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Fintech Market in Singapore 2018

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Have a look at one of the most dynamic fintech ecosystems in the world! Singapore is not only a well-developed economy but also an international financial hub that is establishing itself as a fintech hub.

This material has the goal of giving anyone interested in the fintech market in Singapore to have a good overview of the ecosystem and a kick start to join this growing ecosystem.

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Fintech Market in Singapore 2018

  1. 1. Thiago Paiva Index FINTECHMARKETINSINGAPORE2018: ANINTROTOTHEECOSYSTEM By Thiago Paiva
  2. 2. Thiago Paiva 1. Intro 2. The Author 3. Economic and Social 4. Financial Industry 5. Fintech Ecosystem 6. Venture Capital and ICO 7. Extra Resources 8. Collaborators Index
  3. 3. Thiago Paiva First of all, thanks for reading this material! My name is Thiago Paiva and I've been working with startups and innovation for the past 8 years in Brazil, Mexico, US, and now Singapore. I have invested and accelerated more than 60 startups from which more than 20 were fintech startups from 8 different countries. As I moved to Singapore, I decided to get a deep dive into the fintech ecosystem here. As there are many other people that are interested in having an overview of the fintech ecosystem in Singapore, I decided to recollect all the information I gathered in a material and share that material with the community. My goal was to compile relevant information (citing the sources) so that any people that want to have an overview of the Singaporean fintech ecosystem can do it in a easier way than I did. I hope this material is helpful to you or anyone you would like to share (please, do share)! Thiago Oliveira de Paiva Intro
  4. 4. Thiago Paiva ● 8 years of experience working with startups and innovation ● Evaluated more 2,500 startups and invested in more than 60 startups through acceleration programs in distinguished global startup accelerators (Startupbootcamp and Wayra) ● Led the design and implementation of two startup acceleration processes and one scale program ● Fintech expert who worked with more than 20 fintechs from 8 different countries ● Supported early stage startups to raise more than US$ 10M of investment ● Studied Fintech at MIT and Business with Concentration in Finance at UCLA The Author
  5. 5. Thiago Paiva ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
  6. 6. Thiago Paiva Singapore Economy Source: https://www.focus-economics.com/countries/singapore http://stats.mom.gov.sg/Pages/Labour-Force-In-Singapore-2017.aspx The World Bank - Doing Business 2018 ● Population (2017): 5.6 million ● GDP (2017): US$ 323 billion (37th) ● GDP per Capita (2017): US$ 57,495 (8th) ● GDP Growth: ○ 2016: 2.4% ○ 2017: 3.6% ○ 2018 (Expected): 3.2% ○ 2019 (Expected): 2.7% ● Unemployment Rate (2017): 2.2% ● Inflation Rate CPI (2017): 0.4% ● 12% of the GDP is due to financial services (2014) ● 5% of workforce works in the financial services (2014) ● 2nd easiest place in the world to do business Although Singapore is a small country, it has a well developed economy with one of the highest GDP per capita in the world. Its economy is strong and open, growing quite well and having the financial industry as a relevant pilar. As a result, Singapore host many foreign companies that use the island as their regional headquarter. See below some economic and social relevant numbers:
  7. 7. Thiago Paiva Digital Population Source: https://sbr.com.sg/information-technology/news/483-million-singaporeans-are-now-online https://www.statista.com/statistics/625441/smartphone-user-penetration-in-singapore/ ● Internet Penetration (2018): 84% ● Social Penetration (2018): 53% ● Mobile Penetration (2018): 82% ● Active Mobile Social Users (2018): 75% ● Smartphone Penetration (2016): 73%
  8. 8. Thiago Paiva Bank and Card Penetration Singapore has one of the highest level of bank penetration in the world with 98% (2017) of the population with more than 15 years old having a bank account. Debit and credit card penetration in Singapore is also quite high, with both at a 83% (2016) level. However, it's an isolated case in Southeast Asia, as most of the population in the region are out of the financial system, with only 27% (2016) of the adult population having access to the financial system. That means that there are 479 million people that need access to basic financial services. Source: https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/ https://home.kpmg.com/xx/en/home/insights/2016/04/fintech-opening-the-door-to-the-unbanked-and-underbanked-in-southeast-asia.h tml
  9. 9. Thiago Paiva Cash Still a Relevant Payment Method Source: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-09-04/for-all-its-tech-savvy-singapore-still-prefers-cash-over-digital-payments Even with a very financially sophisticated population, cash is still the prefered payment method for the Singaporeans.
