A introductory pages


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A introductory pages

  1. 1. Since its organization in 1919, the Pennsylvania Modern Language Association (PSMLA) has worked to promote and facilitate foreign language education in this Commonwealth. In 1995, PSMLA published the PSMLA Guide to Assessment: the Chapter Five Foreign Language Outcome to assist teachers and districts in implementing the PA Chapter Five curriculum regulation that mandated an Intermediate Low Level of speaking proficiency (ACTFL Scale) for all PA students. Since then, much has happened. Chapter Five was revoked with a new administration in Harrisburg and subsequently developed PA World Language Standards have yet to be adopted by the State Board of Education. On a positive note, national standards were written and distributed by ACTFL (1996) and more recently (2000) the federal No Child Left Behind legislation designated world language learning as a “core subject”. The PSMLA Standards and Guide to Assessments: What to Teach and How to Test It! is the revised edition of the original document mentioned above. As professionals, we should not wait to enact standards and assess them district-wide. Whether mandated by the state or not, we need to move ahead because it is the right thing to do! We, the writing team, hope that this document will be a useful tool for all world language teachers, teacher educators, curriculum directors, and other administrators who are interested in establishing standards- based world language programs and assessing them district-wide. PSMLA Standards and Guide to Assessments: What to Teach and How to Test It! Writing Committee Bonnie Adair Hauck, University of Pittsburgh Deanna Baird, Upper St. Clair School District Devin Browne, Pittsburgh Public Schools Thekla Fall, Pittsburgh Public Schools Carol Schneider, Franklin Regional School District Published by the Pennsylvania State Modern Language Association Copyright © 2003 by PSMLA. All rights reserved. i
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  3. 3. Introduction Since the 1970’s, teaching practices for second language development have transformed dramatically from a discrete-point, grammar-driven approach to a focus on communicative and functional use of authentic language (Canale, 1983; Richard-Amato, 1988). The adoption of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century provides the profession with a bold framework for second language development. The Standards advocate a constructivist approach to language learning (Hall, 1993, Adair- Hauck and Donato, 2002). A constructivist approach views students as whole learners who bring a host of background information and knowledge to the language learning experience. A constructivist approach to language development highlights that learners acquire language: • by participating in meaningful and real activities, • interacting with peers and adults; • by making approximations of real language; • and at varying rates and in various stages even though they all go through similar phases of development (Cooper, 1993). Personal meaning-making or sense-making is at the core of a constructivist approach to second language development. However, as Phillips (1995); Glisan (1998), and Liskin- Gasparro, (1996) have pointed out, we have not seen this paradigm shift in second language testing. Unfortunately, due to a number of practical considerations, such as efficiency, time constraints, large numbers of students, insufficient staff and resource materials, lack of assessment training for teachers, etc., we, as a profession, have relied on the quick and easy “fast bullets” of pencil/paper achievement testing formats (Bachman, 1990; Shohamy, 1990). Unfortunately, many of our classroom achievement tests rely on easily quantifiable testing procedures with frequently non-contextualized and discrete-point items. Consequently, information gleaned from these achievement tests does not inform either the teachers or the learners on regular bases as to whether our students will be able to perform authentic tasks in the real world. Nor do they indicate student progress in attaining world language standards! This newly revised Pennsylvania State Modern Language Association (PSMLA) Guide to Standards and Assessment: What to Teach and How to Test It! encourages districts to align standards, instruction, and assessment. It presents 1) “What to Teach”—national standards that were written by the foremost world language professionals in the country and a curriculum framework written by PSMLA members, and 2) “ How to Test It” –assessment samples and models that highlight performance- based assessment practices that work in tandem with a constructivist approach to language development and relate to recommended standards. In all of the examples, we are underscoring assessment practices that provide critical feedback, so that learners can improve their language performance. With respect to formative assessment, we are advocating the use of portfolio assessment since it provides a window of opportunity to view language development over time. Wiggins (1994) defines iii
