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A Decade Of Contract Cheating - Examining The Changes That Have Been Made To The Marketplace For Bespoke Essays - Coventry University Conference - 23 June 2016

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Contract cheating has been an issue concerning academics for over 10 years now, ever since the initial work by Thomas Lancaster and Robert Clarke, published in June 2016. This talk provides a view across the past decade of contract cheating, looking particularly at the wider changes in behaviour and marketing that have made contract cheating services and essay mills more accessible to students. Examples are pulled from across different academic disciplines and offer a challenge to educational providers about how to ensure that the next decade of tackling contract cheating is more successful than the last.

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A Decade Of Contract Cheating - Examining The Changes That Have Been Made To The Marketplace For Bespoke Essays - Coventry University Conference - 23 June 2016

  1. 1. 1#contractcheating A Decade Of Contract Cheating Examining The Changes That Have Been Made To The Marketplace For Bespoke Essays Presented by Dr. Thomas Lancaster at Coventry University Conference on Thursday, 23 June 2016 http://thomaslancaster.co.uk
  2. 2. 2#contractcheating What The Hey Is This “So- Called” Contract Cheating… And Is It Really A Problem?
  3. 3. 3#contractcheating (Informal) Definition Contract cheating occurs when a student uses a third party to produce original academic work for them Usually, contract cheating involves money changing hands
  4. 4. 4#contractcheating What Does Google Think? This is what Google (UK) will suggest to you if you are a student looking for help writing your essay
  5. 5. 5#contractcheating The 10 Year Focus For This Session This presentation looks at a decade of developments within the contract cheating industry Not strictly a research presentation, but this is informed by 10(+) years of research Particular focus on the underlying market trends which are changing the access that students have to ghostwriting services
  6. 6. 6#contractcheating Your Involvement Is Encouraged! Twitter Post comments, quotes, photos, discussion topics #contractcheating #CUcbf @DrLancaster Live Please join in the discussion, ask questions and contribute stories
  7. 7. 7#contractcheating 10 Years Watching Other People Become Wealthy?
  8. 8. 8#contractcheating Dr. Thomas Lancaster Have researched the issues surrounding student plagiarism, contract cheating and academic integrity since January 2000 Joined Coventry University as Principal Lecturer/Associate Head of School (Marketing and Recruitment) in May 2016 Primary academic disciplines are Computer Science and Mathematics Main contributions to teaching include student employability, entrepreneurship, social media marketing and providing staff development opportunities Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy BBC South East Today– BBC1 Dispatches – Channel 4 Fake Britain – BBC1
  9. 9. 9#contractcheating Is It Cheating, Is It Business Or Is It Entrepreneurship?
  10. 10. 10#contractcheating With Thanks To “Detective Bob” Robert Clarke Educational Consultant and Researcher at SCL Current Visiting Lecturer at Birmingham City University Former Principal Lecturer with 30 years teaching experience Enjoys using his free time trying to alert academics when students try to request other people online to complete assessed work for that student Bob has collected over 30,000 attempts made by students wanting to cheat BBC News at Six – BBC1
  11. 11. 11#contractcheating What I Got Up To On The Way To Monday, 19 June 2006
  12. 12. 12#contractcheating A Few Days Earlier – The Start of a Decade of Media Interest http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/5071886.stm http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1521115/Cheating- students-put-assignments-out-to-tender-on-the-internet.html
  13. 13. 13#contractcheating The Original Paper https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228367576_Eliminating_the_success or_to_plagiarism_Identifying_the_usage_of_contract_cheating_sites
  14. 14. 14#contractcheating As seen on Rentacoder.com (now Freelancer.com) Contract cheating example used in original 2006 presentation slides “this is collage project. its about E-COMMERCE B 2C RETAILING SYSTEM FOR A NUTRITIONAL PRODUCT SALES COMPANY. the time frame is 1 month. if you can finish this in less than 1 month. that would be great. this is collage project only....it no need to be really good design. as long meet the requirment is fine but the web design layout should be nice. thanks in advance.”
  15. 15. 15#contractcheating 15 Workers From Around The Globe Competed To Be Awarded The Opportunity To Work On The Assignment Bidder Bid (USD) Bidder Stated Location mfavw 85.00 Egypt farhadcoders 93.50 Pakistan outsource2win 126.65 Nepal noorwebcrea 127.50 United States rd170 127.50 United Kingdom sharekhs 127.50 India shreeinfosystems 127.50 India inadilemma 144.50 Australia perfectron 148.75 India futureforce 153.00 India adsystemsl 170.00 Afghanistan livemist 170.00 Philippines logicexpertvw 170.00 India meghanivas143 170.00 India vw1638062vw 170.00 India average bid = $140.76
  16. 16. 16#contractcheating Essay Mills– A Decade Ago And Today June 2006 June 2016
  17. 17. 17#contractcheating A Necessary Increase In Sophistication? https://twitter.com/DrLancaster/status/742994739084075009
  18. 18. 18#contractcheating Today… Has The Behaviour of Contract Cheating Become Normalised? Daily Telegraph - 29 May 2016 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/05/29/essay-writing- industry-booms-as-students-demand-tailor-made-cour “All Answers Ltd, one of the biggest players in the essay-writing business, has grown 10pc year on year, it said, while the boss of one its rivals, Essay Writer, believes the industry is now worth around £100m.”
  19. 19. 19#contractcheating Cheating In A Disconnected World?
  20. 20. 20#contractcheating Sophisticated marketing campaign on the London Underground 2016
  21. 21. 21#contractcheating All seen on a five minute walk between the railway station and a West Midlands university
  22. 22. 22#contractcheating Freshly Developed Methods of Online Connection
  23. 23. 23#contractcheating Facebook advertising (paid/free) targeted at students
