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Avogadro's law


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Avogadro's law

  1. 1. Avogadro’s law
  2. 2. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac of France studied the volume relationship of reacting gases. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1809, he published his results. He summarized in a statement known as GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW OF COMBINING VOLUMES OF GASES: When measured at the same temperature and pressure, the ratios of the volumes of reacting gases are the small whole numbers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Avogadro’s law <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 + Cl 2  2 HCl </li></ul><ul><li>1 volume 1 volume 2 volumes </li></ul><ul><li>1 molecule 1 molecule 2 molecules </li></ul><ul><li>1 mol 1 mol 2 mol </li></ul>
  4. 4. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>AVOGADRO’S LAW states that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>If the amount of gas in a container is increase d, the volume is increased . </li></ul><ul><li>If the amount of gas in a container is decreased , the volume is decreased . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>As you increase the amount of gas (i.e. through inhalation) the volume of the balloon increases likewise. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>This law was a real breakthrough in understanding the nature of gases. </li></ul><ul><li>1. It offered a rational explanation of Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes of gases and indicated the diatomic nature of elemental gases, such as hydrogen, chlorine and oxygen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>2. It provided a method for determining the molecular weights of gases of known molecular weight. </li></ul><ul><li>3. It afforded a firm foundation for the development of the kinetic molecular theory. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>The mathematical form of Avogadro’s law is: </li></ul><ul><li>V   ; V 1 = V 2 </li></ul><ul><li>n n 1 n 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample problem 1 </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of gas with a volume of 9.20 L is known to contain 1.225 mol. If the amount of gas is increased to 2.85 mol, what new volume will result if the pressure and temperature remain constant? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Given: V 1 = 9.20 L V 2 = ? </li></ul><ul><li>n 1 = 1.225 mol n 2 = 2.85 mol </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>V 2 = n 2 V 1 = (2.85 mol) (9.20 L) = 21.4 L </li></ul><ul><li>n 1 (1.225 mol) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>Sample exercises </li></ul><ul><li>1. If 0.25 mol of argon gas occupies a volume of 7.62 mL at a particular temperature and pressure, what volume would 0.43 mol of argon have under the same conditions? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Avogadro’s law <ul><li>Sample exercises </li></ul><ul><li>2. At a certain temperature and pressure, a balloon with 10.0 g of oxygen has a volume of 7.00 L. What is the volume after 5.00 g of oxygen is added to the balloon? </li></ul>
  12. 12. The End <ul><li>… .. Thank You ….. </li></ul>