Conceptual Art and Software Art:Notations, Algorithms and Codes    Literature and Current:    Code Interface Concept    Li...
Concepts:• verbal instructions• Instructions with algorithmic  disposition• machine-readable notations (with  algorithms i...
Tristan Tzara: Dadaist Poem, 1920To make a Dadaist poem:Take a newspaper.Take a pair of scissors.Choose an article as long...
Man Ray: Object To Be Destroyed, 1932•   Cut out the eye from a photograph of one who has been loved but is not seen    an...
John Cage: Fontana Mix, 1958Source: Aspen No.5-6, 1967. URL:http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6/fontana.html              ...
George Brecht: Word Event, 1961               Event card, source: George Brecht:               Water Yam, box with event c...
La Monte Young: Composition 1960 #3            Tony Conrad: Concept Art, 1961 Announce to the audience when               ...
Conceptual Performance4 aspects:• The written planning liberated from conventions of art media andnotations.• The highligh...
Joseph Kosuth: The Seventh Investigation, 1968-71                            Victor Burgin: All Criteria, 1970(Art as Idea...
Art & LanguageNY: Blurting in A & L, 1973                                                                                 ...
Conceptual Performance5 aspects:• The written planning liberated from conventions of art media andnotations.• The highligh...
Mel Bochner: 36 Photographs and 12 Diagrams, 1966            36 gelatin silver photographs and 12 pen-and-ink     12      ...
Sol LeWitt: Serial Project # 1, 1966The sets of nine are placed in four groups. EachThe sets of nine are placed in four gr...
Sol LeWitt: Drawing Series 1968 (Fours) Drawing Series—Composite, Part I–IV, #1–       Drawing Series I, II, III, IIII, in...
LeWitt: Locations of Lines and Geometric Figures, 1973-76                        Above: The Location of a Red Parallelogra...
Seeing-ReadingIn Conceptual Art a spectre can be differentiated frominterpenetrating processes of `seeing´ and `reading´ t...
Rob Myers: The Cybernetic Art   Nobody Wrote, 2003-4 Above: Flash version, 2003, URL: http://www.robmyers.org/art/cybernet...
Harold Hurrell:                              Harold Hurrell (Art &Fluidic Device,                              Language): ...
Hans Haacke: Photo-Electric   Viewer-Programmed Coordinate System,1968 Oberservers interrupt two rows with infra-red light...
Casey Reas: {Software} Structures, 2004   Source: Whitney Artport. URL: http://artport.whitney.org/commissions/softwarestr...
Casey Reas: {Software}                                 Sol LeWitt, Wall-   Structures, 2004                               ...
Casey Reas: {Software} Structures, 2004                 Structure: Defining relationships between elements:               ...
Guy Debord: Psychogeography«Relevé de tous les trajets effectués en un an    Le Bauhaus Imaginiste (ed.): Guidepar une étu...
George Brecht: Direction, o.J.                        Social Fiction: .walk, 2001                                         ...
Curt Cloninger: Psychocyberographic Memoirs > Let         Your Fingers Do the Drifting, 2005Rhizome, 7/30/2005. URL:http:/...
AlgorithmIn mathematics and informatics, the term “algorithm”designates an instruction which describes a task preciseand c...
Quine                               Joseph Kosuth  :quine: A program that generates a copy of  its own source text as its ...
Alex McLean: forkbomb, 2001                                                                                        0111100...
epidemiC/0100101110101101.org:        Biennale.py, 2001Source: URL: http://www.epidemic.ws/biennale/biennalepy.gif   29
Conceptual PerformanceThe “Conceptual Performance” of the sixties and seventies is renovated bythe following developments ...
Lucy Lippard: DematerializationLucy Lippard: Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972. New Yor...
Inke Arns: Program CodeProgram code is characterised by the fact that here `saying´coincides with `doing´. Code as an effe...
Frieder Nake: Algorithmic Signs    Frieder Nake´s concept of ”algorithmic signs“ for the use of signs in    computing proc...
