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International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 1
International Pe...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
International Perspectives on #contractcheating
Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017
Dr. Thomas Lancast...
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International Perspectives On Contract Cheating - Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference - 23 May 2017

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This presentation presents the contract cheating field as an international area of research priority. In the (more than) ten years since the research area has been established, the challenges of contract cheating have moved from being solved by sole academics, to being processed through international research teams, national bodies, legal solutions and students themselves. The slides consider the international agenda behind contract cheating and the opportunities for further research work within this important field.

Published in: Education
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International Perspectives On Contract Cheating - Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference - 23 May 2017

  1. 1. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 1 International Perspectives on Contract Cheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster School of Computing and Digital Technologies Staffordshire University Tuesday, 23 May 2017 http://thomaslancaster.co.uk
  2. 2. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk2 Introduction
  3. 3. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk3 Overview A brief overview of what contract cheating is and my role within international contract cheating research work Some key current international findings regarding contract cheating, including highlights from the South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI) project The opportunities for research that exist within the contract cheating and academic integrity fields
  4. 4. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk4 About Dr. Thomas Lancaster Academic with Computer Science Background Contract Cheating Researcher International Speaker Academic Integrity Media Contributor Associate Dean – Recruitment School of Computing and Digital Technologies, Staffordshire University Operates a website and blog at: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Tweets using: @DrLancaster and #contractcheating Answers emails at: thomas.lancaster@staffs.ac.uk thomas@thomaslancaster.co.uk Archives slides on SlideShare at: https://www.slideshare.net/thomaslan caster
  5. 5. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk5 Has worked closely with me since we first introduced the term contract cheating in a 2006 study A devoted advocate of academic integrity Now largely retired – for many years a senior Computing academic for Birmingham City University Has identified more than 30,000 cheating attempts worldwide from students posting their assignment requests online for help from a third party With Thanks To Robert Clarke
  6. 6. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk6 A Rapid Introduction To Contract Cheating
  7. 7. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk7 A student pays one of their peers to complete an extra version of the assignment for them A student asks a family member to review their assignment – and substantial “corrections” are made to this document A student posts a request on an online agency site to hire a third party to complete their assignment Contract Cheating Defined In A Student Context Just a few indicative examples – there are many more scenarios
  8. 8. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk8 International Providers Of Contract Cheating Servics Company advertising on Facebook Found inside an Australian bathroom cubicle Business card used in the United States Sample online writing company Flyer distributed at a university in Greece
  9. 9. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk9 International Users Of Contract Cheating Services ? “Many of our clients are non-native speakers, often from China” https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/5v7wvg/we_are_the_owner_and_one_of_the_professors_from Unemployed Professors “I don’t think I’ve had an Australian client at all, they are mostly Chinese.” http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/parenting/school-life/students-are-paying-people-to-write-their- assignments-for-them/news-story/816f2da3bdeec5c231f2c8ec3377d9d0 “Kayne” – Australian student advertising writing services on Gumtree
  10. 10. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk10 Some Useful International Findings Essays sold in Australia - 2016 Essays purchased online may be worthy of distinctions (3 out of 26), but they may also be below pass quality (8 out of 26) Lines, L., 2016. Ghostwriters guaranteeing grades? The quality of online ghostwriting services available to tertiary students in Australia. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(8), pp.889-914. Ghost writers working from developing countries - 2016 10 writers from developing countries interviewed. All had degrees from Western universities – and had returned to their home countries to work as “academic writers” Sivasubramaniam, S., Kostelidou, K. and Ramachandran, S., 2016. A Close Encounter with Ghost-writers: An Initial Exploration Study on Background, Strategies and Attitudes of Independent Essay Providers. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 12(1). Students in Australia - 2017 Students less likely to outsource reflections on practical work, individualised assignments, work completed in class, spoken presentations (from survey of 15,047 students at 8 Australian universities) Preliminary findings from a survey of students and staff in Australian higher education, shared at University of South Australia symposium on 13 April 2017, https://cheatingandassessment.edu.au.
  11. 11. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk11 What Does Recent Contract Cheating Research Conducted Within SE Europe Tell Us?
  12. 12. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk12 South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI) Regional academic integrity study, funded by Council of Europe as part of the Ethics, Transparency and Integrity in Education (ETINED) platform The countries included in the study were: Research conducted through international collaboration (United Kingdom and Czech Republic) Data collected in late 2016, first findings published in April 2017 (1) Albania (2) Bosnia and Herzegovina (3) Croatia (4) Montenegro (5) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (6) Serbia
