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  1. 1. A model of learning object centered on the process teaching-learning Thiago Reis da Silva1, Rommel Wladimir de Lima2, Carla Katarina de Monteiro Marques3, Hugo Henrique de Oliveira Mesquita4, Roberto Douglas da Costa5, Rodrigo Medeiros de Azevedo6, Selma Márcia Pontes Teixeira da Rocha7Abstract  This article presents the advantages of modeling LO is a digital resource that can be used as an aid fora Learning Object using the SCORM standard, based on teaching-learning and it has the ability to be reused intools centered on the teaching/learning based on various contexts in order to facilitate the acquisition ofpedagogical theories and statements. For this, the teaching knowledge [20].tools: Map Content and Dependency Map, which is In this context an LO is any resource digital that can bedeveloping a methodology for planning disciplines, are reused to support teaching [21]. Therefore, it is understoodthought of as models for learning objects. Thus, the that the LO favor a new conception of teaching/learning,representation of these tools as Learning Objects enables its supported by technology, characterized by promoting thegreater sharing and reuse. construction of knowledge through interaction. In this perspective, the increasing use of LO activities to supportIndex Terms  Learning Objects. SCORM. Planning of the teaching-learning demanded several initiatives toTeaching-Learning. standardize the specification, construction and identification of these [5]. INTRODUCTION In the case of standardization of LO were defined several recommendations concerning the metadata With the constant advances of Information and cataloging and characterizing the LO and alsoCommunication Technologies, the Distance Learning over recommendations on how these can be encapsulated OA andthe Internet, has been suggested as a potential solution to how their content can be browsed [23].bring knowledge to more distant places [4]. An example is Currently the standard in evidence [1] is SCORMthe Learning Objects (LO) [22], which according to [20] created by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), whichmatches any resource to support learning, for example, presents itself as a reference model of LO shareable. Theanimation software, a Web page, an image, among others. focus of SCORM is the auto-learning, i.e., the student This generic definition promotes a variety of forms of interacts exclusively with the material without interferencecreations and uses of LO in the teaching/learning [14]. But, from other players in sequencing. The SCORM incorporatesthese multiplicities of ways to use their reuse difficult, various specifications of LO and thus becomes compatibleespecially with regard to other LO [18]. In this sense, the with various Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) [17].process of developing LO, must follow rules of In this perspective, the use of LO in teaching has notstandardization and pedagogical features. only advantages, there problems and/or disabilities related to In this context, this article aims to present the potential their development. According to [6] and [15], among thebenefits promoted the development of a model of OA, the major problems faced in the creation of LO include:use of teaching tools in conjunction with the Sharable a) Navigation Structure: LO in the navigationContent Object Reference Model (SCORM) standard [1]. structures are not clearly defined, and the conceptsFor this, the pedagogical tools will be used proposal in [9], and relationships are not always represented a wayContent Map and Dependency Map, whose creation process to identify the best way to navigate between them;is a planning methodology for discipline, focused on the b) Transcript written media to electronic media: inprocess of teaching/learning. developing the content of OA is very difficult to find a structured way of transcribing a content LEARNING OBJECTS AND THE STANDARD written by an electronic content, enabling its reuse SCORM in different contexts;1 Thiago Reis da Silva, Master in Computer Science at the Graduate Program in Computer Science – UERN/UFERSA.2 Rommel Wladimir de Lima, Teacher Graduate Program in Computer Science – UERN/UFERSA.3 Carla Katarina Marques de Monteiro, Teacher Graduate Program in Computer Science – UERN/UFERSA.4 Hugo Henrique Oliveira Mesquita, Bachelor of Computer Science at State University of Rio Grande do Norte – UERN.5 Roberto Douglas da Costa, Master in Computer Science at the Graduate Program in Computer Science – UERN/UFERSA and teacher Institute Federal ofEducation, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte – IFRN.6 Rodrigo Medeiros de Azevedo, Bachelor of Computer Science at State University of Rio Grande do Norte – UERN.7 Selma Márcia Pontes Teixeira da Rocha, Master in Computer Science at the Graduate Program in Computer Science – UERN/UFERSA.© 2013 ICECE March 03 - 06, 2013, Luanda, ANGOLA VIII International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education 77