  4. 4. portfolio as “assessment practices that reflect progress toward intended learning goals which are collected over time, and include specific materials which are reviewed and scored relative to criteria appropriate language performance” p. 190. Other examples given may be used for both formative and summative purposes, as well as program evaluations. The writers encourage districts to use and adapt these tools to develop their assessment program, including district-wide testing that cuts across languages. In this document, both the standards framework and assessment samples are tied to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Scale to provide a common language and measurement tool. The assessment practices highlighted in this manual have been recommended by world language teachers in Pennsylvania who are interested in integrating both performance- based and standards-based language learning into their classroom. PSMLA is indeed indebted to the following world language teachers and educators who have been extremely generous in sharing their favorite assessment strategies and documents, contributing to various committee projects, and helping to edit this document: Bonnie Adair Hauck, University of Pittsburgh Deanna Baird, Upper St. Clair School District Jennifer Bartolini, University of Pittsburgh Kathleen Boykin, Slippery Rock University Devin Browne, Susan Cefola, Isabel De Espino Valdivia, Thekla Fall, Charlene Larkin, Mina Levenson, Molly Miesse, Pamela Miller, Martha Moore, Wolfgang Weigner, Barbara Weiss, Almut Wymard, all at Pittsburgh Public Schools Richard Donato, University of Pittsburgh Eileen Glisan, Indiana University of Pennsylvania Peg Grasso, Mt. Lebanon School District Beverly Harris-Schenz, University of Pittsburgh Frank Mulhern, LaSalle University Vincent Remillard, St Francis University Phyllis Rzodkiewicz, Millcreek Township School District Carol Schneider, Franklin Regional School District Nancy Sterniak, Penn-Trafford School District Etsuko Takahashi, University of Pittsburgh Bonnie Youngs, Carnegie Mellon University And special thanks to McDougal Littell Company for their support. __________ Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to inform and Improve Student Performance. (1998) Wiggins, G. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco, CA Teaching, Testing and Assessment: Making the Connection (1994). National Textbook Company. Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Charles R. Hancock, Editor. Standards for Foreign Language Learning Project. (1996). Standards for foreign language learning project: Preparing for the 21st century. Yonkers, NY. iv
  5. 5. Table of Contents I. The Foundation 1 Section One: Aligning the Pieces 1 Aligning Standards, Instruction, and Assessment 2 Chart 1: National Standards for Foreign Language Learning 3 Chart 2: From Traditional Instruction to Proficiency-Based Instruction 4 Characteristics of Standards-Based Performance Assignments/Assessment 5 Chart 3: Traditional versus Performance Assessment Methods 6 Chart 4: From Traditional Assessment to Performance-Based Assessment 7 Section Two: Using the Superglue, the ACTFL Scale 9 Why use the ACTFL Scale? 10 How well do you know the ACTFL Scale? Take this quiz! 11 The ACTFL Scale and Interview 12 II. What to Teach… 15 Section One: Standards and Instructional Guidelines 15 The PSMLA Standards and Instructional Guidelines: 16 Integrating Communication, Cultures, Connections, and Communities The ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners 40 III. …and How to Test It! 41 Section One: Sample District-Wide Implementation 41 Why District-Wide Assessment? 44 Practical Tips for Department Chairs to Establish a District-Wide 46 Assessment Program Districts with Assessment Articulated Across the Grade Levels 52 Upper St. Clair School District 52 Pittsburgh Public Schools 54 Section Two: Sample Performance-Based Assessment Tools 57 A Rationale for Portfolio Assessment 58 v
  6. 6. Guide to World Language Portfolio Assessment 59 Sample Portfolio Projects, Tasks, and Rubrics 66 Advertising a Product 67 Your Heritage Country Brochure 68 One-on-One Interviews 70 Telling Tales 71 Contemporary Issues 72 Sample End-of-Year Portfolio Assessment 73 USC FLES Program Assessment 77 PPS District-wide Proficiency Testing 79 Speaking Rubric 80 Situations for Communication (PPS SITCOMMS) 81 Level 3 Interpersonal Speaking Tasks – Analytical Rubric 86 Level 3 Presentational Tasks – Analytical Rubric 87 Assessing the Interpretive mode of Communication 88 “To Be or Not to Be Cellular” 90 Sample Proficiency Checklists 95 End of Grade 8 Checklist 95 Speaking Checklist 96 Proficiency Checklists ACTFL Integrated Performance Assessments (IPAs) 104 IV. Appendices 107 Appendix 1: Recommended Resources 108 vi
  7. 7. Appendix 2: French, German, Japanese, and Spanish Proficiency Interviews 112 Appendix 3: Investigating the Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview (SOPI) 131 as an Assessment Tool for Second Language Oral Proficiency Appendix 4: PPS Guide for Students and Parents 163 Appendix 5: How Did You Do? Answers to the ACTFL Scale Quiz 166 Appendix 6: The ACTFL OPI for ACE College Credit Recommendation 167 Appendix 7: PPS Standards Poster 169 Appendix 8: Glossary 1, ACTFL Terminology 170 Glossary 2, PSMLA Guide Terminology 171 vii