  13. 13. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk13 Results Released So Far Have Identified Contract Cheating As An Issue Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond Conference Paper (24 - 26 May 2017, Brno, Czech Republic) https://plagiarism.pefka.mendelu.cz Supported by the European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI) https://www.academicintegrity.eu Final Report for SEEPPAI http://www.plagiarism.cz/seeppai (a paper looking specifically at contract cheating in the SE Europe region is planned - this presentation provides a “sneak peak” at some early observations)
  14. 14. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk14 Contract cheating is a known problem in SE Europe In Croatia, 6 out of 10 students in a focus group told the SEEPPAI researchers that they knew someone who had purchased an assignment
  15. 15. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk15 The Contract Cheating Issues In SE Europe Mirror Those In The UK “You can find adverts [for contract cheating services] around the university. You can find them in the Facebook group for the department.” Quote from a student focus group
  16. 16. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk16 Some commentators in the UK have claimed that contract cheating is the results of student fees Countries with no fees – and those with student grants – still experience the same challenges
  17. 17. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk17 Institutions in the region lack comparable statistics relating to academic misconduct Even in the UK, when statistics do exist few institutions have the data to break these down by type of misconduct and/or academic discipline
  18. 18. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk18 Students in SE Europe seem to operate within a wider culture that allows financial corruption in education There is good practice across the region and many excellent dedicated lecturers – but also examples of students reportedly paying for results, or being expected to make purchases helping their lecturers to succeed with the course
  19. 19. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk19 What Should We Do About Contract Cheating?
  20. 20. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk20 Opportunities For Contract Cheating Research How do we ensure consistent and effective contract cheating policies and processes? Can we evidence groups “at risk” from contract cheating services? What mechanisms can be used to support those “at risk”? What is known about the labour market for contract cheating services and how can this inform proactive academic integrity developments? What role do other stakeholders in higher education have to take in the governance of contract cheating? How can research in stylometrics, linguistics and artificial intelligence be used to confirm the identity of student writers? How successful are student- led partnerships in reducing contract cheating and improving academic integrity?
  21. 21. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk21 International Awareness Of Contract Cheating A movement towards academic integrity? #defeatthecheat #excelwithintegrity
  22. 22. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk22 More Information
  23. 23. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk23 A Few Of Our Contract Cheating Papers (for those of you with a preference for the formal academic approach) Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2017). Rethinking Assessment By Examination In The Age Of Contract Cheating, to be published at Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond 2017, Brno, Czech Republic, May 2017. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2016). Contract Cheating – The Outsourcing Of Assessed Student Work, in Handbook of Academic Integrity, Bretag, T. (editor): SpringerReference. Hersey, C. and Lancaster, T. (2015). The Online Industry of Paper Mills, Contract Cheating Services, and Auction Sites, Clute Institute International Education Conference, London, UK, June 2015. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014). An Observational Analysis Of The Range And Extent Of Contract Cheating From Online Courses Found On Agency Websites; 8th International Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS 2014), Birmingham, UK, July 2014. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014). An Initial Analysis Of The Contextual Information Available Within Auction Posts On Contract Cheating Agency Websites, 28th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Victoria, Canada, May 2014. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014). Using Turnitin As A Tool For Attribution In Cases Of Contract Cheating; 3rd Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Edinburgh, UK, April 2014. Clarke, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013). Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating; 8th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, July 2013. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2012). Dealing With Contract Cheating: A Question Of Attribution; 1st Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Imperial College, London, UK, April 2012. Clarke, R, and Lancaster, T (2007). Establishing a Systematic Six-Stage Process for Detecting Contract Cheating; The Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications, Birmingham, UK, July 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007). Assessing Contract Cheating Through Auction Sites – A Computing Perspective; 8th Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Information and Computer Sciences, Southampton, UK, August 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007). The Phenomena of Contract Cheating, in Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions, Roberts, T. S. (editor), Idea Group Inc. Clarke, R and Lancaster, T (2006). Eliminating The Successor To Plagiarism? Identifying The Usage Of Contract Cheating Sites; 2nd Plagiarism: Prevention, Practice and Policy Conference, Newcastle, UK, June 2006.
  24. 24. International Perspectives on #contractcheating Staffordshire University Staff Research Conference 2017 Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk24 Further Resources Slides available at: https://www.slideshare.net/thomaslancaster Video version of the presentation available at: https://www.youtube.com/user/DrThomasLancaster Contact details for workshop arrangement, media enquiries, research supervision: thomas.lancaster@staffs.ac.uk thomas@thomaslancaster.co.uk

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