Class activity 11 12 march


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a presentation of the topic of prenatal development.inside the classroom

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  • Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Class activity 11 12 march

    1. 1. Prenatal development is usuallydivided into three main periods. Zygote -  covers the first two weeks after conception  ends when the zygote implants into the wall of the mothers uterus. Embryo -  from two to eight weeks following conception  the major organs and bodily systems form Fetus  from eight weeks after conception until birth  grows tremendously in size and weight. Messinger
    2. 2. Zygotic cell differentiation Messinger
    3. 3. From zygote to embryo Messinger
    4. 4. Prenatal behavioraldevelopment 9 weeks - movement 16 weeks - frowning, grimacing 25 weeks - moves to drumbeat 26 weeks - remembers sounds 32 weeks - all brain areas functioning 34 weeks - can habituate Messinger
    5. 5. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 8 Stages of man Each stage includes: ○ Significant relationship ○ Psychosocial crisis ○ Potential positive or negative outcome Disagreement on ages of stages, even among contemporaries
    6. 6. Basic Learning Processes in Infancy • I’m learning by • When the dog watching what barked, I used to get scared. others do. • After a few days, the dog’s barking didn’t bother me. Through my I can think, experiences perceive, or —repetition, Observational Habituation react to my study, Learning environmen practice and t in a new observations, way. I can learn. Learning Operant Classical Conditioning Conditioning • Response- I like to push buttons as part of my exploring and sometimes I turn off the TV. • When you show me a ball • Consequence- Mommy (CS), at first it means laughs and says, ―no!‖ nothing. I enjoy interacting • Result-I like it when mommy laughs, so I’m with my mom. (UCS). You going to turn off the TV play ball with me. When I again. What I’ve really learned, I see the ball, I know I’m going to have fun (CR)Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental won’t forget. If I do, then Ipsychology: childhood & adolescence . Belmont, didn’t really ―learn‖ it.
    7. 7. Operant Conditioning―Cool Operator‖ and the learning process Operant Conditioning  Learner first emits a response  Associates this action with the pleasant or unpleasant consequences it produces. Memory (Hayne &Rovee-Collier, 1995)  The length of time an infant is able to recognize and recall a previously learned task increases according to age (2 month old infants- 3 days vs. 3 month old infants- 1 week)  Reminders helped infants  Context-dependant Social Significance of Early Operant Conditioning  Infant action  Seeks positive reaction from caring adult  Example- smiling infant (action) receives a positive reaction from an adult who smiles in return (reaction) Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    8. 8. Observational Learning―I see, I learn‖ Learning that results from observing the behavior of others Cognitive form of observational learning:  Observer attends carefully to the model  Constructs symbolic representations (images or verbal summaries of the model’s behavior) Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (pg 49)  Observational Learning ○ Attention- the learner observes ○ Retention- retain by creating symbolic representations ○ Reproduction- converts images into action ○ Motivation- reinforcement or punishment Deferred Imitation  Intentionally repeats behaviors: secondary circular reactions and coordination of secondary schemes- 8-12 months (Piaget, 1951)  By age 9 months, some infants can imitate very simple acts up to 24 hours after they first observe them (Meltzoff, 1988c) Shaffer, D.R., &Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    9. 9. Attachment An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress in separation.
    10. 10. Factors of AttachmentBody ContactFamiliarityResponsive Parenting
    11. 11. Body Contact  Itwas first assumed that infants became attached to those who satisfied their need for nourishment. Then this guy came along……..
    12. 12. The Eight Stages Stage 3- Pre-school - 3-6 years - Family - Initiative vs. Guilt + Purpose,direction - Ruthless, inhibition Stage 4- School child - 6-12 years - Neighborhood, school, family - Industry vs. inferiority + Competence, initiation - Narrow character, low motivation
    13. 13. The Eight Stages Stage 5- Adolescent - 12-20 years - Peer group - Identity vs. role confusion + Self certainty, fidelity - Withdrawal, fanaticism “Who am I?” – Experimentation of different roles to find one most suitable or comfortable – Assimilating morals learned as a child to ethnics needed as adults (
    14. 14. The Eight Stages Stage 6- Young adulthood - Friends, co-workers, sexual partners - Intimacy vs. isolation Stage 7- Middle adulthood - Family (partner, children), community - Generosity vs. self absorption Stage 8- Late adulthood - Society, the world community - Integrity vs. despair
    15. 15. Application of Erikson’s Theory Stage 4 (school age)  Hands on projects  Increasing influence ○ Encourage sense of accomplishment and self worth ○ Finding the natural talents of individuals ○ Stressing the importance of individual success
    16. 16. Infancy Learning Objectives Students will become familiar with two of the four basic learning processes in infancy. You will know you have learned the processes if you can explain and teach to another student:  Learning (the big picture)  Operant conditioning (cool operator)  Observational learning (I see, I learn) You will learn these two learning processes by:  Reviewing the terms (look for the terms)  Observing two videos and looking for the features of operant conditioning and observational learning  Summarizing what you’ve learning to a classmate
    17. 17. REFERENCESCharlesworth, R. (2008.). Understanding child development : for adults who work with young children . Clifton Park, N.Y. : Thomson Delmar Learning, .Puckett, M. ,. ((2007)). Understanding infant behavior. St. Paul, MN:: Redleaf Press.Shaffer, D. &. ((2010). ). Developmental psychology: childhood & adolescence . Belmont,: CA: Wadsworth.Trawick-Smith, J. W. (c2010.). Early childhood development : a multicultural perspective / Jeffrey Trawick-Smith. chicago: auckland press. (Charlesworth, 2008.)