@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 1ThomasLancaster.co.uk
The Application Of Intelligent
Context-Aware Systems To...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 2ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Does Cheating Matter?
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 3ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Students Are Cheating!
There are lots of statistics to ...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 4ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Cheating Leads To…
Poor reputation of the university
St...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 5ThomasLancaster.co.uk
We Need To Be Addressing
Cheating
As a community of edu...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 6ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Why I’m Interested In Further
Addressing Cheating…
Thom...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 7ThomasLancaster.co.uk
The Traditional Type Of
Student Cheating
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 8ThomasLancaster.co.uk
The Most Discussed
Examples…
Student Collusion
Students...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 9ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Plagiarism Is Detectable
TurnItIn widely used within ed...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 10ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Collusion Is Detectable
JPlag (http://www.jplag.de)
us...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 11ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Computing Academics
Have Plagiarism Solved?
Many algor...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 12ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Anti-Plagiarism Systems
Make Limited Use Of Context
Co...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 13ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Three More Problems That
Could Perhaps Utilise Context
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 14ThomasLancaster.co.uk
The Most Blatant Cheating
Is Easy To Detect
but…
Here ...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 15ThomasLancaster.co.uk
(1) Essay Spinning
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 16ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Essay Spinning - English
http://translate.google.com
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 17ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Essay Spinning - Danish
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 18ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Essay Spinning - Slovenian
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 19ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Essay Spinning – English
(again)
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 20ThomasLancaster.co.uk
English to English Is Quite
Different
Within the Compu...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 21ThomasLancaster.co.uk
This Is A Mild Example…
Poor quality English can be im...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 22ThomasLancaster.co.uk
(2) Social Media Cheating
Groups
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 23ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Private Information Sharing
“The superintendent for th...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 24ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Contextual Solutions
Require students to provide acces...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 25ThomasLancaster.co.uk
(3) Contract Cheating Using
Auction Sites
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 26ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Buying Original Work
“This assignment is to create a J...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 27ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Contract Cheating
Contract cheating occurs when a stud...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 28ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Using Contextual Intelligence?
Need to automatically s...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 29ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Recommendations
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 30ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Need To Innovate
Getting ahead of students in the chea...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 31ThomasLancaster.co.uk
For More Information
Thomas Lancaster:
http://thomasla...
@DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 32ThomasLancaster.co.uk
Discussion
What are the biggest problems in student ch...
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The Application Of Intelligent Context-Aware Systems To The Detection Of Online Student Cheating - ICAS 2013

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These slides, from a presentation at the ICAS 2013 workshop, propose methods which can be used to detect student cheating in tests and assignments. They use computer systems that are both intelligent and context-aware. Three particular problems are explored, including contract cheating using auction and agency web sites, cheating using social media groups, and the issue of essay spinning, where automated translation sites can be used to change the appearance of a document and beat current plagiarism detection systems such as TurnItIn. The presentation is intended to further enhance the discussion in this area. A video version of this presentation can be accessed at http://thomaslancaster.co.uk/blog.

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The Application Of Intelligent Context-Aware Systems To The Detection Of Online Student Cheating - ICAS 2013

