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Bt 1: Excavation

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Bt 1: Excavation

  1. 1. What is excavation?is a man-made cut in the ground which creates a depression in the earth.is one of the most dangerous kinds of outdoor construction. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  2. 2. Types of Excavation Research excavation - When time and resources are obtainable to excavate the site fully and at a relaxed pace. These are now approximately completely the preserve of academics or concealed societies who could even muster sufficient volunteer labor and funds. The size of the excavation could as well be determined by the director as it goes on. . Development-led excavation - Undertaken by expert archaeologist when the site is endangered by building development. Normally funded by the developer meaning, which time is more of a factor as well as its being paid attention only on areas to be affected by building. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  3. 3. Types of Soil for Excavation Loose Soils and Non-cohesive Soils are usually excavated using a clam-shell bucket and a pay-loader. Non-cohesive soil is sandy or made out of gravel. Cohesive soils need a power shovel or a pull shovel since these soils can be very heavy and difficult to move with many other kinds of heavy machinery. Pull shovels can sometimes dig when there are objects blocking the shovels path. Bulldozers are sometimes used to excavate cohesive soils and scrapers are used for very large excavations. Cohesive soils are clay, silt clay, sandy clay and clay loam. Wet Soils - Draglines are used to excavate very moist soil. The machinery is placed on one or two stable spots and the wet soil is then dragged out, according to Construction Topic. In some cases, the soil must be drained, especially of the soil is submerged in water. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  4. 4. Equipment Used for ExcavationShovel is one of the most common excavation tools, especially for soil when it comes with smaller excavations. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  5. 5.  Bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely-compacted materials. Bulldozers are used to clear areas of obstacles, shrubbery, burnt vehicles, and remains of structures. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  6. 6.  Backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two- part articulated arm. The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipper-stick. The boom is attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to slew left and right, usually through a total of around 200 degrees. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  7. 7.  Hydraulic Hammer is a powerful percussion hammer fitted to an excavator for demolishing concrete structures or rocks. It is powered by an auxiliary hydraulic system from the excavator, which is fitted with a foot-operated valve for this purpose. Often referred to as “breakers", "peckers", "hoe rams" or "hoe rammers." These terms are popular and commonly used amongst construction/demolition workers. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  8. 8.  Pile driver is a mechanical device used to drive piles into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy weight placed between guides so that it is able to freely slide up and down in a single line. It is placed upon a pile. The weight is raised, which may involve the use of hydraulics, steam, diesel, or manual labour. When the weight reaches its highest point it is then released and smashes on to the pile in order to drive it into the ground. EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00
  9. 9.  Crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places EXCAVATION PARENA, JELLONIEL M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY – 1 / 7: 00 – 8:00

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