  2. 2. c) Disability pedagogical: in general, the development To provide a graphic display of the discipline syllabus of LO have been more important than the technical or course, the CM has to be created. For this, a planning perspective outlook pedagogical; methodology guides the teacher in the development of CM d) Integration with VLE: when the academic and promotes planning discipline. community, industry and government failed to reach an agreement on what standard to use in the development of OA, although the standard SCORM is in evidence [1]; e) Presentation of LO: the generic definition of what may be an OA provides a wide variety of shapes and designs of the present educational content, which makes it difficult reuse. To address these problems, this model uses twopedagogical tools that work the process of teaching andlearning. The next section presents these tools. CONTENT MAP AND DEPENDENCE MAP According to [14], the tool Content Map (CM),presented in [11], aims to strengthen the teaching/learningprocess by providing a more meaningful content [2] forteacher and student. For the teacher, the tool has a planningmethodology that guides the development of the same MCand promotes the discipline of planning, collaborating withthe learning process. Figure 1 shows an example of an CMcontaining the first level of viewing the contents programillustrated in Figure 2. FIGURE. 2 EXAMPLE PROGRAMMATIC CONTENT FOR THE DSICPLINA IN OPERATING SYSTEM. FONT: ADAPTED AND EXCERPTED FROM [19]. Based on the concepts of Concept Maps [11], CM strengthens the learning process of students through the graphical visualization of the course syllabus or course. The Planning Methodology supporting the teacher in creating the discipline, assisting in the development of CM consists of a FIGURE. 1 set of interactions where the teacher answers the questions EXAMPLE OF A CM. FONT: ADAPTED AND EXCERPTED FROM asked by the tool. At the end of the interactions result is that [19]. CM is then displayed by the teacher [16]. In CM, relations between concepts are hierarchical, with The other tool proposed by [9] and presented in [8] is the Dependency Map (DM). The DM is a pedagogical toolcontent more introductory occupying the top of the chart and consists of a set of Educational Objectives, presentedthe most complex driving to the base [10]. This way of graphically, and interrelated through Blooms Taxonomy [3].viewing a relationship is based on the fact that a more The DM generally consists of an educational objectivecomplex content needs or rely on content simpler with and a set of behaviors required to achieve this goal. Both thewhom it relates. Assim, a relação entre o conteúdo de duas educational goal as the behaviors needed to achieve it, areindica ao aluno que ele precisa entender os conceitos do defined according to the existing categories in Bloomsconteúdo mais fácil de ser capaz de compreender a Taxonomy.informação no conteúdo mais complexo.© 2013 ICECE March 03 - 06, 2013, Luanda, ANGOLA VIII International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education 78
  3. 3. The highest level of the DM represents the educational LO SCORM under represent the Sharable Content Objectobjective, belonging to a particular class of taxonomy, (SCO), with all the technical requirements necessary todefined by the teacher to explain what he expects of students satisfy the requirements of interoperability and reusability ofin relation to content. After this first level, the DM shows the LO on the internet. To meet the technical requirements, thedependence relationship between that initial goal and any LO must be packaged and labeled, following the SCORMnumber of behaviors, the lower class, which can contribute standard. This includes metadata that describe: (a) packageto achieving the initial goal. This dependency relationship is content and their individual basic components, (b) therepeated, with the DM may contain as many levels as organization and the order in which digital resources