Computer basics


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Computer basics

  1. 1. Computer Basicsand How Does a Computer Work?
  2. 2. Computer is a device thatcomputes, especially aprogrammable electronicmachine that performshigh-speed mathematical orlogical operations or thatassembles, stores,correlates, or otherwiseprocesses consists of manyparts let’s see what aretheyWhat is computer
  3. 3. The CPUCPU stands for “CentralProcessing Unit”. Theycontain the brains of thecomputer. They can bedesktop models that themonitor sits on top of, ortower models that stand uptall.
  4. 4. How Do Computers Work?Input--This is when information is entered intoa computer. Some common input devicesinclude the keyboard, mouse and scanner.Processing--This is when the information ishandled by the computer’s brain, known as theCPU (Central Processing Unit).Output--This is the information that comesout of a computer after it has beenprocessed. The information comes out onoutput devices such as a printer or computermonitor.
  5. 5. Input Devices
  6. 6. The KeyboardThe keyboard is probablythe most used inputdevice. It operates a lotlike a typewriter, but hasmany additional keys thatlet it do special things atypewriter can’t.
  7. 7. A laser mouse works throw laser. It uses alaser light that makes the pointer move.Today we have wireless mousemouse
  8. 8. ScannerA scanner is a very usefulinput device. You canplace a page of writing orpictures in the scannerand it will send theinformation to yourcomputer. There they canbe changed, saved into acomputer file, or printed.
  9. 9. Output DevicesPrintersSoundboardAudio Speakers
  10. 10. PrintersOne output device is a printer. Once acomputer user has created something onthe computer, such as a story, he cansend it to the printer. The printerprints exactly what’s on the screen.
  11. 11. Two Common Types of PrintersAn inkjet printer usually prints incolor. It prints by squirting outsmall dots of ink onto the paper.A laser printer uses a laser beam tocreate an image that is transferredto paper. It uses toner and a drum.The ink is powder.
  12. 12. SoundboardsA soundboard is anelectronic circuit board,located inside thecomputer, that canproduce music and highquality sounds. If youplay video games andmultimedia programs onyour computer, you’llneed a soundboard!
  13. 13. Computer ProcessingOnce information has been sent to acomputer by one of the input devicesit’s processed. The computer uses it’sbrain to process the information. Thecomputer’s brain is called the CPU, orCentral Processing Unit.
  14. 14. Random Access MemoryWhen a computerprocesses information, ituses software programs.Each program requires acertain amount ofelectronic memory, orRAM (Random AccessMemory) to run correctly.
  15. 15. RAM is temporary memory. The computerholds information in this memory and getsit when it needs it.If a computer has more RAM, it can solveproblems and process information faster!If you’re updating your computer, moreRAM is a great thing to add!
  16. 16. Read-Only MemoryA second kind of computer memory isROM, which stands for Read-OnlyMemory. This memory is permanent.The information there was put therewhen the computer was made. Thecomputer needs the information in it’sROM memory in order to function.
  17. 17. What are all those parts inside mycomputer and what do they do???
  18. 18. Computer HardwareMotherboardHard DriveSound Card and Video CardNIC CardBIOSPower Supply
  19. 19. The Motherboard
  20. 20. Your computer couldn’t work without themotherboard. It ties everything together! Itallows every part of your computer to receivepower and communicate with each other.Everything that runs the computer or enhancesit’s performance is either part of themotherboard or plugs into one of it’s expansionslots or ports.
  21. 21. Hard Disk DriveThe Hard Disk Drive is a magnetic storagedevice. All the computer programs and filesyou create and save are located there. This ispermanent storage “at least until you uninstallsoftware or delete a file”. Today’s hard drivescan store a HUGE amount of information. Anew computer might have a hard drive that willhold 1000 GB’s 1TB!
  22. 22. Inside the Hard Disk Drivecase you’ll find circular disksthat are made of steel. Onthe disks, there are manytracks, or cylinders. Anelectronic reading devicecalled the head passes backand forth over thecylinders, readinginformation from the disk orwriting to it.
  23. 23. Flash DriveA Flash Drive is astorage device. It’slike a mini, portablehard drive! You plug itinto the USB (UniversalSerial Bus) port on thecomputers and you canread or write files in it!
  24. 24. Megabytes and GigabytesOne megabyte equals one million bytes.So, a computer with 512 megabytes ofRAM (Random Access Memory) means thecomputer can handle 512,000,000(512 million) bytes of RAM.Hard disk space is also measured in bytes.So, a 200 GB Hard Disk Drive has200,000,000,000 (200 billion) bytes forstoring memory!
  25. 25. Sound and Video CardsSound and Video Cards are OutputDevices. They contain specialcircuits that allow your computer toplay sounds and display graphics onyour monitor.
  26. 26. Network Interface CardA NIC card (NetworkInterface Card) allowsyour computer to talk toother computers! Acable called Cat5 isplugged into the NICcard and your computercan then be attached toa network and be on theinternet!
  27. 27. BIOS CHIPA BIOS chip (Basic InputOutput System) is a veryimportant computercomponent. In simpleterms, the BIOS chipwakes up the computerwhen you turn it on andreminds it what parts ithas and what they do!
  28. 28. You can see the powersupply from the backof your computerbecause of the powercord and the coolingfan.Computers put out aLOT of heat and needthe fan to keep themfrom overheating.Power Supply
  29. 29. Just the beginning…..We just touched on the very basics withthis presentation! There is so much moreto understanding computers. There arebooks that are thousands of pages longthat explain how they work ..Keep computing…..!
  30. 30. .