  10. 10. Thiago Paiva Southeast Asia Economic Numbers Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southeast_Asia ● Population (2017): 641 million ○ Indonesia: 260 million ○ Philippines: 104 million ○ Vietnam: 96 million ○ Thailand: 68 million ○ Myanmar: 55 million ○ Others: 58 million ● GDP (2016): US$ 2.57 trillion ● GDP per Capita (2016): US$ 4,009 ● GDP Growth (2016): 4.5%
  11. 11. Thiago Paiva Digital Population in Southeast Asia Source: https://aseanup.com/southeast-asia-digital-social-mobile/ ● Internet Penetration (2018): 58% ● Social Penetration (2018): 55%
  12. 12. Thiago Paiva FINANCIAL INDUSTRY
  13. 13. Thiago Paiva A Global Financial Hub Source: https://www.longfinance.net/media/documents/GFCI23.pdf Singapore is one of the most relevant financial hubs in the world, been elected the 4th best Global Financial Centre, only behind London, New York, and Hong Kong, by Global Financial Centres Index in 2018. As a result, many foreign financial institutions incorporate offices in Singapore to operate regionally.
  14. 14. Thiago Paiva ● 4 Local banks ● 199 Foreign banks ● 75 Insurers ● 30 Reinsurers Banks and Insurance Companies Source: https://eservices.mas.gov.sg/fid
  15. 15. Thiago Paiva Most Relevant Banks Source: https://www.guidemesingapore.com/business-guides/managing-business/banking-funding-and-finances/banking -industry-and-major-banks-in-singapore Local Banks Foreign Banks
  16. 16. Thiago Paiva Source: 2017 Annual Report of the each bank. * For Citibank and Standard Chartered, it was considered the total assets of their Singaporean subsidiaries only Largest Banks by Total Asset By total Asset in Billions (USD) 2017
  17. 17. Thiago Paiva Digital Banking ● 1st place globally in Online Banking Penetration (82.5%) ● 5th place in mobile banking penetration ● 6th most open country to new digital platforms. ● 70% of the population is open to a digital alternative banking Singapore has one of the most advanced digital banking systems in the world. Where opening a account digitally or using a chatbot to transfer money and pay bills are already part of the daily routine of the citizens. The digital transformation started in 2008 led especially by DBS, who was elected World's Best Digital Bank by Euromoney in 2016 and 2018. Here follows some other relevant information (2018): Source: https://sbr.com.sg/financial-services/news/nearly-7-in-10-consumers-embrace-digital-banking https://www.oracle.com/a/ocom/docs/dc/digital-demand.pdf
  18. 18. Thiago Paiva Branches are Less Relevant Source: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Financial%20Services/Our%20Insights/Reachin g%20Asias%20digital%20banking%20customers/Asias-digital-banking-race-WEB-FINAL.ashx In Singapore, as well as other developed countries in Asia, people use less frequent the branches services, preferring doing a digital transaction 5x more times than a branch one. That is due to its high penetration of online banking and mobile banking Emerging Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam. Developed Asia: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan.
