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  2. 2. A structure is a group of elements somehow united to support a load with stability <ul><li>There are 6 types of structures.
  3. 3. Frame Structures
  4. 4. Shell Structures
  5. 5. Arch
  6. 6. Mix and Match
  7. 7. Mass Structures
  8. 8. Suspension Structures </li></ul>
  9. 9. FRAME STRUCTURES <ul><li>Is the most common choice of structure.
  10. 10. These structures are composed of long elements joined to each other at the ends. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SHELL STRUCTURES <ul><li>Shell structures are made out of a thin outer layer of material that surrounds a volume.
  12. 12. That volume can be empty space or can be filled with something that has no structural relevance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ARCH <ul><li>There are many types,but the semicircular Arch,which was the Roman arch,still remains the most used.
  14. 14. In Roman times,they were made of stone.
  15. 15. Romans invented it. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MIX AND MATCH <ul><li>The combination of structures make more complex structure,this structures are called Mix&Match structures. </li></ul>
  17. 17. MASS STRUCTURES <ul><li>They are made of clump material,filling the body completely.
  18. 18. The structure is normally thick.
  19. 19. They can be made by piling up materials into a shape or design. </li></ul>
  20. 20. SUSPENSION STRUCTURES <ul><li>A suspension structure holds an element(often a beam) by cables that are held from the top of a tall column.
  21. 21. The distance between one column and the next is calld the span. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Structural elements can be defined by “the simplest part of the whole”. <ul><li>The foundation is an element joined to the ground by friction.The foundation is also joined to the column by friction.
  23. 23. The column is another element joined to the foundation and to the primary beams. </li></ul><ul><li>The beams and the column are joined by welding if they are metallic.
  24. 24. Is some cases the beam can be laid on the column (Held by gravity.) </li></ul>
  25. 25. All structural elements must be somehow united to the other elements. <ul><li>Permanent unions are meant for structures that will not need to be dissasembled.
  26. 26. Examples : Rivets,welding,glue... </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Permanent Unions are those designed to assemble and dissasemble the elements of the structureas many times as necessary
  27. 27. Examples : Nuts and bolts,clamps,friction... </li></ul>
  28. 28. TENSIONAL AND COMPRESSION <ul><li>Is the strain that causes an element to stretch.It can be due to forces that pull an element from its ends </li></ul><ul><li>They are those forces which cause an element to get squeezed or buckled. </li></ul>
  29. 29. SHEAR AND TORSION <ul><li>Shear forces act across a material in such a way that they can force one part of an element to slide over another. </li></ul><ul><li>If you apply a turning force (Called “torque”) at one end of an element and,if the element is fixed to a support at the other end,the element twists. </li></ul>
  30. 30. BENDING FORCES <ul><li>Bending forces act at an angle
  31. 31. to a member (AT 90º from the axis line),
  32. 32. making it bend. </li></ul>
  33. 33. THE END Laura Aparicio Recio & María Megías Teijón