What Makes Effective Design


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  • When every element is moves in the same direction, you have unity. Text and images should never be in competition for the audience. When necessary, one can be used to reinforcethe other in a way that’s visually interesting and cognitively helpful.
  • What Makes Effective Design

    1. 1. Designer or not, we show character through action and presentation.<br />
    2. 2. Example #1<br />Bullet point 1<br />Bullet point 2<br />Bullet point 3<br />Boring and unimaginative<br />
    3. 3. Example #2<br />How to make a message stick:<br />Keep the message simple. Use the unexpected. Infuse it with some credibility. Keep things concrete. Be emotional. Assemble a story.<br />Instinctively clueless and pays little attention to detail<br />
    4. 4. Example #3<br />Principles of Design<br />From our days as hunter-gathers, we are programmed to be attracted to motion. Animation is something you add during the construction process to help support your content, not after as decoration.<br />Whatever animation you use should look natural. Treat slide movement as you would if you were a director by create scenes instead of slides. This is what I have to offer: By the end of this presentation, you will have the information to design more persuasive, visually appealing, and fun to deliver power points.<br />Design is a profound mix of sociology, biology, and psychology. The way we think, feel, and anticipate quality in design is determined by the combination of culture influence, cognitive evolution, and educational upbringing. The way we feel when we see a specific color, what attracts our focus, and the interpretation of text from left to right, are all aspects of design that should be taken into consideration before designing your next presentation.<br />Has little or no idea what the audiences needs<br />
    5. 5. Risk<br />It’s easy to tell which companies take pride in their design capabilities and which ones consider them secondary. Poorly planned, crudely designed, and erroneously executedpresentations can damage credibility just as much as misinformation.<br />Opportunity<br />Nowadays, quality design is as much a demonstration of valueas low cost leadership, product innovation, or customer service. A better quality design is easier to understand, more persuasive, and all-around more enjoyable to watch. What was once a superfluous means of displaying information has now become synonymous with the modern, competent business professional.<br />
    6. 6. What we need is a method,<br />
    7. 7. a basic knowledge of what makes design effective,<br />
    8. 8. and suggestions on how to use this information. <br />So here we go.<br />
    9. 9. Process<br />Elements<br />What Makes Effective Design<br />Motion<br />-><br />Modification<br />Arrangement<br />Relationship<br />
    10. 10. Aspects of Design:<br />Process<br />Elements<br />Motion<br />Modification<br />Arrangement<br />Relationship<br />It’s important to note - though we’re grouping these ideas into separate categories for a better understanding of their use, their applications tend to overlap. For example, contrast is the difference between multiple elements in which movement and proportion can play a major role. Theprinciples of design, sometimes referred to as the principles of organization include:<br />
    11. 11. Process<br />
    12. 12. 2 hours storyboard<br />20-60 hours building slides<br />6-20 hours research and collect input<br />3 hours rehearsing<br />1 hour colleague critique<br />1 hour organize the ideas<br />1 hour build an audience needs map<br />2 hours generate sticky note ideas<br />
    13. 13. Elements<br />
    14. 14. In any design, the first thing you notice is color. In that split second between attention and conscious observation, your psychology changes. Color puts your audience in the right mood to received information with as little resistance as possible. Different colors have different associations which affect people’s physical and mental state. Women see the color red and feel attraction; men see red and feel powerful. Color can be described as calm, fresh, bland, exciting, nostalgic, modern or professional.<br />Color creates meaningthrough natural association and cultural symbolism.<br />Choose colors that portfolio will appeal to your audience. Make sure your color palette can’t be mistaken for a competitor’s brand. Consider using samples from existing elements including logos, images and the natural environment. Select three or five core colors from the color wheel, plus a neutral and a highlight color. Neutral colors serve as a background element and aid in visual hierarchy. Ultimately, your choice in color should be a reflection of your own personality.<br />