Allan McCollum/Louise Lawler: Ideal Settings,                1983/84       Around one hundred objects: wax and shoe polish...
Concepts and ”reducing transformations“:• verbal instructions: semantic transfor-  mation• verbal instructions with algori...
Origins of illustrations:The following notes on the origins of illustrations complete the notes in the captions:• Foil 4: ...
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Conceptual art and Software Art

  1. 1. Conceptual Art and Software Art:Notations, Algorithms and Codes Literature and Current: Code Interface Concept Literaturhaus Stuttgart, 11/11/2005 Thomas Dreher http://dreher.netzliteratur.net
  2. 2. Concepts:• verbal instructions• Instructions with algorithmic disposition• machine-readable notations (with algorithms in programming languages) 2
  3. 3. Tristan Tzara: Dadaist Poem, 1920To make a Dadaist poem:Take a newspaper.Take a pair of scissors.Choose an article as long as you are planning to make your poem. Cut out thearticle.Then cut out each of the words that make up this article and put them in a bag.Shake it gently.Then take out the scraps one after the other in the order in which they left thebag.Copy conscientiously.The poem will be like you.And here you are a writer, infinitely original and endowed with a sensibility that ischarming though beyond the understanding of the vulgar. Florian Cramer, Perl CGI Adaption, URL: http://userpage.fu- berlin.de/~cantsin/permutations/tza ra/poeme_dadaiste.cgi 3
  4. 4. Man Ray: Object To Be Destroyed, 1932• Cut out the eye from a photograph of one who has been loved but is not seen anymore. Attach the eye to the pendulum of a metronome and regulate the weight to suit the tempo desired. Keep going to the limit of endurance. With a hammer well-aimed, try to destroy the whole with a single blow. Print: This Quarter, Vol.5/ No.1, September 1932, p.55. The verbal instruction appears in print below the illustration of the drawing replica with the title Ink on paper, 1932 “Indestructible Object“, 25,4 x 15,2 cm, 1958, photo: Lee Miller´s backside: verbal instruction eye 4
  5. 5. John Cage: Fontana Mix, 1958Source: Aspen No.5-6, 1967. URL:http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6/fontana.html 5
  6. 6. George Brecht: Word Event, 1961 Event card, source: George Brecht: Water Yam, box with event cards, Fluxus Edition, since 1963 6
  7. 7. La Monte Young: Composition 1960 #3 Tony Conrad: Concept Art, 1961 Announce to the audience when Sum. 1961 the piece will begin and end if to perform this piece there is a limit on duration. It may be of any duration. do not perform it. Than announce that everyone this piece is its name. may do whatever he wishes This is the piece that for the duration of the composition. is any piece. 5.14.60 Watch smoke. Source: Jackson Mac Low/La Monte Young: An Source: George Maciunas: Diagram of Anthology. New York 1963, unpaginated. Historical Development of Fluxus and Other...Art Forms (incomplete), offset, 2 7 sheets of paper, 1973
  8. 8. Conceptual Performance4 aspects:• The written planning liberated from conventions of art media andnotations.• The highlighting of the relation planning - realization promptedthe problematization of the execution as a realization of actions orobjects.• The relation notation - operation of observing is demonstratedon the one hand parallel to possible realizations as actions or objectsand on the other hand as a substitute of these realizations: Notationscan be realizable in no other way than as operations of observing.• Texts of and as works instruct to operations of observing and describewith it procedures of thinking. 8
  9. 9. Joseph Kosuth: The Seventh Investigation, 1968-71 Victor Burgin: All Criteria, 1970(Art as Idea as Idea), Context B: Public-General, Chinatown, New York 1969. Print on 2 sheets of paper, each 30 x 21 cm,Photo: Shunk-Kender, New York Tate Gallery, London 9
  10. 10. Art & LanguageNY: Blurting in A & L, 1973 10Blurting in A & L: an index of blurts and their concatenation (the Handbook), New York/Halifax 1973, p.58s.
