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Examining The State of Academic Integrity in Europe - University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania - 27 June 2017

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Academic integrity continues to be an issue across Europe, including in Romania. This presentation, delivered as part of a day examining academic integrity issues at the University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania focused particularly on the findings from the South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI) research, conducted for the Council of Europe. The event in Bucharest was supported by Turnitin.

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Examining The State of Academic Integrity in Europe - University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania - 27 June 2017

  1. 1. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster1 Examining The State of Academic Integrity in Europe Presented by Dr. Thomas Lancaster from Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom Presented at University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania on Tuesday, 27 June 2017
  2. 2. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster2 Presentation Background
  3. 3. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster3 Areas For Consideration What do we mean by academic integrity and how does a lack of academic integrity manifest itself? What recent evidence do we have about academic integrity in Europe? Based on the evidence, what are some of the main challenges for academic integrity in Europe? What positive academic integrity initiatives can we draw upon?
  4. 4. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster4 About Dr. Thomas Lancaster Professional Interests Academic (Computer Science) (Associate Dean) Social Media Enthusiast (@DrLancaster) Media Speaker Researcher Email: thomas@thomaslancaster.co.uk Website/Blog: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Slides: https://www.slideshare.net/thomaslancaster
  5. 5. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster5 Academic Integrity Research Interests A red card to student cheating? Contract cheating Students paying ghost writers to complete their work Plagiarism prevention and detection PhD “Effective and Efficient Plagiarism Detection” Emerging areas of student cheating Such as exam cheating technologies and smart drugs Collaborative research with staff and students
  6. 6. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster6 Academic Integrity
  7. 7. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster7 The importance and reach of academic integrity is not well understood in education
  8. 8. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster8 The Terms People Think About “academic integrity” 495,000 results “plagiarism” 30,500,000 results “academic misconduct” 408,000 results “cheat exam” 5,440,000 Searches on Google (UK) June 2016
  9. 9. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster9 How Should We View Academic Integrity? Negative committed plagiarism took research shortcuts stole exam paper Positive acted with ethics marked work fairly led others by example
  10. 10. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster10 Academic Integrity (my rough definition) The set of core values and principles that underpin the activities of universities
  11. 11. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster11 Do we want to reward academic integrity? Do we want to punish a lack of academic integrity?
  12. 12. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster12 Academic Integrity in Romania
  13. 13. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster13
  14. 14. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster14 Tweets from Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond Conference 2017 (24 - 26 May 2017, Brno, Czech Republic) https://plagiarism.pefka.mendelu.cz
  15. 15. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster15 Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe (IPPHEAE) Council of Europe funded project, which ran between from 2010 to 2013 Part of Pan-European Platform on Ethics, Transparency and Integrity in Education (ETINED) platform The 27 countries included were: (1) Austria, (2) Belgium, (3) Bulgaria, (4) Cyprus, (5) Czech Republic, (6) Germany, (7) Denmark, (8) Estonia, (9) Finland, (10) France, (11) Greece, (12) Hungary, (13) Ireland, (14) Italy, (15) Latvia, (16) Lithuania, (17) Luxembourg, (18) Malta, (19) Holland, (20) Poland, (21) Portugal, (22) Romania, (23) Slovakia, (24) Slovenia, (25) Spain, (26) Sweden, (27) United Kingdom http://plagiarism.cz/ippheae
  16. 16. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster16 IPPHEAE Findings Academic integrity policies inconsistent and lacking in maturity Some countries denied that they had any issues with academic integrity Students showed that they were open to operating in a corrupt society Some good practice in every country, mostly led by individual academics More work to do in every country
  17. 17. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster17 IPPHEAE Romania Exam based system (most commonly, 60% of assessment through exams) 32% of students and 46% of teachers believed there would be no consequences for plagiarising in an assignmentDr. Irene Glendinning
  18. 18. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster18 Many of the findings for Romania are very close to the results from our most recent SEEPPAI research
  19. 19. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster19 Quote From A Teacher in Romania “I think sometimes it is accidental, students have not been explained to about citation rules, or done lots of reading. Need to teach them not to plagiarise.”