  19. 19. Thiago Paiva Financial Innovation Hub As Singapore is the 5th most innovative country, by the Global Innovation Index 2018, and a global financial hub, it attracts many financial institutions to incorporate a innovation labs. Source: https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/gii-2018-report
  20. 20. Thiago Paiva Source: https://www.straitstimes.com/business/banking/singapore-is-largest-forex-centre-in-asia-third-largest-globally http://www.mas.gov.sg/Singapore-Financial-Centre/Value-Propositions/Setting-Up.aspx https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore_Exchange Most Relevant Financial Services ● Asset Management: 660+ Fund managers managing S$ 2.7 trillion (2016 Singapore Asset Management Survey) ● Private Banking: 2nd best global centre (The Deloitte International Wealth Management Centre Ranking 2018) ● Insurance and Reinsurance: 7th country by Total Insurance Premiums per Capita ● Foreign Exchange: 3nd largest global market ● Capital Markets: With 754 listed companies and a total market capitalization of US$ 733 billion, SGX is the Largest Stock Exchange in SEA. Also, one of the most opens in the world with 40% of the listed companies are non-Singaporean companies
  21. 21. Thiago Paiva FINTECH ECOSYSTEM
  22. 22. Thiago Paiva Singapore Startup Ecosystem Source: The 2017 Global Startup Ecosystem Report 12thBest Startup Ecosystem
  23. 23. Thiago Paiva Snapshot of the Region by EY Source: https://www.ey.com/sg/en/industries/financial-services/ey-asean-fintech-census-2018
  24. 24. Thiago Paiva 210 Fintechs Mapped in Nov 2017 Source: http://fintechnews.sg/14455/fintech/singapore-fintech-map-2017/
  25. 25. Thiago Paiva Source: http://fintechnews.sg/9511/insurtech/singapore-poised-become-hotbed-insurtech-asia/ https://www.enterpriseinnovation.net/article/frost-lists-trends-impacting-fintech-development-apac-1548906241 Trending Segments ● Insurtech: 74% of all insurers predict disruption of their business in the next 5 years, according to a PwC survey. As Insurance is a major industry in Singapore, many insurers are investing in innovation and collaborating with insurtechs. ● Blockchain/Cryptocurrencies: Due to its open regulation, Singapore has blockchain and cryptocurrencies as trending segments, been the 3rd largest ICO market in the world. ● Investment/Wealth management: Singapore is the 2nd best market for private banking, leading to many innovations on this segment. This is confirmed by the number of fintechs in this segment, 41, the largest segment with 20% of the total fintechs. ● RegTech: Although still initiating, the Regulation Technology (RegTech) is a prominent segment and has been pushed by the MAS as well as market necessity. ● SMEs: 99% of the companies in Singapore are SMEs, contributing to half of the country's GDP. However, 40% of them don't have access to bank loans ( Visa and Deloitte Study 2015). ● B2B Services: Although Singapore is a small country with a population of 5.5 million compared to other countries in the region, it has more than 300 financial institutions that are potential fintech customers.
  26. 26. Thiago Paiva Most Funded Fintechs Source: https://www.techinasia.com/top-funded-fintech-companies-southeast-asia ● Grab (US$ 6.1B): Although started as a ride hailing app, Grab has a fintech arm lead by its payment solution, Grab Pay. ● Quoine (US$ 123M): A cryptocurrency trading startup. ● M-Daq (US$ 98.7M): Provides Over The Top (OTT) forex applications to securities exchanges, e-commerce platforms/payment gateways and companies. ● TenX (US$ 80M): TenX is a cryptocurrency payment platform that consists of a wallet, physical debit card, bank account, ATM access, and more. ● KyberNetwork (US$ 60M): An Ethereum-based protocol which allows the exchange and conversion of digital assets by providing rich payment APIs and a new contract wallet that allow anyone to receive payments from any token. ● Singapore Life (US$ 50M): Is a life insurance company built to provide a better experience by using technology. ● Republic Protocol (US$ 33.8M): An open source decentralized dark pool exchange that facilitates cross-chain atomic trades on a hidden order book over the Ethereum and Bitcoin networks. ● Funding Societies (US$ 32.6M): Provides an online lending marketplace for SMEs to secure loans crowd-funded by retail individuals and institutions.