  11. 11. Conceptual Performance5 aspects:• The written planning liberated from conventions of art media andnotations.• The highlighting of the relation planning - realization prompted theproblematization of the execution as a realization of actions or objects.• The relation notation - operation of observing is demonstrated on theone hand parallel to possible realizations as actions or objects and onthe other hand as a substitute of these realizations: Notations can berealizable in no other way than as operations of observing.• Texts of and as works instruct to operations of observing and describewith it procedures of thinking.• As “meta-art“ the text of a work thematizes the problems of a non-normative self definition of art. 11
  12. 12. Mel Bochner: 36 Photographs and 12 Diagrams, 1966 36 gelatin silver photographs and 12 pen-and-ink 12 drawings mounted on board; each panel 8 x 8 inches
  13. 13. Sol LeWitt: Serial Project # 1, 1966The sets of nine are placed in four groups. EachThe sets of nine are placed in four group com-prisesvariations on open or closed forms. closed inside open inside closed outside open outside open outside closed inside closed outside open outside Aspen no. 5 + 6, 1966. URL: Installation of part B in "Minimal Future“, MoCA, Los Angeles, 2004. URL: http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen5and6 http://artscenecal.com/ArtistsFiles/LewittS/LewittSFile/LewittSPics/ /serialProject.html SLewitt3.html 13
  14. 14. Sol LeWitt: Drawing Series 1968 (Fours) Drawing Series—Composite, Part I–IV, #1– Drawing Series I, II, III, IIII, index for 24 pages, “simple“ version, 24, A+B, 1969, version with “simple“ and in: Seth Siegelaub/Jack Wendler: Xerox Book. New York 1968, “superimposed“ basic elements, 1 of 192 unpaginated (Contribution with 25 copied pages) permutations, black pencil on walls, Dia Art Foundation, Beacon/N.Y. Source: URL: http://www.diabeacon.org/exhibs_b/ Drawing Series 1968 (Fours), in: Studio International, April 1969, lewitt/index.html p.189 (article with explications of the series´ rules) 14
  15. 15. LeWitt: Locations of Lines and Geometric Figures, 1973-76 Above: The Location of a Red Parallelogram, a Black Not-Straight Line, a Blue Triangle, a Red Straight Line, a Yellow Arc, and a Yellow Rectangle, drawing, colored ink and pencil on paper, 1/9/1976 Left: Four Wall Drawings, 11/13/1973, collection Annick and Anton Herbert, Gent 15
  16. 16. Seeing-ReadingIn Conceptual Art a spectre can be differentiated frominterpenetrating processes of `seeing´ and `reading´ toprocesses of reflexive reading:• from `seeing-reading´ (Bochner, LeWitt)over• `reading´ (Lawrence Weiner) to L. Weiner: Statement #237, 1971, installation, location:• the thematization of reading processes 26, rue Beaubourg, Parisin `reading-reading´ (Victor Burgin,Joseph Kosuth) and• its reflexion in `reading-reading-reading´. 16
  17. 17. Rob Myers: The Cybernetic Art Nobody Wrote, 2003-4 Above: Flash version, 2003, URL: http://www.robmyers.org/art/cybernetic/index.html. Right: LISP version, 2004, GNU GPL, beginning and end of the code 17 in: rob-art, URL: http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=108602
  18. 18. Harold Hurrell: Harold Hurrell (Art &Fluidic Device, Language): The Cybernetic Art1968 Work that Nobody Broke, 1969Art & Language Press, Coventry/`Prelum´Churchill, Oxford 1968. Above: first page,detail. Midst: second page, detail. Below:third page (computer print). Lithographic print, 1969 18
  19. 19. Hans Haacke: Photo-Electric Viewer-Programmed Coordinate System,1968 Oberservers interrupt two rows with infra-red light beams installed in right angle and constituting a grid in the environment. Light bulbs respond to the actions of observers. 14 infra-red light beams, 14 photo-electric cells, 28 white lighted bulbs, room: 305 x 345 x 345 cm, 1966, realization 1968. 19
  20. 20. Casey Reas: {Software} Structures, 2004 Source: Whitney Artport. URL: http://artport.whitney.org/commissions/softwarestructures/map.html 20
  21. 21. Casey Reas: {Software} Sol LeWitt, Wall- Structures, 2004 Drawing #106, 1971 Arcs from the midpoints of two sides of the wall (firstWall Drawing # 106. URL: http:// version: Arcs, from two sides of the wall, 3 cm apart.).artport.whitney.org/commissions/ Pencil. Execution: Mel Bochner, Sol LeWitt, Bonomo 21softwarestructures/_106_response/index.html Residence, Spoleto, Augustus 1971.
