved a 9a Gender of victim of peer violence per form of abuse 10 Proportion of peer violence by family members more than one third of cases involving 21% of cases perpetrated by non- family member. For sexual abuse and peers (35% of cases involving peers; friend peers. On the other hand, sexual bullying, most cases committed by boy victim girl victim boy victim girl victim 11% of total); three out of ten cases of abuse is perpetrated relatively more peers were perpetrated by not-related neglect committed by peers (29% of by friends compared to peers who are peers. For emotional abuse there is a cases by peers; 6% of total); one in five not friends (24% vs. 22%). Emotional mixed pattern in which most boys friend not friend family not family cases of physical cases perpetrated by abuse is significantly less perpetrated suffer emotional abuse committed by Physical 57% 43% peers (21% of cases involving peers; 4% by non-friend peers than by friends. peers that are not related and girls 51% 49% 49% 51% abuse 64% 36% of total) and one quarter of sexual from peers that are related. 10 abuse cases (26% of contacts commit- A same gender relationships exists 18% 82% Bullying 53% 47% 58% 42% ted by peers; 8% of total).8 between victims and perpetrator, if These differences clearly signal that 21% 79% they are considered friends of the the relationship that exists between a 39% 61% There is a correlation between the victim, except for sexual abuse for victim and the perpetrator influences Sexual 44% 56% 47% 53% abuse 45% 55% proportion of bullying involving peers which a cross-gender relationship the abuse taking place and therefore and the HDI level of a country. In low exists. For cases committed by that abuse cannot be addressed or Emotional 39% 61% HDI level countries, one third of non-friend peers the gender relations- prevented with one size fits all 74% 26% 43% 57% abuse 63% 37% contacts involved friends. In very high hip between perpetrator and victim is programmes. Also, peers need to be HDI level countries, nine out of ten considered as a perpetrator group not 61% 39% only as victims. Neglect 46% 54% 49% 51% 61% 39%14 15 Violence Against Children