  27. 27. Thiago Paiva ● Tryb Group (US$ 30M): Tryb enables better access to global capital markets for underserved consumers of credit in ASEAN. ● C88 (US$ 28M): Design and build essential financial technology infrastructure, from market-leading financial marketplaces, to modern credit risk models and financially-specific AI solutions. ● Bluzelle (US$ 22.3M): Offers a complete and fully integrated stack of blockchain applications, middleware and data services for clients ranging from SMEs to global enterprises. ● PolicyPal (US$ 20M): A digital direct insurance broker that enables individuals to buy, manage and optimize their insurance policies. ● Smartkarma (US$ 18.2M): Operates Asia’s largest independent marketplace for investment research. ● InstaRem (US$ 18M): Offers cross-border money transfers with close to live exchange rates. ● 2C2P (US$ 18M): The leading SEA payment service provider that offers omni-channel payment solutions, allowing merchants to accept local and international payments through credit and debit cards, bank channels and cash. Most Funded Fintechs Source: https://www.techinasia.com/top-funded-fintech-companies-southeast-asia
  28. 28. Thiago Paiva Fintech Accelerators ● Joyful Frog Digital Innovation ● Plug and Play ● Entrepreneur First The Open Vault DBS AcceleratorFinlab PayPal Incubator Corporate Independent
  29. 29. Thiago Paiva Fintech and Corporate Partnership ● Theta Ray ● BlackSwan Technologies and Silent Eight ● Funding Circle and Moolah ● Kasisto ● Xero ● Razer ● Personetics There still aren't as many cases of partnership as it would be expected with so many fintech initiatives from financial institutions. Probably because most of those institutions developed or are developing internal capabilities to create digital solutions themselves. Find below some examples of those collaborations:
  30. 30. Thiago Paiva Fintech Exits Acquired by ShopBack Undisclosed amount (May 18) Acquired by Credit Card Compare Undisclosed amount (Mar 18) Acquired by Finantix Undisclosed amount (Mar 18) Acquired by Ingenico US$ 38M (Aug 10) Acquired by Ingenico US$ 67M (May 16) Acquired by Paynear Undisclosed amount (Oct 17)
  31. 31. Thiago Paiva Regulation Source: http://www.mas.gov.sg/Singapore-Financial-Centre/Smart-Financial-Centre/FinTech-Regulatory-Sandbox.aspx https://www.startupdecisions.com.sg/blog/fintech-regulations-and-compliance-in-singapore/ The financial system is regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore ("MAS"), Singapore's central bank. It is a very progressive entity that foster a digital transformation with the end goal of transforming Singapore in a Smart Financial Centre. Fintechs to operate in Singapore they need to be licensed, however, there are no specific fintech licenses. They should acquirer the necessary licenses to operate based on the service offered. Singapore is one of the few countries with a regulatory Sandbox that allows not only fintechs and financial institutions but any company that has an innovative financial service to experiment in a temporary safe regulatory space. In summary, fintechs need be aware of 3 main things to be able to operate: ● Find the appropriate licenses to operate ● Comply with Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) ● Comply with Anti Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) Important to remember that each country in Southeast Asia has its on regulation, which makes harder to expand quickly in the region.
  32. 32. Thiago Paiva Open APIs Source: http://www.mas.gov.sg/Singapore-Financial-Centre/Smart-Financial-Centre/Financial-Industry-API-Register.aspx Many financials institutions have APIs (Application Programming Interface) to enable third parties to have access to their information and services , allowing fintechs to develop better services to the customers. Most banks have quite developed APIs, allowing access such as to account balance, credit card details, payments, funds transfer, and more. Here follow some of the the banks with available APIs: Also, as part of its plan for a Smart Financial Centre, the MAS is impulsing financial institutions to have Open APIs in Singapore.