are tonecessary, to achieve the simplest class of Blooms be delivered and (c) the related physical files, such asTaxonomy or until it reaches a behavior that does not require images, files eXtensible Markup Language (XML), amongdependencies. Figure 3 illustrates an example of a DM. others. The import step is the step where the teacher can perform the import model. This step is required when the teacher check for possible adaptations of the model created. For the OA is exported, the teacher makes planning and discipline determined will be as the composition of the learning unit based curriculum (Figure 1). During the planning of the learning unit, i.e., the subject or course, the LO will be produced , consisting of a set of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) pages, images, files like PPT, PDF, audio and video among others. Consequently, the teacher makes the export files produced to meet the proposed framework. The model will be exported in a ZIP file. The encapsulation of the model in the ZIP file assures the availability and access to search in VLE. The ZIP package consists of two elements: the first element is an XML file - imsmanisfest.xml, known as manifest, which describes the structure of the object and its content; the second element, are multimedia files FIGURE. 3 EXAMPLE OF A DM. FONT: ADAPTED AND EXCERPTED FROM themselves, for our context, these files are text, HTML [19]. pages, PDF, DOC, and others. MODEL DEVELOPED The creation of an LO is a task that requires intensework and as important as the knowledge about thedevelopment of computational tools, you get a sense of howthe construction of knowledge occurs [22]. However,organizing this knowledge to produce something attractiveto apprentices can become a complex task considerably. Inthis perspective, we propose a model of LO developed basedon pedagogical tools CM and MD, following the SCORMstandard, as implemented in the VLE Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) [13].The proposed model does not address the evaluationactivities for LO parts of students, teachers and other users. The proposed LO model is centered on SCORMstandard, this standard helps provide specifications for thereusability of object and, in this context, the focus of themodel developed here is the production and reuse of LO. Therefore, the development process, this OA model,consists of two steps, which aim to organize and systematizethe construction of the model, the step of importing andexporting. In step export contains OA in its entirety, ready to be FIGURE. 4used and reused in VLE in accordance with SCORM. These MODULE DEVELOPED. FONT: ADAPTED AND EXCERPTED FROM [19].© 2013 ICECE March 03 - 06, 2013, Luanda, ANGOLA VIII International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education 79
  4. 4. To assist in these two steps, a module was developed in of processes of creation, and management of learningMoodle (Figure 4) to export the courses developed in the content.form of LO, based on SCORM, to fasten the main features As noted in Section about Learning Objects and thethereof that are interoperable and reuse of content. Standard SCORM the lack of a homogeneous structure in This module is compliant with SCORM 2004 the presentation of LO complicates its reusability and cangenerating a content package type ZIP that contains the harm your understanding. In this sense, the use ofmanifest file, file with the information from OA and other presentation templates followed by CM and DM, andfiles that are SCORM standards. These files are compressed provides a unique way to display the LO model provides aaccording to the Content Aggregation Model [1], which framework for standardization of presentation, withoutmakes reusable LO in any VLE compatible with SCORM. restricting the ability to generalize the same. After the step of exporting the model is generated. In Besides worrying about the content presented, theFigure 5, there is illustrated the metadata stroke according to modeling of LO in the context of CM and DM also seeks tothe program contents shown in Figure 2. For this, it must be improve the learning process by helping the teacher intested, in order to make sure your content package is correct planning discipline at the same time provides a commonand working properly. To test the metadata created by the model for these objects. With this, the LO becomes anLO model, we use the tool Reusable E-Learning Object instrument in aid the teacher in planning their discipline,Authoring and Delivery (Reload Editor) [12]. It is possible based on pedagogical theories tools used by CM and DM.to run and play functionality SCORM content package With the use of these theories, it is expected that this newwithout the need to include it in VLE. model of LO may also contribute to the learning process. Thus, the standardization of LO in the SCORM standard, using the pedagogical tools CM and DM will serve as the base structure for teachers, students and other stakeholders to plan, build new LO and reuse within a single structure, other LO. These LO present all contents (information) in a graphical format so that the process of teaching/learning becomes easier. The OA model focuses primarily assist the teacher in planning a course or discipline. Thus, among the advantages that this model of LO, can bring to the teaching / learning process, we can highlight [16]: a) An integrated planning methodology based on Educational Objectives (methodology of creating the CM and DM); b) Using pedagogical theories already consolidated (Meaningful Learning and Blooms Taxonomy); c) Standardization of model presentation of the LO (the object will be displayed graphically, following the model of CM and DM); d) Increased reusability of LO (the model used enables integration between objects. For example, certain FIGURE. 5METADATA PRODUCED BY THE MODEL OF LO. FONT: ADAPTED content in an MC can reference another LO). AND EXCERPTED FROM [19]. Thus, this model of LO aims to reduce the difficulties mentioned earlier in section about the LO, through its The intent of the model presented in this paper is LO, modeling as CM and DM. These tools will be used aswith the help of the Concept Maps, provide a mechanism cognitive strategies for acquisition and representation ofthat shows the relationships between content, enabling the knowledge and/or information during the drafting processperception of verbal and visual hierarchical relationships and reuse of Learning Objects and the Standard SCORM forbetween the main concepts of the content covered. planning activities of a course, module, among other activities. Advantages of Model According to [7], to promote the reuse of educational CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKcontent is necessary to encourage its standardization in order Whereas an LO may be a digital resource, the main ideato function properly in any VLE. Standardization will allow of this paper is to develop a model of LO standardized usingeasy reuse, portability of content created, the standardization the concepts that define an LO so that it meets mainly the© 2013 ICECE March 03 - 06, 2013, Luanda, ANGOLA VIII International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education 80
  5. 5. characteristic of reusability. For this work, we adopted the [9] Lima, R. W.; Fialho, S. V. Introducing assessment into the teaching-concept of LO defined by [21]. Regarding the educational learning process of Distance Education using discipline planning. In: 9th IFIP World Conference on Computers in Education, Bentoaspects, the development of LO with pedagogical theories Gonçalves - RS. 2009.allows students to have a common understanding of a [10] Lima, R. W.; Fialho, S. V. Mapa de Conteúdos e Mapa despecific area and can develop new models agreed in Dependências: ferramentas para um planejamento com base emcollaboration with other students and teachers making the objetivos educacionais. Revista de Exatas e Tecnológica - RETEC,process of teaching/learning multidisciplinary. Constructing v.2, p.10, 2011.and reconstructing knowledge and skills, combining the [11] Novak, J. D.; Cañas, A. J. The theory undelying concept maps andbenefits and advantages of using LO and its development how to construct them. Techinical Report IHCM CmapTools. Floridatechnologies with the experience needed in the processes of Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. 