  22. 22. Casey Reas: {Software} Structures, 2004 Structure: Defining relationships between elements: # 003: A surface filled with one hundred medium to small sized circles. Each circle has a different size and direction, but moves at the same slow rate. Display: A. The instantaneous intersections of the circles B. The aggregate intersections of the circles Left: Implementation: Casey Reas, Structure #003B, Processing Below: Interpretation: Jared Turbell, Structure #003B, Processing 22
  23. 23. Guy Debord: Psychogeography«Relevé de tous les trajets effectués en un an Le Bauhaus Imaginiste (ed.): Guidepar une étudiante habitant le XVIe pschogéographique de Paris, 1957Arrondissement. Publié par Chombart deLauwe dans «Paris et l´agglomérationparisienne». In: Internationale Situationniste.Numéro 1. Juin 1958, p.28. 23
  24. 24. George Brecht: Direction, o.J. Social Fiction: .walk, 2001 Quelle: URL: http://www.socialfiction.org/ psychogeography/dummies.html // Classic.walk Repeat { 1 st street left 2 nd street right 2 nd street left } “...put up pointing hands all over Nice...in funny & strange places like public toilets, inside tunnels very high up, bottom of fountains - always hands coming towards these places OK?“ “This .walk example shows the classic generative George Maciunas to Tomas Schmit, midst of psychogeographical algorithm, that urban July 1963 (Source: Hendricks, Jon: Fluxus exploration haiku, written down like a pseudo-24 Codex. New York 1988, p.190) computer language.“
  25. 25. Curt Cloninger: Psychocyberographic Memoirs > Let Your Fingers Do the Drifting, 2005Rhizome, 7/30/2005. URL:http://rhizome.org/thread.rhiz?thread=18111&page=1#34621 25
  26. 26. AlgorithmIn mathematics and informatics, the term “algorithm”designates an instruction which describes a task preciseand completely in several steps. The computer scientistPaul E. Black defines an algorithm as “a computable setof steps to achieve a desired result.”Therefore an algorithm is a precise stepwise structure ofa repeatable instruction but its result is not so definitelypredeterminated as definitions in natural sciencesprescribe it. 26
  27. 27. Quine Joseph Kosuth :quine: A program that generates a copy of its own source text as its complete output. Gary P. Thompson IIQuine in LISP and Scheme, author:John McCarthy, Carolyn Talcott:((lambda (x) (list x (list (quote quote) x))) (quote (lambda (x) (list x (list (quote quote) x)))))Source: Gary P. Thompson II: The Quine Page. Self-Described and Self-Defined, neon letters, 1965.URL:http://www.nyx.net/ ~gthompso/quine.htm Cincinnati Art Museum 27
  28. 28. Alex McLean: forkbomb, 2001 01111001111110101110111111101010001111101111111111011111010100001 #!/usr/bin/perl -w 01110111111011101111111111111110110110111011011110011100011110112 use strict; 0001110101110011011011110111111010101011111011111111111111111001 1111111111111111001000000001110100000100010011110000111110011113 die "Please do not run this script without reading the 1111111111111101101111110010001111111111111111110100010010100101 documentation" if not @ARGV; 000101000101000010111011111110111111111111111110110101101111101 01011111111110111101111111101000010011110111111001110000101011114 my $strength = $ARGV[0] + 1; 11010011101010000011111111111111111111110001110110011111111110115 while (not fork) { 01001010001000010110100101111001101000100111001010110000101111 1001000010010111011011111100011111110111011101001000110101010016 exit unless --$strength; 111101111100000010001111111100010110000011101001001101101000107 print "0"; 000110111110011100111111010011000011111111111100100001011010001 1110011011011011111001111111100010010111111111111100010010010008 twist: while (fork) { 000010011010001110100100000001000001110000010001011100100001119 exit unless --$strength; 10000001100100010111010111101101111011000011100101011000100101 000000010100000100100000000000000100000000110000111111000000110 