    15. 15. Type<br />Type serves as an illustration, icon and graphic elementapart from its meaning in the alphabet. Used with size or quantity, type can have tremendous impact in and of itself. As a graphical element, type carries with it an innate character that can either add to or detract from your overall message. Treat type as you would any other image. <br />Type<br />Type<br />Type<br />Type<br />Type<br />Like color, type should have audience appeal, personal brand, and clarity for maximum effect. Use type with the last row of people in mind. Changing the weight and spacing in type can be a viable option versus switching to a whole different style. Angle and adjust type for a change in dynamics. The trick with type is to start simple, then branch out according to your over all message. For instance, if you need a type to emphasize something that’s simple yet dignified, Baskerville would be a good option. An alternative to Helvetica, Arial is a great choice for clarity and practicality.<br />
    16. 16. No matter how many words you place on a slide, nothing speaks louder than a thoughtfully chosen image. Images addvisual excitement and concrete visuals to what may otherwise be abstract ideas and difficult to understand. An image can be quickly located, processed and understood.<br />When choosing your images, try to stick to original artwork and personal photographs. Never, ever use clip art. Select a family of images that work well together and are context-appropriate. Black and white images usually contain an element of nostalgia. Don’t crop your subjects at the neck. When choosing the position of your image, consider the other elements involved and how best to keep everything in sync. Text and images should never be in competition for the audience. Always have the subject in your image facing the text it represents. When necessary, one can be used to reinforce the other in a way that’s visually interesting and cognitively helpful.<br />Rules of thirds – Grid of three divided vertically and horizontally creating a composition that’s balanced, possess energy, and creates more interest than simply centering the featured elements.<br />
    17. 17. Whitespace doesn’t necessary have to stay two-dimensional. There is a whole lot of space out there if you know how to play with it.<br />Figure & Ground – The differentiating of an object (“figure”) from the surrounding area (“ground”) – Gestalts Principles of Perception<br />Think of whitespace as breathing room for all the other elements. Too little and the design becomes congested and confusing. Too much, and the space becomes overwhelming.<br />
    18. 18. Motion<br />change in position<br />
    19. 19. Content moves easier in certain directions, interpreted as it would occur naturally.<br />Direction<br />The hierarchy of movement from easiest to hardest includes down versus up, right versus left, then any variation of such.<br />
    20. 20. We have a preference for continuous figures. Lines that intersect aren’t thought of as separate, but segments of the same continual shape.<br />“Common Fate” elements that move in the same direction are perceived as related more than those moving in different directions - Gestalts Principles of Perception<br />Continuance<br />Our eye flow will move in the same direction until something more significant causes it to move.<br />
    21. 21. Rhythm<br />Flowing- gives a sense of movement, and is often more organic in nature<br />A regularly recurring pattern of activity suggesting pace<br />Regular- when the intervals between the elements are similar in size or length<br />Progressive- shows a sequence of forms through a progression of steps<br />
    22. 22. Modification<br />change in form<br />
    23. 23. Comparison – Illustrating relationships and patterns in system behaviors represented by two or more system variables -Gestalts Principles of Perception<br />Used to identify the main points quickly, contrast is a way to attract or divert attention to or from a single element before leading the audience through the rest.<br />contrast<br />Even subtle changes in color, font and size can make for a more dynamic and interesting design. <br />
    24. 24. Emphasis<br />The stress placed on a single element or visual theme; coming from either visual hierarchy…<br />or by contrast.<br />
    25. 25. “Visual economy” achieved by eliminating all non-essential elements or details to reveal the essence of a form<br />The simpler the message, the easier it is to convey and the more likely it will be understood.<br />Simplicity<br />Ask yourself: Even though there could be more added to this design, will any of it make the “core message” clearer?<br />
    26. 26. Arrangement<br />grouping and order<br />
    27. 27. Alignment<br />Arranging elements so that their lines and edges match with theother elements<br />Alignment<br />Elements do not have to be in perfect alignment. In fact, some lines may appear to be in perfect alignment when eyeballed versus when they’re measured.<br />