  1. 1. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 1ThomasLancaster.co.uk The Application Of Intelligent Context-Aware Systems To The Detection Of Online Student Cheating Thomas Lancaster Birmingham City University ICAS 2013
  2. 2. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 2ThomasLancaster.co.uk Does Cheating Matter?
  3. 3. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 3ThomasLancaster.co.uk Students Are Cheating! There are lots of statistics to support this statement e.g. 60.8% of college students admitted cheating 30,000 respondents cheating on assignments and tests and 16.5% of these college students didn’t regret cheating http://oedb.org/library/features/8-astonishing-stats-on-academic-cheating
  4. 4. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 4ThomasLancaster.co.uk Cheating Leads To… Poor reputation of the university Students are not able to complete the job they were assigned to Poor reputation of the Computing industry Disadvantageous to honest students who are putting the time and effort in Their results may look worse than their cheating peers
  5. 5. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 5ThomasLancaster.co.uk We Need To Be Addressing Cheating As a community of educational professionals, ensuring academic integrity needs to be at the forefront of everything we do There are opportunities for us to Intelligent Context-Aware Systems to both prevent and detect student cheating
  6. 6. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 6ThomasLancaster.co.uk Why I’m Interested In Further Addressing Cheating… Thomas Lancaster Senior Lecturer in Computing at Birmingham City University, UK Program Leader BSc Computer Science PhD “Effective and Efficient Plagiarism Detection” Originator of research into “contract cheating” (with Robert Clarke)
  7. 7. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 7ThomasLancaster.co.uk The Traditional Type Of Student Cheating
  8. 8. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 8ThomasLancaster.co.uk The Most Discussed Examples… Student Collusion Students work together to complete a solution to a programming task Student Plagiarism Student submits a report using sections of text taken from online web sites
  9. 9. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 9ThomasLancaster.co.uk Plagiarism Is Detectable TurnItIn widely used within education to find text in common with web sites and a massive database.
  10. 10. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 10ThomasLancaster.co.uk Collusion Is Detectable JPlag (http://www.jplag.de) used to find clusters (groups) of students who have submitted program source code solutions which are structural and syntactically similar
  11. 11. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 11ThomasLancaster.co.uk Computing Academics Have Plagiarism Solved? Many algorithms to look for plagiarism and collusion have been developed and tested There are a lot of software solutions out there for educational use Systems like TurnItIn “win out” due to the benefits of a massive database of previous work
  12. 12. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 12ThomasLancaster.co.uk Anti-Plagiarism Systems Make Limited Use Of Context Copy of student work (in electronic format) Work submitted by other students in current cohort Work submitted by other students in previous cohorts/at other universities Database of web sites/journal papers/lecture notes
  13. 13. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 13ThomasLancaster.co.uk Three More Problems That Could Perhaps Utilise Context
  14. 14. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 14ThomasLancaster.co.uk The Most Blatant Cheating Is Easy To Detect but… Here are three more challenges for discussion (1) Essay Spinning (2) Social Media Cheating Groups (3) Contract Cheating Using Auction Sites (the printed paper discusses these in more detail and proposes further challenges)
  15. 15. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 15ThomasLancaster.co.uk (1) Essay Spinning
  16. 16. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 16ThomasLancaster.co.uk Essay Spinning - English http://translate.google.com
  17. 17. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 17ThomasLancaster.co.uk Essay Spinning - Danish
  18. 18. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 18ThomasLancaster.co.uk Essay Spinning - Slovenian
  19. 19. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 19ThomasLancaster.co.uk Essay Spinning – English (again)
  20. 20. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 20ThomasLancaster.co.uk English to English Is Quite Different Within the Computing field, this means that students are receiving degrees when they cannot sufficiently program. Hence, when these students take a job within the Computing industry, they will be unable to deliver source code to the standard that their employer expects. Although such students are not likely to last long in these jobs, this lack of ability reflects badly on the university. This means that other students from that institution will struggle to get jobs. Further, with the interconnected world facilitated by social media, other companies are likely to also know about the bad quality of the students obtaining similar degrees. In the computer field means that students get degrees, they can not properly program. Therefore, when these students take a job in the computer industry will be able to provide the source code to the standard that their employer expects. Though these students are not likely to last long in this business, this failure reflects poorly on the university. This means that other students from these institutions are struggling to get a job. Continue with the interconnected world of social media facilitated another company, you probably know about the low quality of the students have similar degrees.
  21. 21. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 21ThomasLancaster.co.uk This Is A Mild Example… Poor quality English can be improved using tutorial support (or may be acceptable for international speakers) Can we use context to detect the multi-lingual version of this translation? Suggestion – to extend the anti-plagiarism databases to automatically compare against translation – using the known languages of the student as context
  22. 22. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 22ThomasLancaster.co.uk (2) Social Media Cheating Groups
  23. 23. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 23ThomasLancaster.co.uk Private Information Sharing “The superintendent for the West Islip School District said 12 students used Facebook to cheat on their biology homework and exam. ‘You can quickly, you know, snap a picture of your homework and post it’ He also said the Facebook page was taken down.” http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2013/05/24/west-islip-students-accused-of-using-facebook-to-cheat
  24. 24. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 24ThomasLancaster.co.uk Contextual Solutions Require students to provide access to all their social media accounts – then use traditional anti-plagiarism monitoring and algorithms? Use time and location cues to provide evidence of social media cheating?
  25. 25. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 25ThomasLancaster.co.uk (3) Contract Cheating Using Auction Sites
  26. 26. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 26ThomasLancaster.co.uk Buying Original Work “This assignment is to create a Java program that inputs loan amount, annual interest rate and loan term and outputs the loan payment information. Attached is the output screen that it needs to look like when complete. The official assignment requirements will be forwarded to the winner of the contract which includes all the details and formats to be used. ” http://www.freelancer.com/projects/Java/Hire-someone-Java-homework.html
  27. 27. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 27ThomasLancaster.co.uk Contract Cheating Contract cheating occurs when a student has original work produced for them, which they then submit for academic credit This will not be detected by TurnItIn or JPlag
  28. 28. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 28ThomasLancaster.co.uk Using Contextual Intelligence? Need to automatically scan auction web sites, such as Freelancer and gather information (evidence) The contextual challenge is attribution (which student? which university?) Can stylometrics (writing style analysis) be used to identify when work is written out of context?
  29. 29. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 29ThomasLancaster.co.uk Recommendations
  30. 30. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 30ThomasLancaster.co.uk Need To Innovate Getting ahead of students in the cheating game is an “arms race” If the students put the same amount of effort into their work, they would all end up with first class degrees! Context is an underutilised component of cheating detection We need to improve our use of intelligent systems to do this This paper provides an early contribution to that discussion
  31. 31. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 31ThomasLancaster.co.uk For More Information Thomas Lancaster: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk thomas.lancaster@bcu.ac.uk Slides Available At: http://slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster Video Discussion Available At: http://youtube.com/DrThomasLancaster
  32. 32. @DrLancaster slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster 32ThomasLancaster.co.uk Discussion What are the biggest problems in student cheating? How can Intelligent Context-Aware Systems aid academics in preventing and detecting those types of cheating?

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