  20. 20. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster20 South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI)
  21. 21. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster21 South East European Project on Policies for Academic Integrity (SEEPPAI) A further Council of Europe supported project, with data collected between October and December 2016 Study title reflective of the sector move from discussing plagiarism to thinking about academic integrity The countries involved were: (1) Albania (2) Bosnia and Herzegovina (3) Croatia (4) Montenegro (5) the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (6) Serbia http://www.plagiarism.cz/seeppai
  22. 22. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster22 SEEPPAI Project Team Members Czech Republic SEEPPAI Leads (representing Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic) Support for Mendel University team United Kingdom SEEPPAI Leads (representing Coventry University, United Kingdom) Tomáš Foltýnek Ben Calhoun (from Webster Vienna Private University, Austria) Irene Glendinning Dita Dlabolova Tetyana Kapet Thomas Lancaster (now at Staffordshire University, United Kingdom) Dana Linkeschova (from Brno University of Technology)
  23. 23. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster23 Final SEEPPAI Report http://www.plagiarism.cz/seeppai Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond Conference Paper (24 - 26 May 2017, Brno, Czech Republic) https://plagiarism.pefka.mendelu.cz Two main SEEPPAI resources released so far (plus slides from presentations and further papers to follow)
  24. 24. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster24 Data Collection (through live visits and online surveys) Total Number Student Surveys 460 Teacher Surveys 255 Higher Education Management Surveys 15 Student Focus Groups 13 Interviews and Group Discussions (Teachers, Managers, National Representatives) 24 Visits included a range of workshops, focus groups, discussions and interviews
  25. 25. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster25 Issues found largely consistent across the SE Europe region (and further, also reflective of IPPHEAE) Some emerging trends in student cheating identified Headline Results
  26. 26. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster26 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 UK Austria Sweden IrishRep Malta Slovakia Cyprus Finland Netherlands CzechRep Slovenia Denmark Belgium Bosnia&Herz Estonia Greece Lithuania Macedonia Croatia Poland Albania Portugal Latvia Serbia Germany Hungary Romania Spain France Italy Luxembourg Montenegro Bulgaria Research Training Knowledge Communication Prevention Software Sanctions Policies Transparency Academic Integrity Maturity Model Model developed by Dr. Irene Glendinning Results include 33 IPPHEAE and SEEPPAI countries
  27. 27. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster27 Challenges Identified From SEEPPAI Research
  28. 28. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster28 Academic Autonomy Little monitoring of academic decisions Second marking and moderation uncommon Academic integrity policies often not defined Where academic integrity policies defined, these are often not followed
  29. 29. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster29 Exam Cheating Reuse of exam questions Inadequate invigilation of exams Room layouts allowing students to see other answers Third parties available to hire, providing answers through hidden earpieces
  30. 30. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster30 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “We have teachers who even don’t read the papers. One teacher slept on the exam!” “I have experienced one or two cases when students were caught cheating, and the professors just tell them to stop looking at the other person’s paper, and that’s it.”
  31. 31. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster31 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “If you open Buzzfeed or something you will find a hundred articles on how to cheat, like you will find articles about pens or watches… people put a lot of thought into [exam] cheating.”
  32. 32. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster32 Contract Cheating Ghost writing services offering to complete work for students widely advertised Students themselves said they were writing assignments for other students
  33. 33. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster33 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “There are Facebook groups where you can hire someone. There are numbers in the bathroom stalls for writing seminars” “I wrote many works for other students, also at high school, it’s very often”
  34. 34. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster34 Penalties Penalties for academic misconduct said to be lenient, inconsistently applied and not a deterrent Very difficult to delay the progress of a student Almost impossible to remove a student from a course
  35. 35. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster35 What Action Would Be Taken Against A Student Who Plagiarised In An Assessment? Students Teachers No action would be taken 23% 25% Warning (informal or formal) or exposing to community 53% 60% Rewrite the assignment or new assignment or zero mark 66% 70% Repeat the subject or year or temporary suspension 39% 31% Expel from the institution 7% 2%
  36. 36. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster36 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “Many students just go through college to get a job, and the punishments aren’t strict enough”
  37. 37. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster37 Cultural Challenges Wider cultures identified that support bribery and corruption, with these issues also seen in education In some countries, over 80% of young people find they have to university, otherwise they would be unemployed Overall focus is on penalties, rather than promoting integrity
  38. 38. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster38 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “There are a few professors who are known for taking money to let students pass exams.”
  39. 39. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster39 Education Teachers assume that students know about academic writing and referencing Students lack support on avoiding plagiarism Staff lack continued professional development
  40. 40. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster40 Results From Survey Of Teachers 87.2% of teachers agreed that there should be more training for students on avoiding plagiarism and academic dishonesty 80.3% of teachers agreed that there should be more training for teachers on avoiding plagiarism and academic dishonesty 87.5% of teachers said there is no training provided for people involved in making decisions on academic misconduct and penalties
  41. 41. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster41 What Do Students Find Most Challenging About Academic Writing? Students Teachers Finding good quality sources 73% 17% Referencing and citation 26% 19% Paraphrasing 23% 13% Understanding different referencing formats and styles 16% 8% Time management 16% 5% Language skills 16% 15% Tackling cultural differences 6% 2% Building a critical argument with evidence 32% 21% Other 4% 1%
  42. 42. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster42 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “Maybe it’s the mistake of teachers and professors? They don’t teach students how to write proper work.” “A good measure, professors should give students someone else’s essays. In that way, students should see how they should write it. They are reading textbooks and essays of professors but the texts are too good for students. So students lose their self-confidence.”