print "1"; 000000000000000000100000001111111111111111111111111111111111111011 } 0000000000000000000000010110000000000000000000000000000000000 000000001100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012 } 011110111111111111111111111111111111111111111000000000000000000013 goto twist if --$strength; 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010000000 00000000001111111111101111111000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000 Program code in Perl [the numbers of lines are not part of the code]. In: Matthias Weiß. URL: http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/werke/forkbomb/. Above: force 7. Below: force 8.0111011011101111011011110011101110110110111111111001111000011111111111101011011011100101111101110111101011100010010110011100011011110111111111111111111111111111111101100010011000101001111111110111111111111111111100011100111111111111011111111111110000100010000110011010001110011101111101111111111111111111111111111110111111001000000011101000000000110001111100001110000001111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000000010000000000011111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000000000000001000000001111110000000000001000000000000000000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000000000001000000000000000000000001111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000000000000000011111110000000000000000010000000000001000000000010000000000000000000001111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000000010111011111111111111111111111111111000000000111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000100000010100000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000100000010000000000000000000000000010000001111111111111111111111111111111111111000011000000000000100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000000000000000000001111110000000000000000000001000111111100011111000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011100011111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111110000000000000000011000001111111111100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001111111111111111110000000000000000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000000011111111111111110110001110000000000000110100000000000011111011101000000000000000000000000000000000001111111110100000000000000000000100001000000000000001100000000011000000000001111111110000000000000000000110111110001001100000000000111010011011000010000010011001111111111111111111111111111111111111100000000000000100000001111111111111110000000000000000000000000000100001111111111101000000000000000110000000000000000000000000100000100000000000000000110000000101010000000101010001111111010001111111100000000111000000000100001101100000000 280000000111111100000010100000000000000000000000000000000000000
  29. 29. epidemiC/0100101110101101.org: Biennale.py, 2001Source: URL: http://www.epidemic.ws/biennale/biennalepy.gif 29
  30. 30. Conceptual PerformanceThe “Conceptual Performance” of the sixties and seventies is renovated bythe following developments of an actual art thematizing instructions andprogramming codes:•1. from the work´s text to the program code as text presentation;•2. from the verbal concept as an instruction for realizations to the verbalsketch for realizations in programming languages;•3. from the verbal concept as an instruction for actions to the strategicinstruction for actions in the dataspace;• 4. from models for the criticismof the art world exhibited withinthe criticized context and indexsystems of Art & Language for theself documentation of (theoriesof) the “theoretical parctice” toOpen Content platforms withdiscussions, texts and activistictools for a legally andeconomically motivated criticismof the contemporary net andsoftware conditions (Sourceforge,EFF OPUS, RTMark, Creative ,Commons, Copyleft, Illegal Art, Art & Language: Index 01, documenta 5, Kassel 1972 30ODEM).
