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Textos curtos


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Textos curtos

  1. 1. textos curtos texto 1 HEADACHES A headache, like any other discomfort or pain, is not a disease, but a symptom and probably the mostcommon of all medical symptoms. Well, they usually occur at the end of the day and it starts off as a dull ache in the forehead andspreads to the temples and to the back of the head. Sometimes the sufferer feels as though he has a heavyweight on his head or a tight band around it. And other times his head feels like it will burst.ASSINALE a única correta : 1. amarrar uma faixa apertada ao redor da cabeça ajuda a melhora a dor de cabeça . 2. a dor de cabeça é um doença frequentemente observada nos consultórios médicos. 3. a dor de cabeça ocorre geralmente ao entardecer. 4. a dor de cabeça ocorre geralmente de manhã. texto 2 MALARIA The female mosquitoes transmit human malaria, and their seeds are called sporozoites. They invadethe liver where they develop and produce broods of young parasites. Those enter the blood stream andpenetrate the red blood cells. These parasites grow and then divide into segments called merozoites. Thecells that become parasitized disintegrate and attack other blood cells. It’s a vicious cycle and goes on untilit is stopped by treatment or by immunity. Drugs have been widely and effectively used since the Second World War. For the last 300 years,however, treatment of malaria has been done with cinchona bark or quine.ASSINALE a única correta :1. Na Segunda Guerra Mundial a cura da malária foi descoberta .2. Merozoíto é o nom do parasito transmissor da malária.3. A malária é transmitida pela fêmea do Aedes Egyptii.4. O círculo vicioso só é interrompido por tratamento ou por imunidade texto 3 Critical aspects of yellow fever control in Brazil . Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2010, vol.44, n.3, pp. 555-558. Epub May 21, 2010. ISSN 0034-8910. doi: 10.1590/S0034- 89102010005000014.This paper presents epidemiological and control characteristics of yellow fever in Brazil, taking ITSwild and urban transmission cycles into consideration. No urban cases have been reported inBrazil since 1942, but urban yellow fever cases were reported in Paraguay in 2008, after morethan 50 years without registered cases in the Americas. The two main objectives of yellow fevercontrol programs in Brazil are to reduce the number of wild cases and to maintain zero incidenceof urban cases. Although there is a consensus regarding control measures that should be appliedin areas endemic for the wild form, this is not so in relation to areas infested by Aedes aegypti.The arguments for and against expansion of the vaccination area are discussed. Environmentaland entomological studies are needed so that areas receptive to wild-type transmission can berecognized, even if they have been silent for many years.Keywords: Yellow Fever [prevention]; Yellow Fever [control]; Yellow Fever [epidemiology].2- ITS (linha 2) refere-se a quê ?3- Assinale a única alternativa correta. 1
  2. 2. a- Casos urbanos de febre amarela foram notificados tanto no Brasil como no Paraguai desde 1942.b- Há um consenso entre as medidas de controle a serem aplicadas em áreas atingidas por FA e por dengue.c- Há unanimidade a respeito da expansão da imunização.d- São necessários estudos para se reconhecer as áreas susceptíveis à transmissão pelo vetor silvestre.texto 4 Demands and expectations of users of HIV testing and counseling centers. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2010, vol.44, n.3, pp. 441-447. Epub May 14, 2010. ISSN 0034-8910. doi: 10.1590/S0034- 89102010005000010.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics, demands and expectations of users of an HIV testingand counseling center. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES: Qualitative research carried outwith 32 users of a testing and counseling center in the state of Minas Gerais (southeastern Brazil),from November 2005 to March 2006. The open semi-structured interview technique was used, aswell as an adaptation of the content analysis method. Thematic modality was employed.ANALYSIS OF RESULTS: Lack of knowledge regarding the service, difficulty in perceivingoneself as vulnerable to infection, justifications of not belonging to risk groups, fear ofembarrassment and of precarious care emerged as important limitations to the access to thetesting and counseling center. CONCLUSIONS: A paradox was identified in the users discoursebetween the participative aspect in overcoming vulnerability and the search for pragmaticsolutions for excluding risk. Their demands signaled strategies that should contain: high-qualityinformation and access to the service and to prevention and health promotion discourses.Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [prevention]; Acquired ImmunodeficiencySyndrome [control]; HIV Seropositivity; Health Services Needs and Demand; HealthVulnerability; Qualitative Research.- Assinale a única alternativa correta.a- O texto cita vários empecilhos para que os doentes com HIV façam os testes e procurem os centros deaconselhamento.b- A pesquisa foi feita com pessoas viciadas em drogas.c- O paradoxo citado na “CONCLUSÕES” refere-se ao discurso do paciente e dos centros de aconselhamento.d-Trata-se de um pesquisa quantitativa.texto 5 Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures and low bone density in pre andpostmenopausal women. 2
  3. 3. PINHEIRO, Marcelo M. et al. Rev. Saúde Pública [online]. 2010, vol.44, n.3, pp. 479-485. ISSN 0034-8910. doi: 10.1590/S0034OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and analyze risk factors associated to osteoporosis andlow-trauma fracture in women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a total of 4,332 womenolder than 40 attending primary care services in the Greater São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil,between 2004 and 2007. Anthropometrical and gynecological data and information about lifestylehabits, previous fracture, medical history, food intake and physical activity were obtained throughindividual quantitative interviews. Low-trauma fracture was defined as that resulting from a fallfrom standing height or less in individuals 50 years or older. Multiple logistic regression modelswere designed having osteoporotic fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) as the dependentvariables and all other parameters as the independent ones. The significance level was set atp<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures was 33% and11.5%, respectively. The main risk factors associated with low bone mass were age (OR=1.07;95% CI: 1.06;1.08), time since menopause (OR=2.16; 95% CI: 1.49;3.14), previous fracture(OR=2.62; 95% CI: 2.08;3.29) and current smoking (OR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.13;1.85). BMI (OR=0.88;95% CI: 0.86;0.89), regular physical activity (OR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.65;0.94) and hormonereplacement therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.33;0.56) had a protective effect on bone mass. Riskfactors significantly associated with osteoporotic fractures were age (OR=1.05; 95% CI:1.04;1.06), time since menopause (OR=4.12; 95% CI: 1.79;9.48), familial history of hip fracture(OR=3.59; 95% CI: 2.88;4.47) and low BMD (OR=2.28; 95% CI: 1.85;2.82). CONCLUSIONS:Advanced age, menopause, low-trauma fracture and current smoking are major risk factorsassociated with low BMD and osteoporotic fracture. The clinical use of these parameters toidentify women at higher risk for fractures might be a reasonable strategy to improve themanagement of osteoporosis.Keywords: Fractures, Bone; Bone Density; Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal [epidemiology];Osteoporosis [epidemiology]; Risk Factors; Cross-Sectional Studies; Womens Health.6- Como é definido o termo “low-trauma fracture” no texto ?8- Como fica a sigla BMD em português?9- ONES refere-se aa- parâmetros c-BMDb- variáveis d-modelos múltiplos de regressão logística 10-Assinale a única alternativa correta sobre o estudo. 3
  4. 4. a- Envolveu mulheres de todo o Estado de SP.b- Envolveu mulheres com idade mínima de 50 anos.c- Analisou tanto exames clínicos como fatores sociais.d- Levou à descoberta de um medicamento para osteoporose. 4