  43. 43. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster43 SEEPPAI Good Practice
  44. 44. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster44 Internationalisation Institutions had developed strong ties with international universities and adopted their codes of practice Teaching assistants provided with the opportunity to study abroad, bringing good practice back with them
  45. 45. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster45 Deterrence Students required to submit a signed ethical statement before taking exams Universities and individual academics had adopted text matching tools to identify plagiarism Only students with a clear academic integrity record entitled to grants
  46. 46. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster46 Assessment Spoken exams were used to check that students understood their subject Exam room layouts set up to make cheating difficult Cameras used to record activity in exam rooms
  47. 47. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster47 Education Institutions having pages on their web site relating to ethics Teachers delivering writing courses showing students how to write and structure essays for their particular subject Guest speaker programmes offered to provide a more enriching and motivating experience for students
  48. 48. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster48 SEEPPAI Recommendations
  49. 49. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster49 A Multi-Levelled Approach Academic integrity needs to be addressed all levels from National Government support through to individual teachers and students Institutions to be encouraged to develop international links (and supported with this process) Local research to be encouraged through small grants
  50. 50. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster50 Policies and Processes Guidance to be provided from National Government, along with quality process monitoring Institutions to instigate internal review of processes and practices, including standard penalties Guidelines to be developed for students and teachers, supported by training All parties to commit to handling academic misconduct cases through official university processes
  51. 51. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster51 Teaching and Assessment Teaching methods to be reviewed to discourage rote learning Preventative measures, such as the use of software tools, to be integrated into assessment Staff to work with students as partners to improve teaching and to ensure that students see the value in their studies
  52. 52. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster52 Student Comments From SEEPPAI Focus Groups “It is better to plagiarise good ideas then to create bad ones” Do we agree?
  53. 53. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster53 All parties need to take personal responsibility for integrity And commit to such integrity in their professional and personal lives
  54. 54. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster54 For More Information
  55. 55. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster55 Connect With Thomas Lancaster (Speaking, PhD Supervision, Collaborations) Email: thomas@thomaslancaster.co.uk Website: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Blog: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk/blog LinkedIn: https://uk.linkedin.com/in/thomaslancaster Twitter: @DrLancaster Slides available at http://www.slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster Drawing courtesy of Lesley Imgart http://www.lesleyimgart.com
  56. 56. Dr. Thomas Lancaster http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Twitter: @DrLancaster56 Selected Academic Integrity References Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2017), Rethinking Assessment By Examination In The Age Of Contract Cheating, Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond 2017. Glendinning, I., Foltýnek, T., Dlabolová, D., Linkeschová, D. and Lancaster, T. (2017), Exploring Issues Challenging Academic Integrity in South East Europe, Plagiarism Across Europe and Beyond 2017. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2016). Contract Cheating – The Outsourcing Of Assessed Student Work, in Handbook of Academic Integrity, Bretag, T. (editor): SpringerReference. Hersey, C. and Lancaster, T. (2015). The Online Industry of Paper Mills, Contract Cheating Services, and Auction Sites, Clute Institute International Education Conference, London, June 2015. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014). Using Turnitin As A Tool For Attribution In Cases Of Contract Cheating; 3rd Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, April 2014. Clarke, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013). Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating; 8th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, July 2013. Lancaster, T. (2013), The Use of Text Matching Tools For The Prevention And Detection of Student Plagiarism; in Plagiarism Phenomenon In Europe: Research Contributes To Prevention, Dias, P. and Bastos, A. (editors): Braga: Aletheia - Associação Científica e Cultural da Faculdade de Filosofia da Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2012). Dealing With Contract Cheating: A Question Of Attribution; 1st Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Imperial College, London, April 2012. Clarke, R, and Lancaster, T (2007). Establishing a Systematic Six-Stage Process for Detecting Contract Cheating; The Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications, Birmingham City University, July 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007). Assessing Contract Cheating Through Auction Sites – A Computing Perspective; 8th Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Information and Computer Sciences, University of Southampton, August 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007). The Phenomena of Contract Cheating, in Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and solutions, Roberts, T. S. (editor), Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: Idea Group Inc. Clarke, R and Lancaster, T (2006). Eliminating The Successor To Plagiarism? Identifying The Usage Of Contract Cheating Sites; 2nd Plagiarism: Prevention, Practice and Policy Conference 2006 - Newcastle, UK, June 2006. Lancaster T. and Culwin F. (2004), A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines. Journal of Computer Science Education 14.2. Culwin F. and Lancaster T. (2001), Plagiarism Issues for Higher Education. Vine 31(2), pp. 36-41.

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