  33. 33. Thiago Paiva Fintech Events in Singapore Source: http://fintechnews.sg/17275/fintech/fintech-events-asia-2018/ ● March: Money 20/20 Asia ● June: Blockchain for Finance Conference, APAC ● July: Money Live Digital Banking ASEAN ● August: Blockchain Summit ● November: Singapore Fintech Festival
  34. 34. Thiago Paiva Fintech News and Associations News Websites Associations
  35. 35. Thiago Paiva Top 20 Fintech Influencers in Fintech by E27 Source: https://e27.co/top-50-fintech-influencers-singapore-20171215/ 1. Prakash Somosundram, Founder and CEO – Pealo PTE LTD 2. Neal Cross, MD and Chief Innovation Officer – DBS Bank 3. Aman Narain, Head of Digital, APAC – Schroders 4. Slava Solodkiy, Managing Director – Life.SREDA venture capital fund 5. Varun Mittal, Associate director, Asia pacific Fintech – EY 6. Scott Bales, Enterprise Business Development, APAC – Amazon Web Service 7. Stefano Covolan, Head of Marketing and Growth – Dragon Wealth Asia 8. David Moskowitz, Director – Attores Pte Ltd 9. Christian Konig, Digital Consultant/FinTech Expert – Finanzpro Ltd 10. George Kesselman, Co-founder/CEO – InsurTech Asia 11. Antony Lewis, Director of Research – R3, Singapore 12. Rob Findlay, Founder – Next Money 13. Chris Doerfler, Co-founder – Ramps.io 14. Shwetank Verma, Director Collab – LumenLab 15. Augustus Loi, Senior Analyst – Infocomm Investments Pte Ltd 16. Steve Leonard, Founding CEO – SGInnovate 17. Daniel Liebau, Founder – Lightbulb Capital 18. Balasubramaniam GD, Senior Vice President, Risk Management Group CBGWM & SME – DBS Bank 19. Bert-Jan Van Essen, CEO and Founder – Cloud consulting services Pte ltd 20. Sopnendu Mohanty, Chief Fintech Officer, Monetary Authority of Singapore, Singapore Government
  36. 36. Thiago Paiva 1. Prakash Somosundram, Founder and CEO – Pealo PTE LTD 2. Adam Reynolds, CEO Asia Pacific - Saxo Capital Markets 3. Alistair Duff, Co-Founder & Head of Asia Pacific - DrumG Financial Technologies 4. Altona Widjaja, Vice President - OCBC Bank 5. Anson Zeall, Co-founder CEO/CTO, CoinPip 6. Ayesha Khanna, CEO - ADDO AI 7. Chia Hock Lai, President - Singapore Fintech Association 8. Dan Liebau, Founder - Lightbulb Capital 9. Daphne Ng, CEO - Jupiter Chain 10. Darius Sit, Managing Partner - QCP Capital 11. David Hardoon, Chief Data Officer - Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) 12. David Lee, Co-founder - BlockAsset 13. Dušan Stojanović, Founder and Director - True Global Ventures 14. Fernn Lim, Head, Culture and Fintech Acceleration - The Open Vault at OCBC 15. Gina Heng, Founder - Miss Kaya 16. Hope Liu, CEO - Eximchain 17. Igor Pesin, Partner / Investment Director, Life.SREDA VC 18. Jacqueline Loh, Deputy Managing Director - Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) 19. Janet Young, MD & Head, Group Channels & Digitalization - United Overseas Bank (UOB) 20. Joe Seunghyun Cho, Co-founder and Founding CEO - LATTICE80 Top 20 Fintech Influencers by LATTICE80 Source: http://www.lattice80.com/lattice80-fintech-50-singapore-top-influencers/
  37. 37. Thiago Paiva VENTURE CAPITAL AND ICO
  38. 38. Thiago Paiva VC in Southeast Asia and Singapore Source: https://www.techinasia.com/southeast-asia-sees-record-startup-funding-2017 Pulse of Fintech Q4'17, Global Analysis of Investment in Fintech, KPMG International 7.86B Total Southeast Asia (US$) 5.6B Total Singapore (US$) 229M Fintech (US$) VC investment in the region has duplicated from 2016 to 2017 with Singapore representing more than 70% of the total invested in the region in 2017.
  39. 39. Thiago Paiva Venture Capital in Singapore Fintech is the most relevant industry for venture capitalist in Singapore, therefore, most of the local funds invest in fintech. Also, Singapore is the main market to enter in Southeast Asia, therefore, many Japanese and Chinese funds setup a local office. There are also some fintech focused investors such as Vectr, Tryb, Lightbulb Capital, Arbor, and Life.Sreda that have Singapore as a key market. Here follows a list of the most relevant investors investing in Fintech in Singapore:
  40. 40. Thiago Paiva Due to its open regulation to ICO, Singapore has become the 3nd largest ICO market in the world behind only US and Switzerland. Which makes many startups from the region going there to improve their odds of raising an ICO successfully; a such example is the Philippine startup Acudeen that went to Singapore to raise US$ 35 M in its ICO. Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) Source: https://sbr.com.sg/financial-services/in-focus/are-singapore-vcs-losing-out-icos https://www.techinasia.com/talk/current-ico-regulations ● US$ 381 million raised in ICOs so far ● US$ 25 million is the average raised per ICO Although open to ICOs, the Singaporean regulator still wants to protect investors. It has issued a warn to some crypto exchanges as well as some companies that did ICOs that were considered a security instead of a utility token (link). Also, the MAS has issued a guide to digital token offerings (link) to prevent further problems.