    28. 28. The tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern; with enough of a form filled in, the audience will instinctively fill in the remaining pieces.<br />The easiest and most effective way to prevent confusion is to reduce the amount of elements necessary to complete an interesting design – Gestalts Principles of Perception<br />Closure<br />The closer or more similar two features are, the more related they will appear.<br />
    29. 29. Dominant- The object given the most visual weight, the element of primary emphasis that advances to the foreground in the composition<br />Dominance<br />Sub-dominant- The element of secondary emphasis, the elements in the middle ground of the composition<br />Subordinate- The object given the least visual weight, the element of tertiary emphasis that recedes to the background of the composition<br />
    30. 30. Relationship<br />connections and dynamics<br />
    31. 31. a feeling of equality in weight, attention, or attraction of the various elements within the composition as a means of accomplishing unity <br />Balance<br />Balance<br />Balance can fall as either one of two ways: Symmetrical “Harmonious balance” where both sides are of equal weight and dimension, or asymmetrical “balance by grid” where one side is heavier and larger than the other. Keep in mind that balance isn’t always about finding harmony. Asymmetry is ideal for a dynamic design while symmetry is better for stability. <br />
    32. 32. An established order created by systematic differences in shape, color, size, etc.beginning from the focal point and traveling individually to the other parts<br />Hierarchy<br />Hierarchy<br />Hierarchy<br />Hierarchy<br />In design, hierarchy isn’t so much about importance as establishing an order of consideration. All groups have hierarchy. Some are more apparent than others while some require taking a step back to see; books on a shelf are typically categorized left to right, we assume larger objects to be closer than those that are smaller. Design remains confusing until we have order.<br />
    33. 33. Consistency and repetition between multiple elements are perceived as more related than elements that are “anomalies.”<br />Similarity in color results in the strongest grouping effect, followed by size and shape - Gestalt Principles of Perception<br />Similarity<br />After a while, the audience will become familiar with your design, what to expect within and between slides, and can then pay more attention to the material. Similarity can be seen in visual elements, choices in style like color palette , and the overall theme of the presentation. Without continuity, understanding and comprehension becomes increasingly difficult.<br />
    34. 34. The interpretation of elements in relation to the placement and position of other elements; provides a sense of order and completeness <br />“Unity” or Proximity<br />“Unity” or Proximity<br />Despite differences in color, shape, and size, elements that are grouped together are perceived as being more related than elements that are separated. As a result, relationships are formed which are easier to scan, accept and memorize. Elements exhibiting unity include “structure” in the way things line up, the “look” or graphic style, and “theme” or overall big idea.<br />
    35. 35. So what does all this mean?<br />
    36. 36. It’s Simple!<br />The more you know about design, the easier & faster it will be for you to do.<br />
    37. 37. Rules<br />When it comes to Power Point,<br />
    38. 38. slides<br />Format<br />font<br />10/20/30 Rule<br />3<br />slides per point<br />minutes<br />points per slide<br />Rule of<br />elements per plane<br />Use of Time – If you’re offered 30 minutes, take 20. Demonstrates that you know the material, you’re confident in handling questions, and your audience will be surprised they get out 10 minutes early.<br />
    39. 39. Animation<br />“Push” slide transitions – A different way of moving from slide to slide..<br />Image Orientation – Never have a figure facing away from your information. Gives the impression of disinterest- the last sentiment you want felt during a presentation.<br />
    40. 40. Animation<br />..Gives the impression of one large surface<br />Fast movement is exciting. <br />Normal speed is assertive. <br />Scenes and story versus slides and information:<br />Slow movement is nostalgic. <br />Pace – <br />
    41. 41. Bibliography – Suggested reads<br />Duarte, Nancy. “Slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations.” O’Reilly Media, Sabastopol, CA. 2008.<br />Reynolds, Garr. "Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery.” Garr Reynolds, 2008.<br />Joshua, David. “The Principles of Design.” Digital Web Magazine. McClurg-Genevese. 2005<br />Kawasaki, Guy. “The 10/20/30 Rule of PowerPoint.” 2005.<br />Holden, Kritina, Lidwell, William, and Butler, Jill. “Universal Principles of Design.” Rockport Publishing, 2003.<br />Montmartre by John Althouse Cohen<br />