Critical and Creative Thinking


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 Demonstrate the knowledge and
understanding of the thinking skills of
 Demonstrate the knowledge and
understanding of the thinking skills of
Compare and Contrast

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Critical and Creative Thinking

  1. 1. DSM 224 CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING Section 4: Analyzing ideas 1
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes  Demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of the thinking skills of Classification  Demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of the thinking skills of Compare and Contrast 2
  3. 3. Classification
  4. 4. Classification  Purpose of Classification  To help us select something we need.  To determine important relationships between ideas/items  To protect things from harm or damage.  Classification involves putting particular things in general categories because these things have certain characteristics which we use to define those categories.
  5. 5. Common Defaults in Classification  The way things are classified may not fit the purposes of classifying them (the category may be too broad or too narrow)  We may not know what defines the category and may put the wrong things in it. (fuzzy thinking)  We may know what defines the category but misperceive or misjudge that an individual thing has those characteristics, will result in us to misclassify it.
  6. 6. Common Default Scenarios  If I put all of my business expense receipts in a folder but did not differentiate them in different years, I would not be able to use this collection easily in doing my year 2007 income tax (classification too broad)  If I just keep year 2007 car expenses receipts, I will have to search for other receipts to be able to figure out my overall business expenses. (classification too narrow)
  7. 7. Common Defaults Scenario  If I am confused about what a business receipt is and put bills as well as receipts in the folder, that may cause problems. (fuzzy)  I may think I see "2006" on a receipt but it was actually a "2007" receipt. (Misperception)  If I classify a receipt for a meal as a business receipt, but it fails to meet the requirements for a legitimate business expense, it may cause problems. (Misjudgment)
  8. 8. Types of Classification  Bottom Up Classification (Specific to Broad)  Top Down Classification (Broad to Specific)
  9. 9. Bottom-up Classification  Thinking Map Questions  What characteristics do the given items have?  What classifications do these characteristics define?  What purpose do we have for classifying the items?  What way of classifying the items best serves this purpose?  Which items fall into each category?
  10. 10. WAYS TO CLASSIFY THINGS CATEGORIES TYPES OF CATEGORIES pen Healthy food Vegetables Carnivore animals Pink marker pen Black & Blue pen fruits _________________________ _________________________ _________________________
  11. 11. Sample Bottom-Up Classification
  12. 12. Top-Down Classification  Thinking Map Questions  What are the defining characteristics of the categories under which I want to classify things?  Which items have these characteristics?  How do I classify these items into the given categories?
  13. 13. Top-Down Classification CATEGORY CATEGORY CATEGORY Defining characteristics Defining characteristics Defining characteristics Items Items Items ITEMS TO BE CLASSIFIED characteristics ITEMS TO BE CLASSIFIED ITEMS TO BE CLASSIFIED ITEMS TO BE CLASSIFIED characteristics characteristics characteristics How Classified How Classified How Classified How Classified
  14. 14. Sample Top-Down Classification
  15. 15. Sample Top-Down Classification Animal Kingdom
  16. 16. Compare and Contrast
  17. 17. Compare and Contrast  Comparing and contrasting involves detecting a variety of similarities and differences between two or more objects, events, organisms, institutions, or ideas in order to achieve certain specific purposes.
  18. 18. Compare and Contrast  What is the value of the skill of compare and contrast?  To gain a deeper understanding of the ideas or solutions being considered  Can lead to more effective choices and deeper insights
  19. 19. Common Defaults when doing Compare and Contrast  Too little similarities and differences  Identify only a few similarities and differences.  Identify only superficial similarities and differences.  Making rough and imprecise judgments of similarity and difference.  Do no draw out the implications of the similarities and differences we have identified.
  20. 20. 2 basic ways to compare & contrast skillfully  Open Compare and Contrast  Focused Compare and Contrast
  21. 21. Open Compare and Contrast  Uses all possible similarities and differences  Select similarities and differences which are most significant  Draw out the implications  Arrive at conclusion
  22. 22. Open Compare and Contrast  Thinking Map Questions  How are they similar?  How are they different?  What similarities and differences seem significant?  What categories or patterns do you see in the significant similarities and differences?  What interpretation or conclusion is suggested by the significant similarities and differences?
  23. 23. How are they alike? How are they different? Criteria Object BObject A Object BObject A Patterns of Significant Differences or Similarities Conclusion or Interpretation
  24. 24. Focused Compare and Contrast  A more specific form of compare and contrast where the criteria are already defined before the compare and contrast is done.  Usually starts off with determining the purpose or FOCUS of the compare and contrast
  25. 25. Thinking Map Questions 1. What kinds of similarities and differences are significant to the purpose of the comparison and contrast? 2. What similarities fall into these categories? 3. What differences fall into these categories? 4. What pattern of similarities and differences are revealed? 5. What conclusion or interpretation is suggested by the comparison and contrast that is significant to its purpose?
  26. 26. Object BObject A Purpose Factors to consider How are they alike? How are they different? Factors that are considered in this activity Conclusion or Interpretation
  27. 27. Advantages of Focused and Open Compare and Contrast  Go beyond merely listing similarities and differences.  Bring more organization and depth to comparing and contrasting than we ordinarily find when we just list similarities and differences.  Both generate a conclusion suggested by the comparisons and differences.