  41. 41. Thiago Paiva Largest ICOs Source: http://fintechnews.sg/18006/blockchain/fintech-ico-in-singapore-overview/ US$ 80 Million (Jun 17) US$ 105 Million (Nov 17) US$ 30 Million (Mar 18) US$ 20 Million (Mar 18) US$ 19.5 Million (Feb 18) US$ 34 Million (Feb 18) US$ 20 Million (March 18) US$ 22 Million (Jan 18)
  42. 42. Thiago Paiva EXTRA RESOURCES
  43. 43. Thiago Paiva Extra Resources ● Map of VCs: http://mapofthemoney.com/index.html ● Top 50 VCs: https://www.drwealth.com/venture-capital-singapore/ ● 8 Fintech VCs: http://fintechnews.sg/23097/funding/fintech-investors-and-vcs-in-singapore-funding-startup/ ● SFA Directory of Fintechs: https://directory.singaporefintech.org/ ● Banking Industry Overview: https://www.guidemesingapore.com/business-guides/managing-business/banking-funding-and-finances/ba nking-industry-and-major-banks-in-singapore ● MAS Financial Institutions Directory: https://eservices.mas.gov.sg/fid ● Regulation Overview: https://www.startupdecisions.com.sg/blog/fintech-regulations-and-compliance-in-singapore/ http://learn.asialawnetwork.com/2016/10/24/fintech-regulations-in-singapore-what-you-need-to-know-simpli fied/ ● Set-up a Fintech Business in Singapore: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/set-up-fintech-business-singapore
  44. 44. Thiago Paiva ● UOB - State of Fintech in ASEAN: https://www.uobgroup.com/techecosystem/pdf/UOB-State-of-FinTech-in-ASEAN.pdf ● EY - ASEAN Fintech Census: https://www.ey.com/sg/en/industries/financial-services/ey-asean-fintech-census-2018 ● Startupbootcamp Fintech and PwC - The State of Fintech 2017: https://www.pwc.com/sg/en/publications/assets/fintech-startupbootcamp-state-of-fintech-2017.pdf ● Google and Temasek Report on SEA: https://www.blog.google/around-the-globe/google-asia/sea-internet-economy/ ● Jungle Ventures - SEA Venture: Discovering Opportunity in a fragmented market. https://www.slideshare.net/JungleVentures/sea-venture-discovering-opportunity-in-a-fragment-market ● Singapore Startup Ecosystem and Entrepreneur Toolbox: https://www.slideshare.net/arnaudbonzom/singapore-startup-ecosystem-and-entrepreneur-toolbox-51515671 ● Singapore's Tech-Enabled Start-up Ecosystem http://techsg.io/upload/files/research/1453173164742.pdf Extra Resources - Reports
  45. 45. Thiago Paiva COLLABORATORS
  46. 46. Thiago Paiva Collaborators Erica Hoeveler Citi Citizen in Singapore CFA, Kellogg MBA, and tech entrepreneur I'm very thankful to some people that collaborated with this material by giving their feedback and correcting some information. Big thanks to: Markus Gnirck Co-founder & Director at Tryb Early stage fintech investor in Asia Jeremy Berger Portfolio Director at Life.SREDA and COO Arival Bank Varun Mittal ASEAN FinTech Lead at EY Founding Member at SFA and AFN Wanyi Wong Fintech Partner at PwC Chia Hock Lai President at Singapore Fintech Association (SFA) Advisor in many fintechs
  47. 47. Thiago Paiva Let's connect! Wanna have a coffee? I would love to hear your take on the material and the fintech ecosystem in Singapore. Also, I would be happy to talk about VC, fintech, Security Tokens, and Latin America. Schedule below: https://calendly.com/thiagopaiva/coffee-with-thiago/ https://www.linkedin.com/in/topaiva/ @ThiagoPaiva www.startupbizmodel.com Send me your feedback and comments on my email: thiago.o.paiva@gmail.com
  48. 48. Thiago Paiva THANKSFORREADING! Please, don't be shy and share this material!

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