  31. 31. Lucy Lippard: DematerializationLucy Lippard: Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972. New York 1973, cover and p.43 31
  32. 32. Inke Arns: Program CodeProgram code is characterised by the fact that here `saying´coincides with `doing´. Code as an effective speech act is not adescription or a representation of something, but, on the contrary, itdirectly affects, and literally sets in motion - or it even `kills´ aprocess.Inke Arns: Read_me, Run_me, Execute_me. Software and its Discontents, or: It´s the Performativity of Code, Stupid. URL:http://art.runme.org/1107863582-4268-0/arns.pdf 32
  33. 33. Frieder Nake: Algorithmic Signs Frieder Nake´s concept of ”algorithmic signs“ for the use of signs in computing processes characterizes first the difference between signs in symbolic interaction (communication, discourse) and its use in program codes for the navigation of computing operations, and second the observer´s operations with this difference by the preparations for navigation, by the observation of computing operations and in the use of computing results: “Software is on the one hand a text, on the other hand a machine. Software is a machine only as a text, therefore it is a text, who can operate, as if it is itself a machine...Therefore Software...is a text as a machine and is readable as if it is a scripture...Software shows and shows not characteristics of machines. It shows these characteristics only in function; beyond computing it is a descriptive text...By its nature, software is neither the one (text) nor the other (machines).”Frieder Nake: Das algorithmische Zeichen. In: Kurt Bauknecht, Wilfried Brauer, Thomas A. Mück (eds.): Informatik 2001: Wirtschaft undWissenschaft in der Network Economy – Visionen und Wirklichkeit. Tagungsband der GI/OCG-Jahrestagung, 25th-28th September 2001, 33University of Vienna, Vol. 2, p.736-742. URL: http://www.agis.informatik.uni-bremen.de/ARCHIV/Publikationen/Algor.ZeichenWienText.pdf
  34. 34. Allan McCollum/Louise Lawler: Ideal Settings, 1983/84 Around one hundred objects: wax and shoe polish on cast pigmented Hydrostone, 9 x 9 x 21/4 inches each. Installation with theatrical lighting and sales price projected on wall, at the Diane Brown Gallery, New York, 1984. URL: http://home.att.net/~amcnet3/album/idealsettings.html 34
  35. 35. Concepts and ”reducing transformations“:• verbal instructions: semantic transfor- mation• verbal instructions with algorithmic structure: syntactic-algorithmic trans- formation• machine-readable notations (with algo- rithms in programming languages): algorithmic transformation 35
  36. 36. Origins of illustrations:The following notes on the origins of illustrations complete the notes in the captions:• Foil 4: Hultén, K.G. Pontus: The machine as seen at the end of the mechanical age. MoMA, NewYork 1968, p.153.• Foil 9: Kosuth: Corris, Michael (ed.): Conceptual Art. Theory, Myth and Practice. Cambridge/UK2003, S. 241; Burgin: Osborne, Peter (ed.): Conceptual Art. New York 2002, p.126.• Foil 12: Bochner, Mel: Thought Made Visible 1966-1973. Cat. exhib. Yale University Art Gallery,New Haven 1995, p.14 (C 24).• Foil 15: left: Fuchs, R.H./Debbaut, Jan: L´Architecte est absent. Works from the Collection ofAnnick and Anton Herbert. Cat. exhib. Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum. Eindhoven 1984, p.36; right:LeWitt, Sol: Drawings 1958-1992. Cat. exhib. Haags Gemeentemuseum. Den Haag 1992,unpaginated, Nr.181.• Foil 16: Website Ghislain Mollet-Viéville: Art Minimal & Conceptuel. URL:http://www.conceptual-art.net/lweiner.html (11/14/2005).• Foil 18: left: Dreher, Thomas: Konzeptuelle Kunst in Amerika und England zwischen 1963 und1976. Frankfurt am Main a.o. 1992, unpaginated, ill.19; right: Harrison, Charles: Essays on Art &Language. Oxford 1991, p.58, pl.39.• Foil 19: Haacke, Hans: Werkmonographie. Köln 1972, unpaginated, ill.31.• Foil 21: right: Legg, Alicia (ed.): Sol LeWitt. Cat. exhib. The Museum of Modern Art. New York1978, p.122.• Foil 27: right: Website Chris Glass. URL: http://www.chrisglass.com/photos/artmuseum/art.html(11/14/2005).• Foil 30: Website Thomas Dreher: Intermedia Art. URL: http://dreher.netzliteratur.net/3_Konzeptkunst_ArtLang_B2.html (11/14/2005). Photo: Charles Harrison. 36

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