  24. 24. 24#contractcheating Facebook groups offering essay writing “support”
  25. 25. 25#contractcheating Simple (joke?) Twitter request
  26. 26. 26#contractcheating Typical essay writing negotiations on Twitter
  27. 27. 27#contractcheating Departing From The Traditional Essay Mill
  28. 28. 28#contractcheating Sites targeted to academic disciplines
  29. 29. 29#contractcheating Sites targeted to specific markets
  30. 30. 30#contractcheating Cheating Opportunities Extending Beyond The Traditional “Essay” Range of other services available through contract cheating sites
  31. 31. 31#contractcheating Maybe I should have got someone else to write this talk for me?
  32. 32. 32#contractcheating Make Money Without Running An Essay Mill
  33. 33. 33#contractcheating High Paying Referrals? Essay writing services compete to attract the best affiliates and offer the best commission rates.
  34. 34. 34#contractcheating Legitimate Reviews? Standard marketing techniques for “legitimate” businesses now used by essay companies
  35. 35. 35#contractcheating Helping Students To Cheat Is A Coveted Career
  36. 36. 36#contractcheating New jobs for academics?
  37. 37. 37#contractcheating Do you get these benefits working at a university?
  38. 38. 38#contractcheating Get Paid To Write
  39. 39. 39#contractcheating Whole communities now exist to help people to become “academic writers” and enable them to work (providing contract cheating services)
  40. 40. 40#contractcheating What Do We Need To Work On For The Next Ten Years?
  41. 41. 41#contractcheating Consider The Underlying Marketing Issues Sophisticated marketing campaigns now in place to attract students, writers and affiliates Sites compete to be seen as offering a “legitimate” service Support can be gained externally through “private tutors”
  42. 42. 42#contractcheating https://petition.parliament.uk/petitions/128037
  43. 43. 43#contractcheating How do we promote the benefits to students of them completing their own work? How do we address the unwillingness of some academics to take contract cheating seriously?
  44. 44. 44#contractcheating Many More Resources To Share…
  45. 45. 45#contractcheating References For My Main Contract Cheating Publications Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2015), Contract Cheating – The Outsourcing Of Assessed Student Work, in Handbook of Academic Integrity, Bretag, T. (editor): SpringerReference. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2015),The Implications of Plagiarism and Contract Cheating for the Assessment of Database Modules. 13th International Workshop on Teaching, Learning and Assessment of Databases (TLAD 2015), Birmingham, UK, July 2015. Hersey, C. and Lancaster, T. (2015), The Online Industry of Paper Mills, Contract Cheating Services, and Auction Sites, Clute Institute International Education Conference, London, June 2015. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014), An Observational Analysis Of The Range And Extent Of Contract Cheating From Online Courses Found On Agency Websites; 8th International Conference on Complex, Intelligent and Software Intensive Systems (CISIS 2014), Birmingham City University, UK, July 2014. Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014), An Initial Analysis Of The Contextual Information Available Within Auction Posts On Contract Cheating Agency Websites, 28th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, University of Victoria, May 2014 Lancaster, T. and Clarke, R. (2014), Using Turnitin As A Tool For Attribution In Cases Of Contract Cheating; 3rd Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, April 2014. Clarke, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013). Commercial Aspects Of Contract Cheating; 8th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, July 2013. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2012). Dealing With Contract Cheating: A Question Of Attribution; 1st Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Imperial College, London, April 2012. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2010). Staff-Led Individualised Assessment – A Case Study; 11th Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Information and Computer Sciences, Durham University, August 2010. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2008). How to Succeed at Cheating Without Really Trying: Five Top Tips for Successful Cheating; 9th Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Information and Computer Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, August 2008. Clarke, R, and Lancaster, T (2007). Establishing a Systematic Six-Stage Process for Detecting Contract Cheating; The Second International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications, Birmingham City University, July 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007). Assessing Contract Cheating Through Auction Sites – A Computing Perspective; 8th Annual Higher Education Academy Conference in Information and Computer Sciences, University of Southampton, August 2007. Lancaster, T and Clarke, R (2007) The Phenomena of Contract Cheating, in Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and solutions, Roberts, T. S. (editor), Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: Idea Group Inc. Clarke, R and Lancaster, T (2006). Eliminating The Successor To Plagiarism? Identifying The Usage Of Contract Cheating Sites; 2nd Plagiarism: Prevention, Practice and Policy Conference 2006 - Newcastle, UK, June 2006.
  46. 46. 46#contractcheating Contract Cheating Resources On Slideshare.net This session’s slides are available at: http://www.slideshare.net/ThomasLancaster A video version of this presentation is available at: https://www.youtube.com/user/DrThomasLancaster
  47. 47. 47#contractcheating Further Information and Speaker Bookings Dr. Thomas Lancaster Contact Details Email: thomas.lancaster@coventry.ac.uk Website: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk Blog: http://thomaslancaster.co.uk/blog LinkedIn: https://uk.linkedin.com/in/thomaslancaster Twitter: @DrLancaster General Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_cheating http://contractcheating.com Contract Cheating Special Interest Group (originally supported by the Higher Education Academy): https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi- bin/webadmin?A0=CONTRACTCHEATING

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