2006.teaching and learning. In this context, the teachers of the [12] RELOAD. Reusable eLearning Object Authoring and Delivery.various areas addressed proposed LO can use to enhance Disponível em: <http://www.reload.ac.uk>. Acesso em: out. 2012.your teaching methodology. [13] Silva, R. S. Moodle para autores e tutores. Novatec. São Paulo – SP. An initial test in Moodle, which is in compliance with 2011.SCORM, proved the feasibility of the model allows adapting [14] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Costa, R. D.; Marques, C. K. M. Umathe learning environment to the needs of students. As future proposta de padronização de Objetos de Aprendizagem com base emwork we intend to test the model proposed in educational Objetivos Educacionais. In: Escola Potiguar de Computação e suasscenarios more realistic, for example, their application in the Aplicações – EPOCA. Natal - RN. 2011.planning of lessons by different teachers in different areas [15] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Mesquita, H. H. O.; Marques, C. K. M.;and also its applicability in the classroom. Costa, R. D.; Rocha, S. M. P. T. O uso de Teorias Pedagógicas no desenvolvimento de Objetos de Aprendizagem. In: IV Seminário ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Pesquisa em Educação a Distância – SEPEAD. Florianópolis – SC, 2012 The authors thank CAPES and FAPERN for issuing [16] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Mesquita, H. H. O.; Marques, C. K. M. Oresearch grants, equipment and financial support for carrying uso de Ferramentas Pedagógicas no desenvolvimento de Objetos deout the same. Aprendizagem. In: XXXII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Computação - CSBC. Curitiba – PR, 2012. REFERENCES [17] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Mesquita, H. H. O.; Costa, R. D. Integrando um modelo de Objeto de Aprendizagem centrado no[1] ADL. Advanced Distributed Learning. Disponível em: processo de ensino-aprendizagem a um curso do Moodle. In: <http://www.adlnet.org>. Acesso em: out. 2012. MoodleMoot Brasil 2012. São Paulo – SP, 2012.[2] Ausubel, D. P. Psicología educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. [18] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Mesquita, H. H. O.; Marques, C. K. M.; Trad. Roberto Helier Domínguez. Trillas: México, 1976. Costa, R. D; Rocha, S. M. P. T.; Medeiros, R. A. OBA-MC: um modelo de Objeto de Aprendizagem centrado no processo de ensino-[3] Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, aprendizagem utilizando o padrão SCORM. In: XXIII Simpósio D. R. Taxionomia de objetivos educacionais – domínio cognitivo. Brasileiro de Informática na Educação – SBIE. Rio de Janeiro– RJ, Globo: Porto Alegre – RS, 1997. 2012.[4] Botelho, C. A.; Pimentel, E. P.; Senger, H.: Stiubiener, I. [19] Silva, T. R.; Lima, R. W.; Mesquita, H. H. O.; Marques, C. K. M.; Personalização em Sistemas de Gerenciamento da Aprendizagem em Costa, R. D.; Rocha, S. M. P. T. Um modelo de Objetos de Conformidade com o Padrão SCORM. In: Anais do XX Simpósio Aprendizagem centrando no processo de ensino/aprendizagem. In: VII Brasileiro de Informática na Educação – SBIE. Florianópolis – SC. Conferência Latino-Americana de Objetos e Tecnologia de 2009. Aprendizagem - LACLO, 2012, Guayaquil, Equador.[5] Dutra, R.; Tarouco, L.; Passerino, L. Utilização de Objetos de [20] Tarouco, L. M. R.; Fabre, M. C. J. M.; Tamusiunas, F. R.. aprendizagem abertos SCORM para dar suporte à avaliação formativa. Reusabilidade de objetos educacionais. In: Revista Novas Tecnologias In: Revista Brasileira de Informática na Educação - RBIE, v18, n3, na Educação - RENOTE. Porto Alegre, RS. v. 1, n. 1. 2003. p.59-69. 2010. [21] Vieira, C. E.; Nicoleit, E. R.; Gonçalves, L. L. Objeto de[6] Gonçalves, L. Ambiente Computacional para geração de Learning Aprendizagem baseado no Padrão SCORM para Suporte à Objetcs no padrão SCORM a partir de conteúdos organizados através Aprendizagem de Funções. In: Workshop em Informática na de Mapas Conceituais. 2005. Disponível em: Educação (SBIE) Mackenzie. p. 402-411. 2007. <http://guaiba.ulbra.tche.br/documentos_cursos/sistemas/tcc_estagio/t ccI_2005_1/ArtigoTCC1_Lucio.pdf>. Acesso em: mar. 2012. [22] Wiley, D. A. Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In The Instructional[7] Kratz, R. A.; Pinto, S. C. C. S.; Scopel, M.; Barbosa, J. Fábrica de Use of Learning Objects: Online Version. Utah: Association for Adequação de Objetos de Aprendizagem. In: Revista Brasileira de Educational Communications and Technology. 2000. Disponível em: Informática na Educação. v. 15, n. 3, p. 25-38. 2007. <http://reusability.org/read/chapters/wiley.doc>. Acesso em: mar.[8] Lima, R. W.; Fialho, S. V. Dependence Maps: A Methodology for 2012. Subject Planning and Learning Assessment in Virtual Learning [23] W3C. World Wide Web Consortium. Disponível em: Environments. In: iciw, pp. 66-71, Third International Conference on <http://www.w3.org/>. Acesso em: set. 2012. Internet and Web Applications and Services, 2008.© 2013 ICECE March 03 - 06, 2013, Luanda, ANGOLA VIII International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education 81